D-10 tank gun
The D-10 is a Soviet 100 mm tank gun developed in late World War II. It equipped the SU-100 tank destroyers and was selected for the T-55 tank, equipping these as late as 1979. On the T-55 the D-10 continues to be in active service in many countries. At the beginning of 1944, the T-34 tank's F-34 76.2 mm tank gun was replaced by a more powerful 85 mm gun. This rendered the year-old SU-85 tank destroyer obsolescent, since its D-5T 85 mm gun was now fielded by a more flexible medium tank. F. F. Petrov's Design Bureau at Artillery Factory No. 9 was assigned the task of producing a 100 mm anti-tank gun that could be used on the SU-85 chassis, for the proposed SU-100. Petrov's team modified the S-34 naval gun for use in an armoured fighting vehicle; the D-10 is a high-velocity gun of 100 mm. Muzzle velocity of 895 m/s gave it good anti-tank performance by late-war standards, it could penetrate about 164 mm of steel armor plate at 1,000 m range, superior to the German 75 mm KwK 42 mounted on the Panther tank and the Tiger I's 88 mm KwK 36 gun.
Testing against Panther tanks at Kubinka showed the D-10T could penetrate the Panther's glacis up to 1500 m. This performance grew when more modern ammunition types were developed after the war. After the war a more effective high-explosive shell was developed, taking advantage of the larger 100 mm bore, it was designed to equip the SU-100 tank destroyer as the D-10S, was mounted on the post-war T-54 main battle tank as the D-10T. There was no significant difference in performance, it was tested on the T-34-100, T-44-100, KV-100, IS-2. In 1955 a stabilizer and bore evacuator were added to the new D-10TG version of the gun. In 1956, the subsequent D-10T2S version of the gun began production for T-54B and T-55 tanks, equipped with two-plane Tsyklon gun stabilization. Versions of the D-10 were installed on new tanks as late as 1979, thousands still remain in service in various countries. Returning to its naval roots, a version of the D-10 was installed as a coastal artillery piece in Finland in the 1960s.
This weapon is designated 100 56 TK in Finnish Navy service and consists of a complete T-55 tank turret without the stabilizer but furnished with a manually operated ammunition lift, a chute for used cases, gun laying apparatus allowing indirect fire directed by remote fire control. The maximum elevation of the barrel was increased and the turret was furnished with new aiming optics, in some cases including a thermographic camera for night use. BS-3 - field gun 52-P-412 ZIF-25 - Casemates gun 52-PC-412 D-10C - anti-tank gun 52-SS-412, designed for installation in ACS SU-100 and SU-101 D-10SU - anti-tank gun 52-PS-412U differs from the basic version of the presence of the balancing mechanism D-10T - tank gun 52-PT-412 is designed for installation in the tank T-54 D-10T2 - tank gun 52-PT-412-2 is equipped with a balancing mechanism, designed for installation in the tank T-54 D-10TG - tank gun 52-PT-412c, is equipped with an ejector odnoploskostnaya stabilizer arms, designed for installation in the tank T-54A D-10T2S - tank gun 52-PT-412D is equipped with an ejector and two-plane stabilizer arms, designed for installation in the tank T-54B and T-55 D-33 - tank gun 2A48 and 2A48-1, lightweight 600 kg, designed for installation in light/amphibious tanks object 685 and object 934 D-50 / D-10 - anti-tank gun, designed for installation in TEPS SU-100P M-63 - modification, designed for installation in TEPS SU-100M Type 59 - Chinese copy gun D-10T for installation in the tank Type 59 During World War II, UOF-412 round carried the 15.6 kg F-412 high-explosive fragmentation shell.
Anti-tank ammunition available from World War II until the late 1960s was based on the UBR-412 round, including the BR-412 armour-piercing high-explosive projectile, with the ballistic-capped BR-412B and BR-412D ammunition becoming available in the late 1940s. There was a D-412 smoke shell. In 1964, the NII-24 research bureau started design work on an improved 3UBM6 anti-tank round. In 1967 the 3BM6 hyper-velocity armour-piercing discarding-sabot round entered service: At a range of 2,000 m, it could penetrate 290 mm of flat armour, or 145 mm of armour angled at 60 degrees from the vertical, it was replaced by the 3BM8 HVAPDS projectile, with a tungsten carbide penetrator. High-explosive anti-tank rounds, which penetrate armour with the focused explosion of a shaped charge, included the 3UBK4 with 3BK5M warhead replaced by the 3UBK9 with 3BK17M warhead. In the 1980s, 3UBM11 antitank rounds were introduced, with 3BM25 armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot tungsten carbide penetrator, which increased its armor penetration.
