University of Miami
The University of Miami is a private, nonsectarian research university in Coral Gables, United States. As of 2018, the university enrolls 17,331 students in 12 separate colleges/schools, including the Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine in Miami's Health District, a law school on the main campus, the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science focused on the study of oceanography and atmospheric sciences on Virginia Key, with research facilities at the Richmond Facility in southern Miami-Dade County; the university offers 138 undergraduate, 144 master's, 68 doctoral degree programs, of which 64 are research/scholarship and four professional areas of study. Over the years, the university's students have represented all 50 states and close to 150 foreign countries. With more than 15,000 full and part-time faculty and staff, UM is a top 10 employer in Miami-Dade County. UM's main campus in Coral Gables has over 5.7 million square feet of buildings. Research is a component of each academic division, with UM attracting $345.8 million in sponsored research grants in FY 2018.
UM offers a large library system with over 3.9 million volumes and exceptional holdings in Cuban heritage and music. UM offers a wide range of student activities, including fraternities and sororities, a student newspaper and a radio station. UM's intercollegiate athletic teams, collectively known as the Miami Hurricanes, compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. UM's football team has won five national championships since 1983 and its baseball team has won four national championships since 1982. A group of citizens chartered the University of Miami in 1925 with the intent to offer "unique opportunities to develop inter-American studies, to further creative work in the arts and letters, to conduct teaching and research programs in tropical studies", they believed. They were overly optimistic about future financial support for UM because the South Florida land boom was at its peak. During the Jim Crow era, there were three large state-funded universities in Florida for white males, white females, black coeds.
The university began in earnest in 1925 when George E. Merrick, the founder of Coral Gables, gave 160 acres and nearly $5 million, to the effort; these contributions were land contracts and mortgages on real estate, sold in the city. The university was chartered on April 1925 by the Circuit Court for Dade County. By the fall of 1926, when the first class of 372 students enrolled at UM, the land boom had collapsed, hopes for a speedy recovery were dashed by a major hurricane. For the next 15 years the university remained solvent; the first building on campus, now known as the Merrick Building, was left half built for over two decades due to economic difficulties. In the meantime, classes were held at the nearby Anastasia Hotel, with partitions separating classrooms, giving the university the early nickname of "Cardboard College."In 1929, founding member William E. Walsh and other members of the Board of Regents resigned in the wake of the collapse of the Florida economy. UM's plight was so severe that students went door to door in Coral Gables collecting funds to keep it open.
A reconstituted ten-member Board was chaired by UM's first president Bowman Foster Ashe. The new board included Merrick, Theodore Dickinson, E. B. Douglas, David Fairchild, James H. Gilman, Richardson Saunders, Frank B. Shutts, Joseph H. Adams, J. C. Penney. In 1930, several faculty members and more than 60 students came to UM when the University of Havana closed due to political unrest. UM filed for bankruptcy in 1932. In July 1934, the University of Miami was reincorporated and a Board of Trustees replaced the Board of Regents. By 1940, community leaders were replacing administration as trustees; the university survived this early turmoil. During Ashe's presidency, the university added the School of Law, the Business School, the School of Education, the Graduate School, the Marine Laboratory, the School of Engineering, the School of Medicine. During World War II, UM was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission.
One of Ashe's longtime assistants, Jay F. W. Pearson, assumed the presidency in 1952. A charter faculty member and a marine biologist by trade, Pearson retained the position until 1962. During his presidency, UM awarded its first doctorate degrees and saw an increase in enrollment of more than 4,000; the social changes of the 1960s and 1970s were reflected at UM. In 1961, UM began to admit black students. African Americans were allowed full participation in student activities and sports teams. After President Stanford pressed for minority athletes, in December 1966, UM signed Ray Bellamy, an African American football player. With Bellamy, UM became the first major college in the Deep South with a Black football player on scholarship. UM established an Office of Minority Affairs to promote diversity in both undergraduate and professional school admissions. With the start of the 1968 football season, President Henry Stanford barred the playing of "Dixie" by the university's band. UM regulated female student conduct more than men's conduct with a staff under the Dean of Women watching over the women.
