Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
An entheogen is a class of psychoactive substances that induce any type of spiritual experience aimed at development. The term entheogen is chosen to contrast recreational use of the same drugs; the religious, shamanic, or spiritual significance of entheogens is well established in anthropological and modern contexts. In the 1960s the hippie movement escalated its use to psychedelic art, binaural beats, sensory deprivation tanks and rave parties; the neologism entheogen was coined in 1979 by a group of scholars of mythology. The term is derived from two words of Ancient Greek, ἔνθεος and γενέσθαι; the adjective entheos translates to English as "full of the god, possessed", is the root of the English word "enthusiasm." The Greeks used it as a term of praise for other artists. Genesthai means "to come into being." Thus, an entheogen is a drug that causes one to become inspired or to experience feelings of inspiration in a religious or "spiritual" manner. Entheogen was coined as a replacement for the terms psychedelic.
Hallucinogen was popularized by Aldous Huxley's experiences with mescaline, which were published as The Doors of Perception in 1954. Psychedelic, in contrast, is a Greek neologism for "mind manifest", was coined by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond. Ruck et al. argued that the term hallucinogen was inappropriate owing to its etymological relationship to words relating to delirium and insanity. The term psychedelic was seen as problematic, owing to the similarity in sound to words pertaining to psychosis and due to the fact that it had become irreversibly associated with various connotations of 1960s pop culture. In modern usage entheogen may be used synonymously with these terms, or it may be chosen to contrast with recreational use of the same drugs; the meanings of the term entheogen were formally defined by Ruck et al.: In a strict sense, only those vision-producing drugs that can be shown to have figured in shamanic or religious rites would be designated entheogens, but in a looser sense, the term could be applied to other drugs, both natural and artificial, that induce alterations of consciousness similar to those documented for ritual ingestion of traditional entheogens.
Entheogens have been used by indigenous peoples for thousands of years. Some countries have legislation. However, in the mid-20th century, after the discovery of LSD, the intervention of psychedelic therapy, the term entheogen, invented in 1979 became an umbrella term used to include artificial drugs, alternative medical treatment, spiritual practices, whether or not in a formal religious or traditional structure. R. Gordon Wasson and Giorgio Samorini have proposed several examples of the cultural use of entheogens that are found in the archaeological record. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest early ceremonial practices by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd century BC, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. There now exist many synthetic drugs with similar psychoactive properties, many derived from the aforementioned plants. Many pure active compounds with psychoactive properties have been isolated from these respective organisms and chemically synthesized, including mescaline, psilocybin, DMT, salvinorin A, ibogaine and muscimol.
Semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs have been developed. Alexander Shulgin developed hundreds of entheogens in PiHKAL and TiHKAL. Most of the drugs in PiHKAL are synthetic. Entheogens used by movements includes biotas like peyote, extracts like Ayahuasca, the semi-synthetic drug LSD, synthetic drugs like DPT and 2C-B. Both Santo Daime and União do Vegetal now have churches throughout the world. Psychedelic therapy refers to therapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs serotonergic psychedelics such as LSD, psilocybin, DMT, 2C-i to assist psychotherapy. MAPS has pursued a number of other research studies examining the effects of psychedelics administered to human subjects; these studies include, but are not limited to, studies of Ayahuasca, DMT, ketamine, LSA, LSD, MDE, MDMA, peyote, Salvia divinorum and conducted multi-drug studies as well as cross cultural and meta-analysis research. Alcohol has sometimes been invested with religious significance. Celtic polytheismIn ancient Celtic religion, Sucellus or Sucellos was the god of agriculture and alcoholic drinks of the Gauls.
Ancient Mesopotamian religionNinkasi is the ancient Sumerian tutelary goddess of beer. Dionysian MysteriesIn the ancient Greco-Roman religion, Dionysos was the god of the grape harvest and wine, of ritual madness and ecstasy, of merry making and theatre; the original rite of Dionysus is associated with a wine cult and he may have been worshipped as early as c. 1500–1100 BCE by Mycenean Greeks. The Dionysian Mysteries were a ritual of ancient Greece and Rome which used intoxicants and other trance-inducing techniques to remove inhibitions and social constraints, liberating the individual to return t
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic drug is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, consciousness, cognition, or behavior. These substances may be used medically; some categories of psychoactive drugs, which have therapeutic value, are prescribed by physicians and other healthcare practitioners. Examples include anesthetics, analgesics and antiparkinsonian drugs as well as medications used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders, such as antidepressants, anxiolytics and stimulant medications; some psychoactive substances may be used in the detoxification and rehabilitation programs for persons dependent on or addicted to other psychoactive drugs. Psychoactive substances bring about subjective changes in consciousness and mood that the user may find rewarding and pleasant or advantageous and are thus reinforcing. Substances which are both rewarding and positively reinforcing have the potential to induce a state of addiction – compulsive drug use despite negative consequences.