In 1983, the T-55M and T-55AM tank upgrade program added the ability to some tanks to fire the 9K116-1 Bastion guided missile system, for long-range engagements of tanks and low-flying helicopters. The anti-tank missile is encased in the 3UBK10-1 shell, handled and fired like a conventional tank gun round. 1.5 seconds after firing, a laser guidance window in the tail of the round is uncovered, its rocket engine ignites to burn for up to six seconds, with a total missile flight time of up to 41 seconds. The missile is expensive, about half the price of a T-55M tank, but allows the venerable 100 mm gun to engage modern main battle tanks. Missile ammunition includes: 3UBK10-1, penetrating 600 mm at up to 4,000 m 3UBK10M-1 tandem warhead, penetrating 650 mm at up to 4,000 m 3UBK23-1 extended-range tandem wa
Formula Super Vee
Formula Super Vee was an open-wheel racing series that took place in Europe and the United States from 1970 to 1990. The formula was created as an extension of Formula Vee, a racing class, introduced in 1959. Formula Super Vee in Europe was similar to F3 or Formula Renault today, a stepping stone to F1. In the United States, Formula Super Vee referred to as Super Vee, was a natural progression to Indy Car and Can-Am. On both sides of the Atlantic the series was a platform for the promotion of VW products, similar to how Formula Renault promotes Renault products today, it was seen as a simple step up from Formula Vee, using the same type 3 air-cooled VW engines, but in 1600cc. However it soon transformed to using the different and more powerful fuel injected water-cooled engines from the VW Golf/Rabbit. To assist the launch of the new formula Volkswagen of America's, Jo Hopen, commissioned Gene Beach, an established constructor of Formula Vee cars, to design and build the first Super Vee and put this car on display at the Daytona 24 hour race.
Beach was one of the first three constructors of Formula Vees, along with Formcar. It is therefore appropriate that a Super Vee designed and built by Ray Caldwell’s Autodynamics concern soon joined the Beach Super Vee; this second Super Vee was put on display at the New York Auto Show. Other manufacturers soon followed suit, with Formula Vee constructors such as Zink Cars joined by more mainstream firms such as Lola. John Zeitler built his first cars around the same time as Beach and Caldwell; as a matter of fact, John Zeitler won the first Super Vee race at Lime Rock Park in 1970. This race was run with the Formula Ford class; the series allowed 1600cc air-cooled engines of either type 3 or type 4, however at a late stage VW had a change of heart and decided that the type 4 engines would be a better option. The type 4 engine is without doubt a better engine. However, this motor was never produced in a 1600cc version so VW decided to produce a "special" 1600cc version through their industrial engines division, with smaller pistons and barrels, which reduced the capacity to 1600cc.
As with any formula, Formula Super Vee progressed through a number of changes during its life. For example, the cars ran without wings and used drum brakes at the rear; the regulations allowed the use of 8-inch rear wheels, rear disc brakes and 34 mm exhaust valves and rear wings. Since slick tyres had yet to be introduced into racing, the cars ran with treaded racing tyres, such as the Firestone "No-DOT", but moved onto slicks; the original regulations specified cars ran with fixed ratio VW boxes. In Europe a company called Metso began building Hewland-like boxes which provided the ability to change ratios to suit each circuit and exploited the wording of the regulations, which had banned Hewland boxes rather than explicitly specifying the fixed ratio VW box. Once the cars started to use Metso boxes the regulations were changed and Hewland Gearboxes were allowed; this change, combined with start money being offered by Hewland to drivers using its products put Metso out of business, although the company did build boxes for other formula cars such as Formula Fords.
Much engine regulations were opened up, allowing fuel injected water-cooled engines from the Volkswagen Golf. The water-cooled engines replaced the air-cooled, which were rendered uncompetitive, many air-cooled cars were converted to accept the water-cooled engine; some constructors, such as Lola, offered "conversion kits" which allowed the fitment of the Golf/Rabbit engine to earlier air-cooled chassis. The SCCA in the USA did allow 1700cc air-cooled engines towards the end of the air-cooled period, to remain competitive while the water-cooled cars joined the grid; the most developed version of Super Vee was to be found in the USA, since they continued with a Super Vee series years after the formula had died away elsewhere. Indeed, by late 70s Super Vee in the USA had become the feeder formula for Indy cars, referred to as the "Mini-Indy" series; this series was run in conjunction with the much older VW-Bosch "Gold Cup" for Super V. This series lasted until 1990 and, unlike the oval track USAC Mini Indy Series, was a road racing series.
