Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia
The guerrilla campaign was fought following the Italian defeat during the East African Campaign of World War II, while the war was still on in Northern Africa and Europe. Nearly 7,000 Italian soldiers participated in this fight against the British Army, in the hope that the German-Italian army of Rommel would win in Egypt and retake the recently liberated territories. An Imperial War Museum brief history refers to several thousand escaped to wage a war until September 1943. There were originally two main Italian guerrilla organizations, the Fronte di Resistenza and the Figli dItalia, the Fronte di Resistenza was a military organization led by Colonel Lucchetti and centered in the main cities of the former Italian East Africa. Its main activities were military sabotage and collection of information about British troops to be sent to Italy in multiple ways, the Figli dItalia organization was formed in September 1941 by Blackshirts of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale. They engaged in a war against the British troops and harassed those Italian civilians.
Other groups were the Tigray fighters of Lieutenant Amedeo Guillet in Eritrea, in the first months of 1942, there were Italian guerrillas in British Somaliland. While essentially on their own, the guerrillas occasionally received support, there were many Eritreans and Somalians who helped the Italian guerrillas. But their numbers dwindled after the Axis defeat at the battle of El Alamein in 1942 and these guerrilla units were able to operate in a very extended area, from northern Eritrea to southern Somalia. Their armament was made up mainly of old 91 rifles, Beretta pistols and Schwarzlose machine-guns, hand grenades, but they always lacked large amounts of ammunition. From January 1942, many of these Bande started to operate under the orders of General Muratori. He was able to encourage a revolt against the British troops by the Azebo Oromo tribe in northern Ethiopia, the revolt was put down by the British and Ethiopian forces only at the beginning of 1943. In spring 1942, even Haile Selassie I started to open channels of communication with the Italian insurgents.
Their ambushes forced the British to dispatch troops, with airplanes and tanks, from Kenya and that summer, the British decided to put most of the Italian population of coastal Somalia into concentration camps, in order to avoid their possible contact with Japanese submarines. In October 1942, the Italian guerrillas started to lose steam because of the German defeat at the Battle of El Alamein and the capture of Major Lucchetti. He requested from the Italian War Ministry an aircraft loaded with equipment to be used for attacks in Eritrea. One of the last Italian soldiers to surrender to the British forces was Corrado Turchetti, the very last Italian officer who fought the guerrilla war was Colonel Nino Tramonti in Eritrea. De Martini received the Italian gold medal of honor, rosa Dainelli, a doctor who in August 1942 succeeded in entering the main ammunition depot of the British army in Addis Abeba, and blowing it up, miraculously surviving the huge explosion
Sultanate of Aussa
The Sultanate of Aussa was a kingdom that existed in the Afar Region of eastern Ethiopia in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was considered to be the leading monarchy of the Afar people, Afar society has traditionally been divided into petty kingdoms, each ruled by its own Sultan. In 1647, the rulers of the Emirate of Harar broke away to form their own polity, the Imamate of Awsa was destroyed by the local Mudaito Afar in 1672. Following the Awsa Imamates demise, the Mudaito Afars founded their own kingdom, at some point after 1672, Aussa declined in conjunction with Imam Umar Din bin Adams recorded ascension to the throne. In 1734, the Afar leader Kedafu, head of the Mudaito clan, seized power and this marked the start of a new and more sophisticated polity that would last into the colonial period. The primary symbol of the Sultan was a baton, which was considered to have magical properties. The influence of the sultanate extended into the Denkel lowlands of what is now Eritrea, after 15 years of rule, Kedafus son, Muhammäd Kedafu, succeeded him as Sultan.
Muhammäd Kedafu three decades bequeathed the throne to his own son, who in turn would reign for another twenty-two years, according to Richard Pankhurst, these relatively long periods of rule by modern standards pointed to a certain degree of political stability within the state. Sultan Mahammad ibn Hanfadhe defeated and killed Werner Munzinger in 1875, in 1865, the newly unified Italy bought Asseb from a local Sultan, and led Sultan Mahammad to sign several treaties with that country. During the Second Italian-Ethiopian War, the Sultan Mahammad Yayyo agreed to cooperate with the Italian invaders, as a result, in 1943 the reinstalled Ethiopian government sent a military expedition that captured Sultan Muhammad Yayo and made one of his relatives Sultan. In 1975, Sultan Alimirah Hanfere was exiled to Saudi Arabia, Sultan Alimirah often came into conflict with the central government over its encroachment on the authority of the Sultanate. Aussa, which had been more-or-less self-governing until the Sultans ascension in 1944, had greatly weakened in power by the centralising forces of Haile Selassies government.