UM combined the separate Dean of Men and Dean of Women positions in 1971. In 19
2010 NFL season
The 2010 NFL season was the 91st regular season of the National Football League. The regular season began with the NFL Kickoff game on NBC on Thursday, September 9, at the Louisiana Superdome as the New Orleans Saints, Super Bowl XLIV champions, defeated the Minnesota Vikings 14–9. Tom Brady, quarterback of the New England Patriots, was named MVP for the 2010 season. In Super Bowl XLV, the League's championship game played at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, the Green Bay Packers defeated the Pittsburgh Steelers 31–25 to win their fourth Super Bowl, spoiling the Steelers' chance for a 7th title; this season marked the first full-length season in which a team with a losing record made the playoffs, when the Seattle Seahawks won the NFC West with a 7-9 record, after defeating the St. Louis Rams in week 17 to clinch the division title. One week the Seahawks dethroned the defending champion New Orleans Saints in the Wild Card round, to become the first sub.500 playoff team to win a postseason game.
The 2010 regular season was the first year that the league used a modified version of the scheduling formula, first introduced in 2002, in which all teams play each other at least once every four years, play in every other team's stadium at least once every eight years. Under the original 2002 formula, since the pairings were based on alphabetical order, those teams scheduled to play the entire AFC West had to travel to both Oakland and San Diego in the same season, while those teams playing the entire NFC West had to make their way to both San Francisco and Seattle. In 2008, the New England Patriots and New York Jets each had to make cross-country trips to all four of the aforementioned West Coast teams. In an effort to relieve east coast teams from having to travel to the West Coast multiple times during the same season, teams will only have to visit one West Coast team, plus one western team from the same division closer to the Midwest, under the 2010 modified formula; those teams traveling to Oakland will now play at Denver, while those playing at San Diego will play at Kansas City.
For teams scheduled to play the NFC West, those traveling to San Francisco will go to Arizona, while those scheduled to play in Seattle would go to St. Louis. For the 2010 season, the intraconference and interconference matchups are: The entire 2010 regular-season schedule was unveiled at 7:00 pm EDT on Tuesday, April 20. Additionally, schedule release shows aired on both the NFL Network and as a SportsCenter special on ESPN2; the league's 75th annual selection meeting, more known as the NFL Draft, took place at Radio City Music Hall in New York City from April 22–24, the first time that the draft was held over three days instead of the normal two. In the draft with the first overall pick, the St. Louis Rams chose quarterback Sam Bradford from the University of Oklahoma; the Pro Football Hall of Fame Game was held on Sunday, August 8, 2010 at 8:00 pm EDT on NBC, with the Dallas Cowboys defeating the Cincinnati Bengals, 16–7 at Fawcett Stadium in Canton, Ohio. The remainder of the preseason game matchups were announced March 31, 2010.
Highlights, among others, include the New York Giants and New York Jets facing off in the first-ever game at New Meadowlands Stadium on ESPN. The preseason game in the Bills Toronto Series featured the host Bills defeating the Indianapolis Colts in Toronto on Thursday, August 19 by a score of 34–21. Exact dates and times for most games were announced in April, shortly after the regular season games were announced; the NFL Kickoff Game, the first game of the season, took place on Thursday, September 9, 2010, starting at 8:35 pm EDT, with the Super Bowl XLIV champion New Orleans Saints hosting the Minnesota Vikings, in a rematch of the 2009 NFC Championship Game. The Saints won 14–9. Like in previous years, the opening week's prime-time games were expected to be announced at the NFL's annual owners meetings in late March, but that wasn't the case this year, with the schedule announced on April 20. On March 15, 2010, the NFL announced that both the New York Giants and New York Jets will play at home during the opening weekend to open New Meadowlands Stadium.