Each series crowned its own champion each year. In the late 70s the Ron Tauranac designed the Ralt RT1 and RT5, based on his Formula 3 designs, had a virtual monopoly in the USA series. Engine: Type 3 1600cc. Dry sump not allowed. Cooling: air, with external oil coolers and oil filters. Carburetion: free, however most used Weber 48 IDA or Solex 40P11 dual downdraft; some use of Weber IDF and DCNF.. Transmission: stock VW from the 1969 Square back/fastback series. However, gear ratios were open and immediately Webster and Hewland gear sets were adopted for the VW transaxle. Ignition: coil and distributor. Clutch: VW stock, with Hydraulic linkage. Brakes: Girling hydraulic with VW discs front, VW Drums in the rear. Wheels: 6" X 13" rear. Magnesium allowed. Tires: 5:00/8:30 X 13 front, Treaded 5:50/9/20 X 13 rear, Treaded Steering: Rack and Pinion Suspension: free and rear Shocks: free and rear Sway bars: free and rear Rear uprights: free Curb Weight: Dry, without driver, 825 lbs minimum. Wheelbase: free (mo
HMS E2 was a British E class submarine built by Chatham Dockyard. E2 was laid down on 14 February 1911 and launched on 23 November 1912, she was sold 7 March 1921 to Malta. The early British E-class submarines, from E1 to E8, had a displacement of 652 tonnes at the surface and 795 tonnes while submerged, they had a length overall of 180 feet and a beam of 22 feet 8.5 inches, were powered by two 800 horsepower Vickers eight-cylinder two-stroke diesel engines and two 420 horsepower electric motors. The class had a maximum surface speed of 16 knots and a submerged speed of 10 knots, with a fuel capacity of 50 tonnes of diesel affording a range of 3,225 miles when travelling at 10 knots, while submerged they had a range of 85 miles at 5 knots; the early'Group 1' E class boats were armed with four 18 inch torpedo tubes, one in the bow, one either side amidships, one in the stern. Group 1 boats were not fitted with a deck gun during construction, but those involved in the Dardanelles campaign had guns mounted forward of the conning tower while at Malta Dockyard.
E-Class submarines had wireless systems with 1 kilowatt power ratings. Their maximum design depth was 100 feet; some submarines contained Fessenden oscillator systems. Her complement was 28 men. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475
The Albatros D. X was a German prototype single-seat fighter biplane developed in 1918 in parallel with the Albatros D. IX; the D. X used the same slab-sided and flat-bottomed fuselage as the D. IX, a departure from previous Albatros designs, but was powered by a 145 kW Benz Bz. IIIbo water-cooled V8 engine in place of the D. IX's Mercedes D. IIIa straight-six; the D. X participated in the second D-type contest at Adlershof in June 1918, but development ceased at the prototype stage. Data from German Aircraft of the First World WarGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 6.18 m Wingspan: 9.84 m Height: 2.75 m Empty weight: 666 kg Gross weight: 905 kg Powerplant: 1 × Benz Bz. IIIbo V-8 water-cooled piston engine, 145 kW Performance Maximum speed: 170 km/h Endurance: 1 hour 30 minutes Rate of climb: 3.79 m/s Time to altitude: 5,000 m in 22 minutesArmament Guns: 2x 7.92 mm LMG 08/15 machine guns Related development Albatros D. IX Albatros Dr. II Notes Bibliography
Dice notation is a system to represent different combinations of dice in role-playing games using simple algebra-like notation such as 2d6+12. In most role-playing games, die rolls required by the system are given in the form AdX. A and X are variables, separated by the letter "d", which stands for dice; the letter "d" is most lower-case, but some notation uses upper-case "D". A is the number of dice to be rolled. X is the number of faces of each die. If the final number is omitted, it is assumed to be a six, but in some contexts, other defaults are used. For example, if a game would call for a roll of d4 or 1d4 this would mean, "roll one 4-sided die." 3d6 would mean, "roll three six-sided dice." These dice are added together, but some systems could direct the player use them in some other way, such as choosing the best die rolled. To this basic notation, an additive modifier can be appended, yielding expressions of the form, AdX+B; the plus is sometimes replaced by a minus sign to indicate subtraction.