In 1950 he withdrew from Asaita for two years in opposition, returning only two after following mediation by Fitawrari Yayyo. The Sultan sought to unite the Afar people under an autonomous Sultanate, while remaining part of Ethiopia, they had been divided amongst the provinces of Hararghe, Shewa and Wollo. In 1961, when it was clear the Eritrean federal arrangement was headed towards its demise,55 Afar chieftains in Eritrea met, in 1964 Afar leaders went to Addis Ababa to present Haile Selassie with their proposal, but the effort came up empty-handed. Upon Alimirah Hanferes death in 2011, his son Hanfere Alimirah was named his successor as sultan, Afar Region List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Mordechai Abir, The era of the princes, the challenge of Islam and the re-unification of the Christian empire, 1769-1855. J. Spencer Trimingham, Islam in Ethiopia
The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron. It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia with exceptions, meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt ore, remove impurities. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region, the earliest known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering, meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the record from the middle Bronze Age. While terrestrial iron is abundant, its high melting point of 1,538 °C placed it out of reach of common use until the end of the second millennium BC.
Tins low melting point of 231, recent archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of iron production in around 1200 BC. Between 1200 BC and 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of objects was fast. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled into weapons during this time, more widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, even when tin became available again, iron was cheaper and lighter, and forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. Increasingly, the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, and ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe, the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II.
Iron I illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, particularly alloys which were produced with a carbon content between approximately 0. 30% and 1. 2% by weight. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, steel was difficult to produce with the methods available, and alloys that were easier to make, such as wrought iron, were more common in lower-priced goods
The Zagwe dynasty was a historical kingdom in present-day northern Ethiopia. The name of the dynasty is thought to derive from the Geez phrase Ze-Agaw, Zagwes best-known King was Gebre Mesqel Lalibela, who is credited with having constructed the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela. Around 960, Queen Gudit destroyed the remnants of the Kingdom of Aksum, for 40 years she ruled over what remained of the kingdom, eventually passing on the throne to her descendants. According to other Ethiopian traditional accounts, the last of her dynasty was overthrown by Mara Takla Haymanot in 1137 and he married a daughter of the last king of Aksum, Dil Naod, putting control of Ethiopia in Agaw hands. Since he married Emperor Dil Naods daughter, who was a member of the Solomonic Dynasty, Emperor Mara Tekla Haymanots marriage and off-spring thereof makes him the only Emperor without known ties to the Biblical King Solomon and Makeda, the Queen of Sheba. Mara Teklehaimanots ancestry is from Eritrea, in the province called Hamasien and his name starts with Mara or Mirarah because he came from the place in Hamasien called Fishey Mirarah.
The Zagwe period is still shrouded in mystery, even the number of kings in this dynasty is disputed, some sources give the names of eleven kings who ruled for 354 years, others list only five who ruled 143. Henze reports the existence of at least one list containing 16 names, according to Carlo Conti Rossini, the shorter length of this dynasty was the more likely one. The mystery of the Zagwe dynasty is perhaps darkest around its replacement by the revived Solomonic dynasty under Yekuno Amlak, taddesse Tamrat believes that this last ruler was actually Yetbarak. Qirqos in Gaynt on the side of the Bashilo River
The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic, to partial and restricted, to completely autocratic. Traditionally and in most cases, the monarchs post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication, occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election. Finally, there have been cases where the term of a reign is either fixed in years or continues until certain goals are achieved. Thus there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy, Monarchy was the most common form of government until the 19th century, but it is no longer prevalent. Currently,47 sovereign nations in the world have monarchs acting as heads of state,19 of which are Commonwealth realms that recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their head of state. The monarchs of Cambodia and Malaysia reign, the word monarch comes from the Greek language word μονάρχης, monárkhēs which referred to a single, at least nominally absolute ruler. In current usage the word usually refers to a traditional system of hereditary rule.
