Usa Jingū known as Usa Hachimangū, is a Shinto shrine in the city of Usa in Ōita Prefecture in Japan. Emperor Ojin, deified as Hachiman-jin, is said to be enshrined in all the sites dedicated to him; the Usa Jingū has long been the recipient of Imperial patronage. The shrine was founded in Kyushu during the Nara period. Ancient records place the foundation of Usa Jingū in the Wadō era. A temple called Miroku-ji was built next to it in 779, making it what is believed to be the first shrine-temple ever; the resulting mixed complex, called Usa Hachimangu-ji, lasted over a millennium until 1868, when the Buddhist part was removed to comply with the Kami and Buddhas Separation Act. It is today the center. Usa's Hachiman shrine first appears in the chronicles of Imperial history during the reign of Empress Shōtoku; the empress had an affair with a Buddhist monk named Dōkyō. An oracle was said to have proclaimed; the empress died. In the 16th century, the temple was razed to the ground and attacked by the Christian-sympathizing lord of Funai Ōtomo Yoshishige.
Usa Jingū was designated as the chief Shinto shrine for the former Buzen province. From 1871 through 1946, Usa was designated one of the Kanpei-taisha, meaning that it stood in the first rank of government supported shrines. Other honored Hachiman shrines were Iwashimizu Hachimangū of Yawata in Kyoto Prefecture and Hakozaki-gū of Fukuoka in Fukuoka Prefecture; the earliest recorded use of a mikoshi was in the 8th century. In 749, the shrine's mikoshi was used to carry the spirit of Hachiman from Kyushu to Nara, where the deity was to guard construction of the great Daibutsu at Tōdai-ji. By the 10th century, carrying mikoshi into the community during shrine festivals had become a conventional practice. Over the course of centuries, a vast number of Hachiman shrines have extended the reach of the kami at Usa: In 859, a branch offshoot was established to spread Hachiman's protective influence over Kyoto. In 923, the Hakozaki-gū was established at Fukuoka as a branch of the Usa Shrine. In 1063, Tsurugaoka Hachimangū was established by Minamoto no Yoriyoshi to extend Hachiman's protective influence over Kamakura.
Because of its mixed religious ancestry, one of the important festivals at the shrine is the hōjō-e a Buddhist ceremony in which captive birds and fish are released. The ceremony is accompanied by sacred kagura dances meant to commemorate the souls of fish killed by fishermen during the previous year; this syncretic rite fusing Buddhism and Shinto, now performed in many shrines all over the country, first took place here. The main hall and the Kujaku Monkei are designated amongst Japan's National Treasures; the structures which comprise the current shrine complex were built in the middle of the 19th century. Their characteristic configuration, called Hachiman-zukuri, consists of two parallel structures with gabled roofs interconnected on the non-gabled side to form what internally is a single building. Seen from the outside, the complex still gives the impression of being two separate buildings; the structure in front is called the ge-in, where the deity is said to reside during the daytime. The structure in the rear is called the nai-in, which serves as the deity's sleeping chamber during the night.
List of Jingū List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan Ōita Prefectural Museum of History Bender, Ross. "The Hachiman Cult and the Dōkyō Incident," Monumenta Nipponica. 24: 124. Hardacre, Helen.. Shinto and the State, 1868-1988. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-02052-5. Studies in Shinto and Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 3994492 Titsingh, Isaac.. Annales des empereurs du japon. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. Ward, Haruko Nawata, "Ōtomo-Nata Jezebel:... Priestess of Hachiman", Women Religious Leaders in Japan's Christian Century, 1549–1650, Women and Gender in the Early Modern World, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 111–126. Usa Shrine JAPAN: the Official Guide Media related to Usa Shrine at Wikimedia Commons Shrine image, 180° panorama
Kawachi Province was a province of Japan in the eastern part of modern Osaka Prefecture. It held the southwestern area, split off into Izumi Province, it was known as Kashū. The area was radically different in the past, with Kawachi Bay and lake dominating the area over what is now land. Kawachi was divided into three counties: northern and southern; the northern county comprised the modern Hirakata, Kadoma, Shijōnawate, Daitō, Katano, Osaka areas. The central county comprised the modern Higashiōsaka and Kashiwara, Osaka areas; the southern county comprised the modern Sakai's eastern part, Habikino, Tondabayashi, Kawachinagano, Ōsakasayama, Minamikawachi District areas. Kawachi province was established in the 7th century. On 11 May 716, the Ōtori and Hine districts were split off to form Izumi Province. In December 720, the Katashimo and Katakami districts were combined to become Ōagata. On 15 September 740, Izumi Province was merged back in. On 30 May 757, that area was again separated to form Izumi Province.