The Giants played on Sunday with a 1 pm EDT kickoff against the Carolina Panthers and the Jets opened ESPN's Monday Night Football schedule against the Baltimore Ravens the next night. For the nightcap, the San Diego Chargers traveled to play their division rival, the Kansas City Chiefs, marking the first time that a team from outside the Mountain or Pacific Time Zones has played in, or hosted, the "late" game; the game started at 9:15 pm Kansas City time. While the Indianapolis Colts and New Orleans Saints had both started the year before 13–0, on October 10, the Kansas City Chiefs became the last team to lose, losing to the Colts 19–9, it would mark the first time that no NFL team reached 4–0 since 1970, when the Detroit Lions, Denver Broncos, Los Angeles Rams started the season 3–0 but all lost in Week 4. The 2010 season featured one International Series game, played at Wembley Stadium in London; the teams for this game were confirmed on January 15, 2010, with the San Francisco 49ers playing host to the Denver Broncos on October 31, 2010, at 1:00 pm EDT.
The 49ers won scoring 21 points in the 4th quarter. CBS televised this game on a regional basis; the Kansas City Chiefs and Seattle Seahawks, who had expressed interest in previous games, were a possible matchup for a second NFL game, but league officials dropped a plan for two games in the UK, citing the economy and ongoin
2014 NFL season
The 2014 NFL season was the 95th season in the history of the National Football League. The season began on Thursday, September 4, 2014, with the annual kickoff game featuring the defending Super Bowl XLVIII champion Seattle Seahawks hosting the Green Bay Packers, which resulted with the Seahawks winning, 36-16; the season concluded with Super Bowl XLIX, the league's championship game, on Sunday, February 1, 2015, at University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, with the New England Patriots defeating the Seattle Seahawks, 28–24. The 2014 league year began at 4 pm EST on March 11, which marked the start of the league's free agency period; the per-team salary cap was set at a $10 million increase from the previous year. The so-called "legal tampering" period during which time agents representing prospective unrestricted free agent players were allowed to have contact with team representatives with the purpose of determining a player's market value and to begin contract negotiations, began at noon on March 8.
A total of 471 players were eligible for some form of free agency at the beginning of the free agency period. In addition, a number of paid players were released after the start of the league year to allow their teams to regain space under the salary cap. Among the high-profile players who changed teams via free agency were cornerbacks Darrelle Revis, Dominique Rodgers-Cromartie, Aqib Talib and Alterraun Verner. Four players were assigned the non-exclusive franchise tag by their teams, which ensured that the team would receive compensation were the player to sign a contract with another team; these players were defensive end Greg Hardy, tight end Jimmy Graham, placekicker Nick Folk and linebacker Brian Orakpo. Two other teams used the transition tag, which offers the player's current team a chance to match offers from other franchises and guarantees draft pick compensation if a tagged player signs elsewhere. Players given the transition tag were Jason Worilds and Alex Mack. Mack signed a five-year, $42 million offer sheet with the Jacksonville Jaguars which included $26 million in guaranteed money and a player option to void the contract after two seasons.
The Browns retained Mack who became the league's highest paid center. One restricted free agent switched teams in 2014: wide receiver Andrew Hawkins of the Bengals was signed by the Browns. Restricted free agents are players with three or fewer seasons in the league whose contracts have expired. Teams may tender contract offers which allow them to match offers from other teams and may trigger draft pick compensation to be received from the signing team. Hawkins was tendered at the minimum level, which means the Bengals would not receive any draft compensation; the Browns signed him to a $13.6 million, four-year offer. Saints safety Rafael Bush signed an offer from the Falcons, but the Saints retained Bush by matching the offer; the 2014 NFL Draft was held May 8 -- 2014, in New York City. The draft process began with the NFL Scouting Combine, where draft-eligible players were evaluated by team personnel, held in Indianapolis on February 19–25; the draft included a record number of 98 non-seniors.
The event was delayed two weeks compared to its traditional position on the NFL calendar in late April due to a scheduling conflict at Radio City Music Hall, the draft venue since 2006. In the draft, the Houston Texans made University of South Carolina defensive end, now outside linebacker Jadeveon Clowney the first overall selection. There was discussion leading up to the draft as to the future of the event in New York City, where it had been held since 1965. Given the increased interest in the draft over the past decade, there was a belief that the event may have outgrown Radio City Music Hall, the venue for the past nine drafts; the possibility of extending the draft to four days was being discussed. On October 2, 2014, Auditorium Theatre in Chicago was announced as the official site for the following year's draft. Training camps for the 2014 season were held in late July through August. Teams may start training camp no earlier than 15 days before the team's first scheduled preseason game.