Depending on the held by the monarch, a monarchy may be known as a kingdom, duchy, grand duchy, tsardom, sultanate, khaganate. The form of societal hierarchy known as chiefdom or tribal kingship is prehistoric, the Greek term monarchia is classical, used by Herodotus. The monarch in classical antiquity is often identified as king, the Chinese and Nepalese monarchs continued to be considered living Gods into the modern period. Since antiquity, monarchy has contrasted with forms of democracy, where power is wielded by assemblies of free citizens. In antiquity, monarchies were abolished in favour of such assemblies in Rome, much of 19th century politics was characterised by the division between anti-monarchist Radicalism and monarchist Conservativism. Many countries abolished the monarchy in the 20th century and became republics, advocacy of republics is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchies is called monarchism. In the modern era, monarchies are more prevalent in small states than in large ones, most monarchs, both historically and in the modern day, have been born and brought up within a royal family, the centre of the royal household and court.
Growing up in a family, future monarchs are often trained for the responsibilities of expected future rule. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood and agnatic seniority. While most monarchs have been male, many female monarchs have reigned in history, rule may be hereditary in practice without being considered a monarchy, such as that of family dictatorships or political families in many democracies. The principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the continuity of leadership
History of Eritrea
Eritrea is an ancient name, associated in the past with its Greek form Erythraia, Ἐρυθραία, and its derived Latin form Erythræa. This name relates to that of the Red Sea, called the Erythræan Sea, from the Greek for red, ἐρυθρός, the Italians created the colony of Eritrea in the 19th century around Asmara, and named it with its current name. After World War II Eritrea was annexed to Ethiopia, in 1991 the Eritrean Peoples Liberation Front defeated the Ethiopian government. Eritrea officially celebrated its 1st anniversary of independence on May 24,1992, at Buya in Eritrea, one of the oldest hominids representing a possible link between Homo erectus and an archaic Homo sapiens was found by Italian scientists. Dated to over 1 million years old, it is the oldest skeletal find of its kind, during the last interglacial period, the Red Sea coast of Eritrea was occupied by early anatomically modern humans. It is believed that the area was on the out of Africa that some scholars suggest was used by early humans to colonize the rest of the Old World.
The tools are believed to have used by early humans to harvest marine resources like clams. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic era from the familys proposed urheimat in the Nile Valley, other scholars propose that the Afroasiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there. The ancient Puntites were a nation of people that had relations with Pharaonic Egypt during the times of Pharaoh Sahure. In 2010, a study was conducted on the mummified remains of baboons that were brought back as gifts from Punt by the ancient Egyptians. One of the baboons had distorted isotopic data, so the oxygen isotope values were compared to those of present-day baboon specimens from regions of interest. Excavations at Sembel found evidence of an ancient pre-Aksumite civilization in greater Asmara and this Ona urban culture is believed to have been among the earliest pastoral and agricultural communities in the Horn region.
Artefacts at the site have dated to between 800 BC and 400 BC, contemporaneous with other pre-Aksumite settlements in the Eritrean and Ethiopian highlands during the mid-first millennium BC. Additionally, the Ona culture may have had connections with the ancient Land of Punt. In a tomb in Thebes dated to the reign of Pharaoh Amenophis II, excavations in and near Agordat in central Eritrea yielded the remains of an ancient pre-Aksumite civilization known as the Gash Group. Ceramics were discovered that were related to those of the C-Group pastoral culture, according to Peter Behrens and Marianne Bechaus-Gerst, linguistic evidence indicates that the C-Group and Kerma peoples spoke Afro-Asiatic languages of the Berber and Cushitic branches, respectively. Dmt was a kingdom that encompassed most of Eritrea and the fringes of Ethiopia. Given the presence of a temple complex, its capital was most likely Yeha
Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. With its capital at Asmara, it is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, the northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has an area of approximately 117,600 km2. Its toponym Eritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea, Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country, with nine recognized ethnic groups in its population of around six million. Most residents speak languages from the Afroasiatic family, either of the Ethiopian Semitic languages or Cushitic branches, among these communities, the Tigrinya make up about 55% of the population, with the Tigre people constituting around 30% of inhabitants. In addition, there are a number of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities, most people in the territory adhere to Christianity or Islam. In medieval times much of Eritrea fell under the Medri Bahri kingdom, the creation of modern-day Eritrea is a result of the incorporation of independent, distinct kingdoms and sultanates eventually resulting in the formation of Italian Eritrea.