In addition, sustained use of some substances may produce physical or psychological dependence or both, associated with somatic or psychological-emotional withdrawal states respectively. Drug rehabilitation attempts to reduce addiction, through a combination of psychotherapy, support groups, other psychoactive substances. Conversely, certain psychoactive drugs may be so unpleasant that the person will never use the substance again; this is true of certain deliriants, powerful dissociatives, classic psychedelics, in the form of a "bad trip". Psychoactive drug misuse and addiction have resulted in legal measures and moral debate. Governmental controls on manufacture and prescription attempt to reduce problematic medical drug use. Ethical concerns have been raised about over-use of these drugs clinically, about their marketing by manufacturers. Popular campaigns to allow certain recreational drug use are ongoing. Psychoactive drug use can be traced to prehistory. There is archaeological evidence of the use of psychoactive substances dating back at least 10,000 years, historical evidence of cultural use over the past 5,000 years.
The chewing of coca leaves, for example, dates back over 8,000 years ago in Peruvian society. Medicinal use is one important facet of psychoactive drug usage. However, some have postulated that the urge to alter one's consciousness is as primary as the drive to satiate thirst, hunger or sexual desire. Supporters of this belief contend that the history of drug use and children's desire for spinning, swinging, or sliding indicate that the drive to alter one's state of mind is universal. One of the first people to articulate this point of view, set aside from a medicinal context, was American author Fitz Hugh Ludlow in his book The Hasheesh Eater:rugs are able to bring humans into the neighborhood of divine experience and can thus carry us up from our personal fate and the everyday circumstances of our life into a higher form of reality, it is, necessary to understand what is meant by the use of drugs. We do not mean the purely physical craving... That of which we speak is something much higher, namely the knowledge of the possibility of the soul to enter into a lighter being, to catch a glimpse of deeper insights and more magnificent visions of the beauty and the divine than we are able to spy through the cracks in our prison cell.
But there are not many drugs. The entire catalog, at least to the extent that research has thus far written it, may include only opium, in rarer cases alcohol, which has enlightening effects only upon particular characters; this relationship is not limited to humans. A number of animals consume different psychoactive plants, animals and fermented fruit, becoming intoxicated, such as cats after consuming catnip. Traditional legends of sacred plants contain references to animals that introduced humankind to their use. Animals and psychoactive plants appear to have co-evolved explaining why these chemicals and their receptors exist within the nervous system. During the 20th century, many governments across the world responded to the use of recreational drugs by banning them and making their use, supply, or trade a criminal offense. A notable example of this was Prohibition in the United States, where alcohol was made illegal for 13 years. However, many governments, government officials and persons in law enforcement have concluded that illicit drug use cannot be sufficiently stopped through criminalization.
Organizations such as Law Enforcement Against Prohibition have come to such a conclusion, believing: he existing drug policies have failed in their intended goals of addressing the problems of crime, drug abuse, juvenile drug use, stopping the flow of illegal drugs into this country and the internal sale and use of illegal drugs. By fighting a war on drugs the government has increased the problems of society and made them far worse. A system of regulation rather than prohibition is a less harmful, more ethical and a more effective public policy. In some countries, there has been a move toward harm reduction by health services, where the use of illicit drugs is neither condoned nor promoted, but services and support are provided to ensure users have adeq
Psychedelics are a class of drug whose primary action is to trigger psychedelic experiences via serotonin receptor agonism, causing thought and visual/auditory changes, altered state of consciousness. Major psychedelic drugs include mescaline, LSD, DMT. Studies show that psychedelics do not lead to addiction. Studies conducted using psilocybin in a psychotheraputic setting reveal that psychedelic drugs may assist with treating alcohol and nicotine addiction. Differing with other psychoactive drugs, such as stimulants and opioids, psychedelics tend to qualitatively alter ordinary conscious experience. Whereas stimulants cause energized feelings and opioids produce a relaxed euphoric state, the psychedelic experience is compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as trance, yoga, religious ecstasy and near-death experiences. Most psychedelic drugs fall into one of the three families of chemical compounds: tryptamines, phenethylamines, or lysergamides. Although lysergamides are their own group they are a tryptamine.