Prior to the start of the regular season, each team played four preseason exhibition games. The preseason schedule got underway with the Pro Football Hall of Fame Game on Sunday evening, August 3; the Hall of Fame game is a traditional part of the annual Pro Football Hall of Fame induction weekend celebrating new Hall of Fame members. It was played at Fawcett Stadium, located adjacent to the Hall of Fame building in Canton, Ohio; the game, televised in the U. S. on NBC, featured the New York Giants and Buffalo Bills, with the Giants winning 17–13. Continuing the recent trend of scheduling teams that are associated with former players be
Jonathan Polynice Vilma is a former American football linebacker and current ESPN college football analyst. He played college football at the University of Miami, winning a National Championship in 2001, he would go on to be drafted by the New York Jets in the first round of the 2004 NFL Draft. Vilma won a Super Bowl championship with the New Orleans Saints. In July 2016 he joined ESPN as a college football studio analyst. Vilma was elected as a member of the Orange Bowl Committee in 2018. Vilma was born in Florida to Haitian immigrant parents, he attended G. W. Carver Middle School and Coral Gables High School, where he was a teammate of Pro Bowl running back Frank Gore. Vilma received an athletic scholarship to attend the University of Miami, played for coach Butch Davis and coach Larry Coker's Miami Hurricanes football teams from 2000 to 2003. In 2000, Vilma played in all 11 games as a reserve middle linebacker and compiled 38 tackles and a pass deflection. After the graduation of Dan Morgan, Vilma stepped into the starting middle linebacker role and played an integral role on the Hurricanes' National Championship team.
He led the team in tackles with 79 and compiled two forced fumbles, one fumble recovery for a 36-yard touchdown, three pass deflections and an interception. He started 11 of 12 games during the regular season and was selected on the First-Team All-Big East team. Vilma led the team in tackles with 133, had two quarterback sacks, a forced fumble, recovered two fumbles, broke up five passes, he earned unanimous first-team All-Big East selection for the second time in his career and was a semi-finalist for the Dick Butkus Award, along with teammate D. J. Williams. In his final year, Vilma led the team in tackles for a third time with 127, with one sack, forced one fumble, recovered three fumbles. Vilma ended the year as a finalist for the Butkus Award. Along with his success on the field, Vilma was a three-time Academic All-Big East Conference, he received a bachelor's degree in finance from the University of Miami's School of Business Administration. Vilma was interviewed about his time at the University of Miami for the documentary The U, which premiered December 12, 2009 on ESPN.
4.43 40 Yard Dash 37 Inch Vertical 23 Bench Reps 6.67 Three-Cone Drill 4.20 Short Shuttle 10-foot-1 Broad Jump Vilma was drafted by the Jets with the 12th selection in the 2004 NFL Draft. In 2004, Vilma was named as the NFL Defensive Rookie of the Year by the Associated Press. During his rookie campaign, he recorded 107 tackles, two sacks, three interceptions, one of, returned for his first NFL touchdown. In 2005, Vilma led the NFL in tackles with 169, forced four fumbles, notched one fumble recovery, half a sack, one interception. Vilma replaced Zach Thomas at the 2006 Pro Bowl. In 2006, Vilma put together another solid season, he compiled 114 tackles, one forced fumble, one fumble recovery, one interception. On October 27, 2007, Vilma was placed on injured reserve, he suffered a season ending knee injury during the New York Jets week 7 game against the Cincinnati Bengals. On February 29, 2008, the Jets traded Vilma to the New Orleans Saints for a fourth-round draft pick in the 2008 NFL Draft and a conditional pick in the 2009 NFL Draft.