B is a number to be added to the sum of the rolls. So, 1d20−10 would indicate a roll of a single 20-sided die with 10 being subtracted from the result; these expressions can be chained, though this usage is less common. Additionally, notation such as AdX−L is not uncommon, the "L" being used to represent "the lowest result". For instance, 4d6 − L means a roll of 4 six-sided dice; this application skews the probability curve towards the higher numbers, as a result a roll of 3 can only occur when all four dice come up 1, while a roll of 18 results if any three dice are 6. Rolling three or more dice gives a probability distribution, Gaussian, in accordance with the central limit theorem. In some games, the above notation is expanded to allow for a multiplier, as in AdX×C or C×dX, where: "×" denotes multiplication, can be replaced by "/" or "÷" for division. C is a natural number. For example, 1d6×5 or 5×d6 means "roll one 6-sided die, multiply the result by 5." 3d6×10+3 means "roll three 6-sided dice, add them together, multiply the result by 10, add 3."Multiplication can mean repeating throws of similar setup: 3x means "roll two 6-sided dice adding four to result, repeat the roll 3 times adding the results together."
The variable X in the above notation will be 100, alternatively written "%". Although 100-sided dice exist, it is more common to use a combination of two ten-sided dice known as "percentile dice". One die represents the other tens. Ten-sided dice intended for use as percentile dice have no tens notation. A roll of 0 on both dice may be interpreted depending on the game rules; the d1000 is also seen, although it is more common in wargames than role-playing games. A number of notational strategies exist for discarding only certain types of results; some games extend the standard notation to AdX+B where, in addition to the above, Y is the number of dice kept from the roll. Whether the dice omitted are the highest, lowest, or the player's choice depends on the game in question. 7th Sea and Legend of the Five Rings use only 10-sided dice, with notation of the form 8k6, meaning "Roll eight ten-sided dice, keep the highest six, sum them." Although using a Roll and keep system, Cortex Plus games all use roll all the dice of different sizes and keep two although a Plot Point may be spent to keep an additional dice, some abilities let you keep a third automatically.
An alternative notation used by the OpenRoleplaying.org die roller allows the use of a plus or minus followed by "L" or "H" instead of the modifier B, to denote dropping or re-adding the lowest or highest roll on a single die, as in 4d6−L, which means roll 4 times a 6-sided dice and drop the lowest value,respectively. A number of games including the original Ghostbusters role-playing game, the Storyteller system, Fantasy Flight Games' Star Wars Roleplaying Games use a system where a dice pool consisting of an indicated number of dice are rolled and the total number of dice which meet a fixed condition are recorded as the result. For example, Vampire: the Requiem has players roll a pool of ten sided dice and note the number that come up as 8 or higher as "successes"; some companies produce custom dice, marked with successes and failures, for use in games which use this mechanic. The Fudge role-playing system uses a set of dice which are each marked with minus signs, plus signs and blank sides, meaning −1, +1 and 0 respectively.
The default is one third of each represented by a six-sided die with two of each, known as dF.2 or just dF. Four of these are rolled to determine results from −4 to +4, equivalent to 4d3−8. Variants include dF.1, a six-sided die with four blanks, one plus and one minus. Various Games Workshop systems such as Necromunda and Mordheim use an anomalously-named D66 roll, meaning d6×10+d6. There are 36 possible results ranging from 11 to 66; the D66 is a base-six variant of the base. The D66 is a co
The Dunne D.8 of 1912 was a tailless swept wing biplane, designed by J. W. Dunne to have inherent stability. One example was supplied to RAE Farnborough. License-built Burgess-Dunne models were used by the US Signal Corps and United States Navy and the short-lived Canadian Aviation Corps, it was the latter's only warplane. J. W. Dunne's first swept biplane wing aircraft, designed to have automatic stability, dated from his employment at the Army Balloon Factory during 1906–09. After leaving Farnborough, Dunne set up the Blair Atholl Aeroplane Syndicate Ltd.. Its first aircraft was the Dunne D.5. When this crashed in 1911 it was rebuilt as the D.8. The two models shared similar wings and the same engine, but the D.8 had a single pusher propeller instead of the chain-driven pair of the D.5. Their fuselages and undercarriages were different; the D.8 was a tailless four bay unstaggered biplane with its wings swept at 32°. Its constant chord wings were built up around two spruce spars, the forward one forming the leading edge.
To help achieve stability the incidence and interplane gap decreased outboard, the former becoming negative. This washout on tips well behind the centre of gravity provided longitudinal stability in the same way as a conventional tailplane, set at lower incidence than the wings. Camber increased outwards. Simple, near parallel, pairs of interplane struts joined the spars; the outer interplane struts were enclosed with fabric, forming fixed side curtains that provided directional stability. Wing tip elevons were used for control, operated by a pair of levers, one either side of the pilot; the D.8 used just a pair of these, mounted on the upper wing, a rectangular cutout in the side curtains allowing for their movement as on the D.5. Large parts of the aircraft were built by Short Brothers; the D.8's water-cooled 4-cylinder, 60 hp Green engine directly drove a single pusher propeller, saving weight compared with the D.5's chain drive. As a consequence of the propeller position the fuselage was shortened at the rear.