Many psychedelic drugs are illegal worldwide under the UN conventions excepting use in a religious or research context. Despite these controls, recreational use of psychedelics is common; the term psychedelic is derived from the Greek words ψυχή and δηλείν, hence "soul-manifesting", the implication being that psychedelics can access the soul and develop unused potentials of the human mind. The word was coined in 1956 by British psychiatrist, Humphry Osmond, the spelling loathed by American ethnobotanist, Richard Schultes, but championed by the American psychologist, Timothy Leary. Aldous Huxley had suggested to Humphry Osmond in 1956 his own coinage phanerothyme; the term entheogenic has come into use to denote the use of psychedelic drugs in a religious/spiritual/mystical context. Psychedelics have a long history of traditional use in medicine and religion, for their perceived ability to promote physical and mental healing. In this context, they are known as entheogens. Native American practitioners using mescaline-containing cacti have reported success against alcoholism, Mazatec practitioners use psilocybin mushrooms for divination and healing.
Ayahuasca, which contains the potent psychedelic DMT, is used in Peru and other parts of South America for spiritual and physical healing as well as in religious festivals. Classical or serotonergic psychedelics include LSD, mescaline, DMT; this class of psychedelics includes the classical hallucinogens, including the lysergamides like LSD and LSA, tryptamines like psilocybin and DMT, phenethylamines like mescaline and 2C-B. Many of these psychedelics cause remarkably similar effects, despite their different chemical structure. However, many users report that the three families have subjectively different qualities in the "feel" of the experience, which are difficult to describe. At lower doses, these include sensory alterations, such as the warping of surfaces, shape suggestibility, color variations. Users report intense colors that they have not experienced, repetitive geometric shapes are common. Higher doses cause intense and fundamental alterations of sensory perception, such as synesthesia or the experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions.
Some compounds, such as 2C-B, have tight "dose curves", meaning the difference between a non-event and an overwhelming disconnection from reality can be slight. There can be substantial differences between the drugs, however. For instance, 5-MeO-DMT produces the visual effects typical of other psychedelics and ibogaine is an NMDA receptor antagonist and κ-opioid receptor agonist in addition to being an agonist for the 5-HT2A receptors, resulting in dissociative effects as well. Research published in journal Cell Reports states that psychedelic drugs promote neural plasticity in rats and flies; the empathogen-entactogens are phenethylamines of the MDxx class such as MDMA, MDEA, MDA. Their effects are characterized by feelings of openness, empathy, heightened self-awareness, by mild audio and visual distortions, their adoption by the rave subculture is due to the enhancement of the overall social and musical experience. MDA is atypical to this experience causing hallucinations and psychedelic effects in equal profundity to the chemicals in the 5-HT2A agonist category, but with less mental involvement, is both a serotonin releaser and 5-HT2A receptor agonist.
Certain dissociative drugs acting via NMDA antagonism are known to produce what some might consider psychedelic effects. The main differences between dissociative psychedelics and serotonergic hallucinogens are that the dissociatives cause more intense derealization and depersonalization. For example, ketamine produces sensations of being disconnected from one's body and that the surrounding environment is unreal, as well as perceptual alterations seen with other psychedelics. Salvia divinorum is a dissociative, sometimes classified as an atypical psychedelic; the active molecule in the plant, salvinorin A, is a kappa opioid receptor agonist, working on a part of the brain that de
John C. Lilly
Dr John Cunningham Lilly was an American physician, psychoanalyst, philosopher and inventor. He was a member of a generation of counterculture scientists and thinkers that included Ram Dass, Werner Erhard and Timothy Leary, all frequent visitors to the Lilly home, he stirred controversy among mainstream scientists. Lilly gained renown in the 1950s after developing the isolation tank, he saw the tanks, in which users are isolated from all external stimuli, as a means to explore the nature of human consciousness. He combined that work with his efforts to communicate with dolphins, as well as experiments with psychedelics. During a session in an isolation tank, constructed over a pool where dolphins were swimming, I participated in a conversation between the dolphins, it drove me crazy, there was too much information. His work inspired two Hollywood movies, "The Day of the Dolphin" and "Altered States". Lilly conducted high-altitude research during World War II and trained as a psychoanalyst. In the 1950s, he began studying how bottlenose dolphins vocalize, establishing centers in the U.
S. Virgin Islands and San Francisco to study dolphins. A decade he began experimenting with psychedelics, including LSD while floating in isolation. Lilly was born to a wealthy family on January 6, 1915, in Minnesota, his father was president of the First National Bank of St. Paul, his mother was Rachel Lenor Cunningham, whose family owned the Cunningham & Haas Company, a large stockyards company in St. Paul. Lilly had Richard Lilly Jr. and a younger brother, David Maher Lilly. A fourth child, Mary Catherine Lilly, died in infancy. Lilly showed an interest in science at an early age. At thirteen years old, he was an avid chemistry hobbyist, supplementing his makeshift basement laboratory with chemicals given to him by a pharmacist friend. Students at his parochial Catholic grade school called him "Einstein Jr." At age 14 he enrolled at St. Paul Academy, a college preparatory academy for boys, where his teachers encouraged him to pursue science further and conduct his experiments in the school laboratory after hours.