Jets then-head coach Eric Mangini elected to start linebackers Eric Barton and David Harris in his place. In his first season with the Saints, Vilma was a bright spot on a weak defensive unit. Vilma played in all 16 games, recorded 132 tackles with one sack. On February 27, 2009, Vilma signed a 34 million-dollar contract with the Saints. Vilma was elected one of the defensive captains, led the team in tackles, had three interceptions, was chosen for his second Pro Bowl. In Super Bowl XLIV on February 7, 2010, Vilma made several important plays, including making a key defensive audible and deflecting a pass on 3rd and 11 in the fourth quarter; the Saints beat Indianapolis 31-17. Vilma again led the team in tackles in 2010, started every game, was selected to the Pro Bowl. In 2011, he was inactive for six others with a knee injury. Vilma was a central figure in the New Orleans Saints bounty scandal; the NFL alleged that defensive coordinator Gregg Williams operated an incentive program, which paid out "bounties" for deliberately putting opposing players out of games.
The league alleged that Vilma offered $10,000 cash to anyone who knocked Brett Favre out of the 2009 NFC Championship Game. Most notably, Favre was forced out of the game for one play with an ankle injury. Although up to 27 players were accused of involvement, Vilma was the only player singled out by the league for his role; the NFL suspended Vilma for the entire 2012 season on May 2, 2012. The suspension was reported to be the longest suspension related to in-game misconduct in modern NFL history, dwarfing the previous record of five games handed to Albert Haynesworth for stomping on Andre Gurode's head in 2006; the league contended that Vilma and defensive end Will Smith aided Williams in starting the alleged program in 2009. Vilma found out about the suspension when it was announced on SportsCenter announced his intent to appeal and adamantly denied that he was involved in any sort of bounty scheme. Vilma filed a personal slander suit against Roger Goodell. Opinions about the suspensions were divided, as alleged targets like Favre and Kurt Warner claimed that incentive programs were part of the game, corroborated by former players interviewed by Sports Illustrated.
On July 26, Vilma and seven witnesses from the Saints testified to a federal judge in New Orl
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company. The newspaper has a centrist audience. Founded by Al Neuharth on September 15, 1982, it operates from Gannett's corporate headquarters on Jones Branch Drive, in McLean, Virginia, it is printed at five additional sites internationally. Its dynamic design influenced the style of local and national newspapers worldwide, through its use of concise reports, colorized images, informational graphics, inclusion of popular culture stories, among other distinct features. With a weekly circulation of 1,021,638 and an approximate daily reach of seven million readers as of 2016, USA Today shares the position of having the widest circulation of any newspaper in the United States with The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times. USA Today is distributed in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, an international edition is distributed in Asia, Canada and the Pacific Islands.
The genesis of USA Today was on February 29, 1980, when a company task force known as "Project NN" met with Gannett Company chairman Al Neuharth in Cocoa Beach, Florida to develop a national newspaper. Early regional prototypes included East Bay Today, an Oakland, California-based publication published in the late 1970s to serve as the morning edition of the Oakland Tribune, an afternoon newspaper which Gannett owned at the time. On June 11, 1981, Gannett printed the first prototypes of the proposed publication; the two proposed design layouts were mailed to newsmakers and prominent leaders in journalism, for review and feedback. The Gannett Company's board of directors approved the launch of the national newspaper, titled USA Today, on December 5, 1981. At launch, Neuharth was appointed president and publisher of the newspaper, adding those responsibilities to his existing position as Gannett's chief executive officer. Gannett announced the launch of the paper on April 20, 1982. USA Today began publishing on September 15, 1982 in the Baltimore and Washington, D.
C. metropolitan areas for an newsstand price of 25¢. After selling out the first issue, Gannett expanded the national distribution of the paper, reaching an estimated circulation of 362,879 copies by the end of 1982, double the amount of sales that Gannett projected; the design uniquely incorporated color graphics and photographs. Only its front news section pages were rendered in four-color, while the remaining pages were printed in a spot color format; the paper's overall style and elevated use of graphics – developed by Neuharth, in collaboration with staff graphics designers George Rorick, Sam Ward, Suzy Parker, John Sherlock and Web Bryant – was derided by critics, who referred to it as "McPaper" or "television you can wrap fish in," because it opted to incorporate concise nuggets of information more akin to the style of television news, rather than in-depth stories like traditional newspapers, which many in the newspaper industry considered to be a dumbing down of the news. Although USA Today had been profitable for just ten years as of 1997, it changed the appearance and feel of newspapers around the world.