Under Dōkyō's administration, Yuge-no-Miya was established. With the downfall of Dōkyō, the prior system was restored the following year; the provincial capital was in Shiki District, believed to have been at Kouiseki in Fujiidera, but this is not known for certain. It may have been moved during the Nara period. However, in the Shūgaishō, the capital was in Ōagata District. In the Setsuyōshū, Tanboku District was mentioned as the seat, it seems. It is unknown where the original shugo's residence was, but afterwards, it transferred to the Tannan, Furuichi and Takaya areas. A provincial temple for monks was constructed in the Tenpyō era. One for nuns was near the same place, but it seems that it was in ruin by the Heian period. Hiraoka Shrine was designated as the chief Shinto shrine of Kawachi Province; the shrine is located in Higashiōsaka. In addition, Katano Shrine in Hirakata, is labelled the "Primary Shrine of Kashū", but this may be a mixup where what was once the primary shrine for the Katano township was confused for the primary shrine of Kawachi.
The secondary shrine is said to have been Onji Shrine. However, just having the second most influence in Kawachi Province does not mean it was a secondary shrine in the shrine system; that it is called the secondary shrine is a recent innovation. There were no lower-level shrines; the sōja was Shiki-Agatanushi Shrine. The province of Kawachi was once the power of the Mononobe clan. Tsuboi in Habikino became a stronghold of the warrior family, the Minamoto clan; the likes of Hachimantarō Yoshiie who made vassals out of the samurai of the eastern provinces, his father Minamoto no Yoriyoshi, Yoshiyori's father Minamoto no Yorinobu's tomb of three generations is now close to the Tsūhō-ji remains, the Kawachi Genji's family temple. Minamoto no Yoritomo was a descendant of these Kawachi Genji. Near the end of the Kamakura period, Kusunoki Masashige and his household, being a powerful clan of southern Kawachi, rose up in defiance of the shogunate. With the direct imperial rule of Kenmu, Kusunoki was appointed as both shugo.
The Nanboku-chō period arrived as Ashikaga Takauji opposed Emperor Go-Daigo, Kawachi became a hotspot for battles. "After the death of Chikafusa the Southern Court moved from Anau to Amano in the province of Kawachi, making the Kongoji its headquarters."With the advent of the Muromachi period, the post of Kawachi shugo fell to one of the three kanrei, of the Hatakeyama clan. Masanaga was attacked at Shōgaku-ji by Hosokawa Masamoto and Hatakeyama Yoshitoyo, but his son Hisayoshi was in Kishū attempting to recoup for another attack. However, through all this, Kawachi had been the battleground, had been reduced to scorched earth. By the Sengoku period, the consolidated Kawachi was the asset of Hatakeyama Tanenaga, but the real power was imbued in the shugodai, a title that passed into the h
Wake no Kiyomaro
Wake no Kiyomaro was a high-ranking Japanese official during the Nara period. He was born in Bizen Province to a family of politically important, devoted Buddhists who hoped to keep Buddhism and politics separate through religious reform, he became a trusted advisor to Emperor Kanmu, a position which he used to encourage the development of Buddhism in a direction which would prevent it from posing a threat to the government. According to the Shoku Nihongi, he was sent to the Usa Shrine to receive a divine message; this report angered Dōkyō, who used his influence with the Empress to have an edict issued sending Kiyomaro into exile. The following year, Empress Shōtoku died, she was succeeded by Emperor Kōnin, who in turn exiled Dōkyō to Shimotsuke Province and not only recalled Wake no Kiyomaro from exile, but appointed him as both kami of Bizen Province and Udaijin. The following year, he petitioned the governor of Dazaifu to send officials to Usa to investigate allegations of "fraudulent oracles".
This resulted in the government relieving Usa no Ikemori of his position as head priest and replacing him with the previously-disgraced Ōga no Tamaro. Following this, Wake no Kiyomaro returned to Yamato, he remained a trusted advisor to Emperor Kammu. His face appeared on 10-yen notes issued from 1888. Eliot, Harold G Parlett, George Bailey Sansom.. Japanese Buddhism. London: Routledge. OCLC 236338 Groner, Paul. Saicho: The Establishment of the Japanese Tendai School. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2371-0. Hall, John Whitney.. The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22357-1. Ponsonby-Fane, Richard.. Sovereiegn and Subject. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 1014075 Teeuwen and Fabio Rambelli. Buddhas and Kami in Japan: Honji Suijaku As a Combinatory Paradigm. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415297479.
Sutra in Indian literary traditions refers to an aphorism or a collection of aphorisms in the form of a manual or, more broadly, a condensed manual or text. Sutras are a genre of ancient and medieval Indian texts found in Hinduism and Jainism. In Hinduism, sutras are a distinct type of literary composition, a compilation of short aphoristic statements; each sutra is any short rule, like a theorem distilled into few words or syllables, around which teachings of ritual, grammar, or any field of knowledge can be woven. The oldest sutras of Hinduism are found in the Aranyaka layers of the Vedas; every school of Hindu philosophy, Vedic guides for rites of passage, various fields of arts and social ethics developed respective sutras, which helped teach and transmit ideas from one generation to the next. In Buddhism, sutras known as suttas, are canonical scriptures, many of which are regarded as records of the oral teachings of Gautama Buddha, they are quite detailed, sometimes with repetition. This may reflect a philological root of sukta, rather than sutra.