While at SPA, Lilly further developed his interest in philosophy. He studied the works of many of the great philosophers, finding himself attracted to the subjective idealism of Anglo-Irish theologian and philosopher George Berkeley. Despite his father's wish that he go to an eastern Ivy League university to become a banker, Lilly received a scholarship at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California where he studied biology, he was the president of the ski club, a member of the drama club and lived in the "Blacker House". After his first year, Caltech learned that Lilly was from a wealthy family and cancelled his scholarship, forcing him to go to his father for help. Dick Lilly set up a trust fund to pay the tuition and became a benefactor of the college. Lilly continued to draw on his family wealth to fund his scientific pursuits throughout his life. In 1934, Lilly read Aldous Huxley's Brave New World; the pharmacological control methods of Huxley's dystopia and the links between physical chemical processes of the brain and subjective experiences of the mind helped inspire Lilly to give up his study of physics and pursue biology focusing on neurophysiology.
Lilly was engaged to Mary Crouch at the beginning of his junior year at Caltech. Months before their wedding, he took a job with a lumber company in the Northwest to soothe a bout of "nervous exhaustion" brought on by the pressures of academia and his upcoming marriage. During this sabbatical he was hospitalised after injuring his foot with an axe while cutting brush, his time in the trauma ward inspired him to become a doctor of medicine. In 1937, while Lilly was looking for a good medical school, his wealthy and well-connected father arranged a meeting between Lilly and Charles Horace Mayo of the famous Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Following Mayo's advice, Lilly applied and was accepted to Dartmouth Medical School in Hanover, New Hampshire, where he became good friends with Mayo's son, Charles William Mayo. Lilly graduated from Caltech with a Bachelor of Science degree on June 10, 1938, enrolled at Dartmouth the following September. At Dartmouth, Lilly launched into the study of anatomy, performing dissections on 32 cadavers during his time there.
He once stretched out an entire intestinal tract across the length of a room to determine its actual length with certainty. During the summer after his first year at Dartmouth, Lilly returned to Pasadena to participate in an experiment with his former Caltech biochemistry professor Henry Borsook; the purpose of the experiment was to study the creation of glycocyamine, a major source of muscle power in the human body. The experiment involved putting Lilly on a protein-free diet while administering measured doses of glycine and arginine, the two amino acids that Borsook hypothesized were involved in the creation of glycocyamine; the experiments pushed Lilly to extreme physical and mental limits. The results of the experiment confirmed Borsook's hypothesis and Lilly's name was included among the authors, making it the first published research paper of his career, it was one of the first instances of a lifelong pattern of experimenting on his own body to the point of endangering his health. After two years at Dartmouth, Lilly decided that he wanted to pursue a career in medical research, rather than therapeutic practice as was standard for Dartmouth medical students at that time.
He decided to transfer to the medical school at the University of
An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, is thus a writer. More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created; the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. If more than one person created the work a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship; the United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as "a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship". Holding the title of "author" over any "literary, musical, certain other intellectual works" gives rights to this person, the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to engage in or authorize any production or distribution of their work.
Any person or entity wishing to use intellectual property held under copyright must receive permission from the copyright holder to use this work, will be asked to pay for the use of copyrighted material. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, where it can be used without limit. Copyright laws in many jurisdictions – following the lead of the United States, in which the entertainment and publishing industries have strong lobbying power – have been amended since their inception, to extend the length of this fixed period where the work is controlled by the copyright holder. However, copyright is the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time. An interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon one's death; the person who inherits the copyright enjoys the same legal benefits. Questions arise as to the application of copyright law.
How does it, for example, apply to the complex issue of fan fiction? If the media agency responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors and other considerations, come into play? Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books? What powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or stopping the fan fiction? This particular sort of case illustrates how complex intellectual property law can be, since such fiction may involved trademark law, likeness rights, fair use rights held by the public, many other interacting complications. Authors may portion out different rights they hold to different parties, at different times, for different purposes or uses, such as the right to adapt a plot into a film, but only with different character names, because the characters have been optioned by another company for a television series or a video game. An author may not have rights when working under contract that they would otherwise have, such as when creating a work for hire, or when writing material using intellectual property owned by others.