On July 2, 1984, the newspaper switched from predominantly black-and-white to full color photography and graphics in all four sections. The next week on July 10, USA Today launched an international edition intended for U. S. readers abroad, followed four months on October 8 with the rollout of the first transmission via satellite of its international version to Singapore. On April 8, 1985, the paper published its first special bonus section, a 12-page section called "Baseball'85," which previewed the 1985 Major League Baseball season. By the fourth quarter of 1985, USA Today had become the second largest newspaper in the United States, reaching a daily circulation of 1.4 million copies. Total daily readership of the paper by 1987 had reached 5.5 million, the largest of any daily newspaper in the U. S. On May 6, 1986, USA Today began production of its international edition in Switzerland. USA Today operated at a loss for most of its first four years of operation, accumulating a total deficit of $233 million after taxes, according to figures released by Gannett in July 1987.
On January 29, 1988, USA Today published the largest edition in its history, a 78-page weekend edition featuring a section previewing Super Bowl XXII. On April 15, USA Today launched a third international printing site, based in Hong Kong; the international edition set circulation and advertising records during August 1988, with coverage of the 1988 Summer Olympics, selling more than 60,000 copies and 100 pages of advertising. By July 1991, Simmons Market Research Bureau estimated that USA Today had a total daily readership of nearly 6.6 million, an all-time high and the largest readership of any daily newspaper in the United States. On September 1 of that year, USA Today launched a fourth printsite for its international edition in London for the United Kingdom and the British Isles; the international edition's schedule was changed as of April 1, 1994 Monday through Friday, rather than from Tuesday through Saturday, in order to accommodate business travelers.
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
2008 Denver Broncos season
The 2008 Denver Broncos season was the franchise's 39th season in the National Football League, the 49th overall and the 25th under the ownership of Pat Bowlen. The Broncos improved from their 7–9 record from 2007, but failed to make the playoffs with an 8–8 record. Entering Week 15, the Broncos had an 8–5 record — three games ahead of the San Diego Chargers for the AFC West division title; the Chargers ended the season on a four-game winning streak, while the Broncos ended the season on a three-game losing streak, losing 52–21 to the San Diego Chargers in the regular season finale. The Broncos and Chargers both finished 8–8, the Broncos lost the tiebreaker due to the Chargers' owning a better division record. On December 30, 2008, two days after the regular season ended, Mike Shanahan was fired as the Broncos' head coach after 14 seasons. On February 29, 2008, LB Ian Gold and WR Javon Walker were released by the Denver Broncos in preparation for the NFL Draft and free agency. Walker was signed by the Oakland Raiders.
Long-time Broncos kicker Jason Elam was not re-signed by the Broncos, was signed by the Atlanta Falcons. On June 2, 2008, RB Travis Henry was cut by the team. Seventh Round pick Josh Barrett signed on June 12, the first draft pick to sign with the team. Wide receiver Rod Smith, a veteran of both of the Broncos Super Bowl victories, retired on the first day of training camp. SCORES DENVER BRONCOSMenu NFL > Teams > Denver Broncos > Roster 2008 DENVER BRONCOS: Roster All PLAYER NO POS Abdullah, Hamza 23 S Bailey, Boss 97 LB Bailey, Champ 24 CB Barrett, Josh 30 S Bell, Josh 26 CB Bell, Tatum 21 RB Bly, Dre' 32 CB Boyd, Cory 30 RB Clady, Ryan 78 T Clemons, Nic 93 DT Crowder, Tim 96 DE Cutler, Jay 6 QB Dumervil, Elvis 58 LB Ekuban, Ebenezer 91 DE Engelberger, John 60 DE Fox, Vernon 39 S Graham, Daniel 89 TE Green, Louis 52 LB Haggan, Mario 51 LB Hall, Andre 24 RB Hamilton, Ben 50 G Harris, Ryan 68 T Hillis, Peyton 40 RB Jackson, Chad 3 WR Jackson, Darrell 82 WR Jackson, Nate 81 TE Jones, Herana-Daze 44 S Kern, Brett 6 P Koutouvides, Niko 90 LB Kuper, Chris 73 G Larsen, Spencer 46 RB Leach, Mike 82 TE Lichtensteiger, Kory 78 G Lowry, Calvin 37 S Manuel, Marquand 36 S Marshall, Brandon 15 WR Martinez, Glenn 17 WR McCree, Marlon 20 S Moss, Jarvis 94 DE Mustard, Chad 85 TE Paymah, Karl 24 CB Peterson, Kenny 90 DT Pittman, Michael 28 RB Polumbus, Tyler 74 T Pope, P.