This first D.8 seems to have been a single-seater like its D.5 predecessor, the pilot sitting at mid chord. The undercarriage was complex, it featured an elaborate anti-noseover skid. The Green engine was replaced by an 80 hp 7-cylinder Gnome rotary engine; this engine powered the second aircraft, a two-seater with the pilot placed just ahead of the wing leading edge and the passenger at the trailing edge. There were now control surfaces on both upper and lower wings, the side curtains having a pair of tapered notches to allow them to move; each of the upper wings carried a pair of elevons. The D.8 first flew in June 1912 at Eastchurch, fitted with a Green engine. It was present at the Larkhill Military trial in August 1912, though it did not take part in the competition. Despite the two handed arrangement of the D.8's controls, the one-handed Capt. A. D. Carden gained his Royal Aero Club Aviator's Certificate on it in June 1912. In 1913 the D.8 was fitted with an 80 hp Gnome engine which improved performance and reliability.
1913. In August 1913 Commandant Felix piloted a D.8 across the English Channel from Eastchurch to Villacoublay, Paris. Nieuport had obtained a licence to build the D.8 and Felix gave demonstration flights in France on their behalf. A Nieuport-built Dunne appeared at the Paris Aero Salon in December 1913. Like the second D.8 it was a Gnome powered two-seater, but with significant differences both aerodynamically and structurally. It combined the double upper wing elevons into a single surface and had rounded rear wingtips; the fuselage was modified and built around steel tubes rather than wood. The interplane struts were streamlined steel tubes, it had a strikingly simplified undercarriage. Dunne had obtained a War Office order for two D.8s, though one was cancelled because of late delivery. The other was delivered to Farnborough on 3 March 1914, where it was given the RFC number 366, it made several flights on 11 March piloted by N. S. Percival, who had flown the first D.8 many times at Eastchurch and was now an RFC officer.
The general judgement was that in the search for balance between stability and controllability, the Dunne design overemphasised the former. Nieuport-Dunne A modified D.8 built under license by the French Nieuport company and exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1913. Burgess-Dunne The Burgess Company and Curtiss, based in Marblehead, Mass, USA gained the US manufacturing rights and built a series of aircraft based on the D.8. They became known as Burgess-Dunne machines and were single-float planes; the first flew in March 1914, piloted by Clifford Webster. Apart from wingtip floats the wings were identical to those of the D8, but the fuselage was revised with a distinct nacelle containing a more enclosed cockpit; the aircraft was a single-seater, with the heavier 100 hp Curtiss OXX2 water-cooled engine moved forwards, shortening the fuselage and with its radiator placed between engine and pilot. The single float was 17 ft 8 in long and flat bottomed viewed from in front, with a single step; the prototype behaved well on the water.
The second machine was similar to the first, but room was made for a second seat by replacing the single fuselage mounted radiator with a pair fixed to the rear float struts. The second machine was bought by the Canadian government for the Canadian Aviation Corps and was their first military aircraft, it was shipped to Europe on the SS Athenia for service in World War I, but was damaged in transit
Fokker D. X was a Dutch fighter aircraft designed after World War I; the chief designer at Fokker, Reinhold Platz, designed the Fokker D. VIII fighter in 1918, it was a parasol monoplane with cantilever wings, an uncommon feature of the time. Its rotary engine could only develop 82 kW. 60 aircraft were manufactured in Germany. After the war, Anthony Fokker moved his factory to the Netherlands; the D. X was an enlarged development of the D. VIII, which saw limited success. Ten aircraft were sold to Spain and one to Finland, where it was in use 1923-24. Spain Spanish Air Force Finland Finnish Air Force Data from Thulinista HornetiinGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 8 m Wingspan: 14 m Height: 2.95 m Wing area: m² Empty weight: kg Useful load: kg Loaded weight: kg Max. Takeoff weight: 1,250 kg Powerplant: 1 × Hispano-Suiza 8Fb liquid-cooled V8 engine, 223 kW Performance Maximum speed: 225 km/h Armament 2 × 7.92 mm LMG 08/15 "Spandau" machine guns Related development Fokker D. VIII Related lists List of fighter aircraft Timo Heinonen.
Thulinista Hornetiin - 75 vuotta Suomen ilmavoimien lentokoneita. Tikkakoski: Keski-Suomen ilmailumuseo. ISBN 951-95688-2-4