In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting. In the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea, he writes, in his essay "Death of the Author", that "it is language which speaks, not the author". The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, not someone possessing legal responsibility for the process of its production; every line of written text is a mere reflection of references from any of a multitude of traditions, or, as Barthes puts it, "the text is a tissue of quotations drawn from the innumerable centres of culture". With this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, the limits imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed; the explanation and meaning of a work does not have to be sought in the one who produced it, "as if it were always in the end, through the more or less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author'confiding' in us".
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a written work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak, rather than author. Michel Foucault argues in his essay "What is an author?" that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that "a private letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author". For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to attribute certain standards upon the text which, for Foucault, are working in conjunction with the idea of "the author function". Foucault's author function is the idea that an author exists only as a fun
A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perceptual anomalies, other substantial subjective changes in thoughts and consciousness. The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics and deliriants. Although hallucinations are a common symptom of amphetamine psychosis, amphetamines are not considered hallucinogens, as they are not a primary effect of the drugs themselves. While hallucinations can occur when abusing stimulants, the nature of stimulant psychosis is not unlike delirium. A debate persists on criteria which would differentiate a substance which is'psychedelic' from one'hallucinogenic'. Sir Thomas Browne in 1646 coined the term'hallucination' from the Latin word "alucinari" meaning "to wander in the mind"; the term'psychedelic' is derived from the Ancient Greek words psychē and dēloun, or "mind-revealing".'A hallucinogen' and'a psychedelic' may refer to the same substance.'Hallucinations' and'psychedelia' may both refer to the same aspects of subjective experience in a given instance.
The term psychedelia carries an added reference to psychedelic substance culture, and'psychedelics' are considered by many to be the'traditional' or'classical hallucinogens' including DMT, Psilocybin, LSD.'A hallucinogen' in this sense broadly refers to any substance which causes changes in perception or hallucinations, while psychedelics carry a positive connotation of general perceptual enhancement. In contrast to Hollister's original criteria, adverse effects may predominate with some hallucinogens with this application of the term; the word psychedelic was coined to express the idea of a drug that makes manifest a hidden but real aspect of the mind. It is applied to any drug with perception-altering effects such as LSD and other ergotamine derivatives, DMT and other tryptamines including the alkaloids of Psilocybe spp. mescaline and other phenethylamines. The term "psychedelic" is applied somewhat interchangeably with "psychotomimetic" and "hallucinogen", The classical hallucinogens are considered to be the representative psychedelics and LSD is considered the prototypical psychedelic.
In order to refer to the LSD-like psychedelics, scientific authors have used the term "classical hallucinogen" in the sense defined by Glennon: "The classical hallucinogens are agents that meet Hollister's original definition, but are agents that: bind at 5-HT2 serotonin receptors, are recognized by animals trained to discriminate 1--2-aminopropane from vehicle. Otherwise, when the term "psychedelic" is used to refer only to the LSD-like psychedelics, authors explicitly point that they intend "psychedelic" to be understood according to this more restrictive interpretation. One explanatory model for the experiences provoked by psychedelics is the "reducing valve" concept, first articulated in Aldous Huxley's book The Doors of Perception. In this view, the drugs disable the brain's "filtering" ability to selectively prevent certain perceptions, emotions and thoughts from reaching the conscious mind; this effect has been described as mind expanding, or consciousness expanding, for the drug "expands" the realm of experience available to conscious awareness.
While possessing a unique mechanism of action, cannabis or marijuana has been regarded alongside the classic psychedelics. A designer drug is a structural or functional analog of a controlled substance, designed to mimic the pharmacological effects of the original drug while at the same time avoid being classified as illegal and/or avoid detection in standard drug tests. Many designer drugs and research chemicals are hallucinogenic in nature, such as those in the 2C and 25-NB families. Dissociatives produce analgesia and catalepsy at anesthetic doses, they produce a sense of detachment from the surrounding environment, hence "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient seems disassociated from his environment." Dissociative symptoms include the disruption or compartmentalization of "...the integrated functions of consciousness, identity or perception."p. 523 Dissociation of sensory input can cause derealization, the perception of the outside world as being dream-like or unreal.
Other dissociative experiences include depersonalization, which includes feeling detached from one's body. Simeon offered "...common descriptions of depersonalisation experiences: watching oneself from a distance. However, dissociation is remarkably administered by salvinorin A's potent κ-opioid receptor agonism, though sometimes described as an atypical psychedelic; some dissociatives can have CNS depressant effects, thereby carrying similar risks as opioids, which can slow breathing or heart rate to levels resulting in death (w