J. 31 RB Prater, Matt 5 K Putzier, Jeb 87 TE Ramsey, Patrick 9 QB Robertson, Dewayne 63 DT Rogers, Roderick 43 S Royal, Eddie 11 WR Russell, Clifford 10 WR Scheffler, Tony 85 TE Shaw, Josh 95 DT Stokley, Brandon 14 WR Thomas, Marcus 61 DT Torain, Ryan 41 RB Webster, Nate 58 LB Wiegmann, Casey 62 C Williams, D. J. 58 LB Williams, Jack 31 CB Winborn, Jamie 52 LB Woodyard, Wesley 52 LB Young, Selvin The Broncos opened training camp on July 24, 2008. On July 31, 2008, the Broncos granted safety John Lynch his release; the following day, head coach Mike Shanahan, asked about the upcoming season on talk radio, said "We’re not going to miss the playoffs." In the day, Shanahan backed off a bit, saying "I didn’t make a guarantee.... You don't have the injuries we've had. If we don’t have the injuries, I’d be disappointed if we didn’t make the playoffs." Note: Intra-division opponents are in bold text. The Broncos began their 2008 campaign on the road against their AFC West rival, the Oakland Raiders, in the second game of ESPN's Monday Night Football doubleheader.
In the first quarter, Denver ran out of the gates early as QB Jay Cutler completed a 26-yard TD pass to rookie WR Eddie Royal. In the second quarter, the Broncos continued their domination as kicker Matt Prater got a 26-yard field goal, while FB Michael Pittman got a 3-yard TD run. In the third quarter, Denver ran away with the game as Cutler completed a 48-yard TD pass to WR Darrell Jackson, while Prater nailed a 43-yard field goal. In the fourth quarter, the Raiders spoiled the Broncos' bid for a shutout as QB JaMarcus Russell completed an 8-yard TD pass to WR Ashley Lelie. Denver ended its domination with Pittman's 1-yard TD run. Oakland ended the scoring with Russell completing a 4-yard TD pass to WR Ronald Curry. With the dominating win, the Broncos began their season at 1–0. Eddie Royal, in his NFL debut, had the best Week 1 stats of any wide receiver, getting 9 receptions for 146 yards and a touchdown. Coming off their dominating divisional road win over the Raiders, the Broncos played their Week 2 home opener against the AFC West foe, the San Diego Chargers.
In the first quarter, Denver was first out of the gate. The Chargers responded with kicker Nate Kaeding getting a 34-yard field goal. In the second quarter, Denver replied with QB Jay Cutler completing a 3-yard and a 14-yard TD pass to TE Tony Scheffler. San Diego responded with RB Darren Sproles returning the kickoff 103 yards for a touchdown, yet the Broncos replied with rookie kicker Matt Prater getting a 52-yard field goal; the Chargers struck as their lead as QB Philip Rivers completed a 48-yard TD pass to WR Chris Chambers, yet Denver retaliated with Cutler completing a 6-yard TD pass to WR Brandon Marshall. In the third quarter, San Diego started to rally as Rivers completed a 15-yard TD pass to Chambers, Kaeding kicked a 21-yard field goal. In the fourth quarter, the Chargers took the lead with Kaeding's 28-yard field goal and Rivers' 66-yard TD pass to Sproles; the Broncos responded with a 12-play, 80-yard drive, capped off with Cutler's 4-yar