In 1947 Eritrea became part of a federation with Ethiopia, the Federation of Ethiopia, subsequent annexation into Ethiopia led to the Eritrean War of Independence, ending with Eritrean independence following a referendum in April 1993. Hostilities between Eritrea and Ethiopia persisted, leading to the Eritrean–Ethiopian War of 1998–2000 and further skirmishes with both Djibouti and Ethiopia, Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have been repeatedly postponed. According to Human Rights Watch, the Eritrean governments human rights record is considered among the worst in the world, the Eritrean government has dismissed these allegations as politically motivated. The compulsory military service requires lengthy, indefinite conscription periods, which some Eritreans leave the country in order to avoid, since all local media is state-owned, Eritrea was ranked as having the least press freedom in the global Press Freedom Index. Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, and IGAD, during the Middle Ages, the Eritrea region was known as Medri Bahri.
The name Eritrea is derived from the ancient Greek name for the Red Sea and it was first formally adopted in 1890, with the formation of Italian Eritrea. The territory became the Eritrea Governorate within Italian East Africa in 1936, Eritrea was annexed by Ethiopia in 1953 and an Eritrean Liberation Front formed in 1960. Eritrea gained independence following the 1993 referendum, and the name of the new state was defined as State of Eritrea in the 1997 constitution. At Buya in Eritrea, one of the oldest hominids representing a link between Homo erectus and an archaic Homo sapiens was found by Italian scientists. Dated to over 1 million years old, it is the oldest skeletal find of its kind, during the last interglacial period, the Red Sea coast of Eritrea was occupied by early anatomically modern humans. It is believed that the area was on the out of Africa that some scholars suggest was used by early humans to colonize the rest of the Old World
The Zemene Mesafint was a period in Ethiopian history when the country was divided within itself into several regions with no effective central authority. It was a period in which the Emperors were reduced to more than figureheads confined to the capital city of Gondar. Some historians date the murder of Iyasu the Great, and the resultant decline in the prestige of the dynasty, others date it to the beginning of Iyoass reign. The most powerful lords during this period were Ras Ali I, Ras Aligaz, Ras Hailu Yosedeq, Dejazmach Wube Hailemariam, Ras Wolde Selassie, Ras Gugsa, Ras Ali II, the Yejju lords did have predominance or hegemony over the other lords of Ethiopia. The lords constantly fought against each other for aggrandizement of their territory, the monarchy continued only in name because of its sacred character. This nominal but divinely ordained monarchy preserved the dynasty from actual extinction, Rubenson and Shiferaw Bekele agree that in all the disintegration and anarchy, the Yejju lords ruled the country in the name of the Solomonic dynasty.
That being said, the term that needs to be precisely defined has to do with the appellation of the Yejju. Very often it is called the Yejju Dynasty, there is no problem with this name except that at times it created confusion with the Yejju province. It is preferable to call them by the name that they preferred and by what others called them. This appellation clearly refers to the rather than to the province. Scholars now agree that of the Wara Seh rulers, Ras Gugsas reign was characterized more by peace than by war, the power of the Wara Seh rulers was much more than predominance. They exercised actual authority over the other lords, the latter were their tributary lords and the Wara Seh were suzerains or overlords. To be sure, the Wara Seh did not exercise authority outside of the provinces directly under their rule. These provinces extended from Begemeder across Chachaho Pass to the Amhara provinces of Maqet, Wadla and they had the right of confirmation in their offices when new lords came to power in one way or another.
At times, they went to the extent of chaining some of their recalcitrant lords. However, the tenure of Yostos was brief and the throne came into the hands of the Solomonic house once again, the reign of Iyasu II had brought the empire once again to disaster. He ascended the throne as a child, allowing his mother, Mentewab had herself crowned as co-ruler, becoming the first woman to be crowned in this manner in Ethiopian history. Mentewabs attempt to strengthen ties between the monarchy and the Oromo by arranging the marriage of her son to the daughter of an Oromo chieftain from Yejju backfired in the long run, Iyoas further increased the favor given to the Oromo when adult