In Jainism, sutras known as suyas are canonical sermons of Mahavira contained in the Jain Agamas as well as some normative texts. The Sanskrit word Sūtra means "string, thread"; the root of the word is that which sews and holds things together. The word is related to sūci meaning "needle, list", sūnā meaning "woven". In the context of literature, sūtra means a distilled collection of syllables and words, any form or manual of "aphorism, direction" hanging together like threads with which the teachings of ritual, grammar, or any field of knowledge can be woven. A sūtra is states Moriz Winternitz, in Indian literature. A collection of sūtras becomes a text, this is called sūtra. A sūtra is different from other components such as Shlokas and Vyakhyas found in ancient Indian literature. A sūtra is a condensed rule which succinctly states the message, while a Shloka is a verse that conveys the complete message and is structured to certain rules of musical meter, a Anuvyakhaya is an explanation of the reviewed text, while a Vyakhya is a comment by the reviewer.
Sutras first appear in the Aranyaka layer of Vedic literature. They grow in the Vedangas, such as the Shrauta Sutras and Kalpa Sutras; these were designed so that they can be communicated from a teacher to student, memorized by the recipient for discussion or self-study or as reference. A sutra by itself is condensed shorthand, the threads of syllable are difficult to decipher or understand, without associated scholarly Bhasya or deciphering commentary that fills in the "woof"; the oldest manuscripts that have survived into the modern era, that contain extensive sutras, are part of the Vedas dated to be from the late 2nd millennium BCE through mid 1st-millennium BCE. The Aitareya Aranyaka for example, states Winternitz, is a collection of sutras, their use and ancient roots are attested by sutras being mentioned in larger genre of ancient non-Vedic Hindu literature called Gatha, Narashansi and Akhyana. In the history of Indian literature, large compilations of sutras, in diverse fields of knowledge, have been traced to the period from 600 BCE to 200 BCE, this has been called the "sutras period".
This period followed Mantra period and Brahmana period. Some of the earliest surviving specimen of sutras of Hinduism are found in the Anupada Sutras and Nidana Sutras; the former distills the epistemic debate whether Sruti or Smriti or neither must be considered the more reliable source of knowledge, while the latter distills the rules of musical meters for Samaveda chants and songs. A larger collection of ancient sutra literature in Hinduism corresponds to the six Vedangas, or six limbs of the Vedas; these are six subjects. The six subjects with their own sutras were "pronunciation, grammar, explanation of words, time keeping through astronomy, ceremonial rituals; the first two, states Max Muller, were considered in the Vedic era to be necessary for reading the Veda, the second two for understanding it, the last two for deploying the Vedic knowledge at yajnas. The sutras corresponding to these are embedded inside the Aranyaka layers of the Vedas. Taittiriya Aranyaka, for example in Book 7, embeds sutras for accurate pronunciation after the terse phrases "On Letters", "On Accents", "On Quantity", "On Delivery", "On Euphonic Laws".
The fourth and the last layer of philosophical, speculative text in the Vedas, the Upanishads, too have embedded sutras such as those found in the Taittiriya Upanishad. The compendium of ancient Vedic sutra literature that has survived, in full or fragments, includes the Kalpa Sutras, Smarta Sutras, Srauta Sutras, Dharma Sutras, Grhya Sutras, Sulba Sutras. Other fields for which ancient sutras are known include etymology and grammar; some examples of sutra texts in various schools of Hindu philosophy include: Brahma Sutras – a Sanskrit text, composed by Badarayana sometime between 200 BCE to 200 CE. The text contains 555 sutras in four chapters that summarize the philosophical and spiritual ideas in the Upanishads, it is one of the foundational texts of the Vedānta school of Hindu philos
Genbō was a Japanese scholar-monk and bureaucrat of the Imperial Court at Nara. He is best known as a leader of the Hossō sect of Buddhism and as the adversary of Fujiwara no Hirotsugu. In 717–718, Genbō was part of the Japanese mission to Tang China along with Kibi no Makibi and Abe no Nakamaro. Genbō stayed in China for 17 years. Genbō brought many esoteric Buddhist texts with him. At Kōfuku-ji, he was appointed abbot by Emperor Shōmu. 740: Hirotsugu petitioned for the removal of Genbō. As a result, Hirotsugu initiates a futile military campaign in the 9th month of the same year. 745: Genbō was exiled to Dazaifu on the island of Kyushu. At the time of Genbō's death, it was popularly believed that he was killed by the vengeful spirit of Hirotsugu. Japanese missions to Imperial China Japanese missions to Tang China Dōkyō Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Imperial Politics and Symbolics in Ancient Japan: the Tenmu dynasty, 650-800.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824832353; the Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC