Croatia the Republic of Croatia, is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east and Herzegovina, Montenegro to the southeast, sharing a maritime border with Italy, its capital, forms one of the country's primary subdivisions, along with twenty counties. Croatia has an area of 56,594 square kilometres and a population of 4.28 million, most of whom are Roman Catholics. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the Croats arrived in the area in the 6th century and organised the territory into two duchies by the 9th century. Croatia was first internationally recognized as an independent state on 7 June 879 during the reign of duke Branimir. Tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom, which retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries. During the succession crisis after the Trpimirović dynasty ended, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102.
In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of Austria to the Croatian throne. In October 1918, in the final days of World War I, the State of Slovenes and Serbs, independent from Austria-Hungary, was proclaimed in Zagreb, in December 1918 it was merged into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Following the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, most of the Croatian territory was incorporated into the Nazi-backed client-state which led to the development of a resistance movement and the creation of the Federal State of Croatia which after the war become a founding member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991, Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year; the Croatian War of Independence was fought for four years following the declaration. The sovereign state of Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system and a developed country with a high standard of living.
It is a member of the European Union, the United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. As an active participant in the UN peacekeeping forces, Croatia has contributed troops to the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan and took a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008–2009 term. Since 2000, the Croatian government has invested in infrastructure transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Croatia's economy is dominated by service and industrial sectors and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue, with Croatia ranked among the top 20 most popular tourist destinations in the world; the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatia's most important trading partner. Croatia provides a social security, universal health care system, a tuition-free primary and secondary education, while supporting culture through numerous public institutions and corporate investments in media and publishing.
The name of Croatia derives from Medieval Latin Croātia. Itself a derivation of North-West Slavic *Xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic period *Xorvat, from proposed Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ which comes from Old Persian *xaraxwat-; the word is attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia. The origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe; the oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, attested in the Baška tablet in style zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ. The first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852; the original is lost, just a 1568 copy is preserved, leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim. The oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription found near Benkovac, where Duke Branimir is styled Dux Cruatorvm; the inscription is not believed to be dated but is to be from during the period of 879–892, during Branimir's rule.
The area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northern Croatia, with the most famous and the best presented site in Krapina. Remnants of several Neolithic and Chalcolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country; the largest proportion of the sites is in the river valleys of northern Croatia, the most significant cultures whose presence was discovered include Baden, Starčevo, Vučedol cultures. The Iron Age left traces of the Celtic La Tène culture. Much the region was settled by Illyrians and Liburnians, while the first Greek colonies were established on the islands of Hvar, Korčula, Vis. In 9 AD the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire. Emperor Diocletian had a large palace built in Split to which he retired after his abdication in AD 305. During the 5th century, the last de jure Western emperor last Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small realm from the palace after fleeing Italy to go into exile in 475.
The period ends with Avar and Croat invasions in the first half of the 7th century and destruction of all Roman towns. Roman survivors retreated to more favourable sites on the coast and mountains; the city of Dubrovnik was founded by such survivors from Epidaurum. The ethnogenesis of Croats is uncertain an
Soline is a small Croatian village on the island of Dugi otok. It is divided in two parts: Japar, located on Solišćica Luka Bay; the village was named after the old salt pans. Soline was first mentioned in documents from 1114 C. E. making it one of the oldest settlements on Dugi otok. In 1527 the records showed that Soline, along with neighboring towns Bozava and Veli, had a total of 225 residents. Since the population has fluctuated as follows: The population listed in 2011 was 39 with a total of 26 households; the village has 46 permanent apartments. Population trends 1857-2011 Chief occupations include farming, grape cultivation for wine making, olive growing, fruit growing, fishing. In recent years and hospitality services have developed on the regional road running along Dugi Island from the village of Sali on the south end to Božava and Veli Rat on the north end; the Church of St. Jacob the apostle was first mentioned in the 15th century. In 1517, the church was covered with stone slabs. During the same year, Glagolitic letters were carved into the lintel of the portal.
The inscription was destroyed by a lightning strike in 1879. The parish church houses a valuable Gothic chalice on which a Latin inscription is engraved testifying that he built the Church of SS. Gregory of Vrana "pro anima Drage filiale Matei Bonmig – for Drage, the daughter of Mate." A graveyard is located near the church parish. Glagolitic madrikula St. Jacob is the way in which the priests of Soline track the Brotherhood of St. Jacob and the rules of the confraternity carried out in practice; the whole madrikula is written in Croatian, cursive Glagolitic, a little Latin. In this madrikuli there is the data for two schools whose records did not survive. On the facade of the parish church Jacob rises an antique white tower. In 1923, two bells were placed on it. On the larger bell the inscriptions read: "Lady of the Rosary, St. Fabian and Sebastian, pray for us!" Acquired Parish Solinksa pastorate Don Srećko Pavic. The other bell bears the inscription: "Solin – St. Jacob. Jacob Bell Foundry Cukrov – Split – 1923 Lightning and thunder, deliver us, O Lord!"
Solišćica beach is a popular swimming spot. Another popular location, Sakarun beach is a 400-meter stretch of white sand located south of the village on the inside of Sakarun Cove. A bar and a bakery are located on the beach; the main road on Dugi took links Soline with other towns on the island and the ferry port in Bribinj. Year-round shipping links the seasonal connections to Ancona, Italy. Ferry connections to Jadrolinija with a capacity of 70 cars are available. A direct connection between Zader on the mainland and neighboring Bozava on Dugi took. A bus line connects the towns on Dugi Island with the main ferry port; the only gas station on Dugi took. It is used by boaters because of the Mali Losinj Murter. "Soline | Zadarske nadbiskupije". Zupe.zadarskanadbiskupija.hr. Retrieved 2014-07-08. "Island Dugi Otok Beaches". CroBeaches.com. Retrieved 2014-07-08
D3 road (Croatia)
D3 is a state road in western parts of Croatia connecting Rijeka on the Adriatic coast to Zagreb and Varaždin, as well as to Goričan border crossing to Hungary. Furthermore, the D3 road is used as a parallel road to a number of motorways in Croatia, namely the A4 motorway north of Zagreb, the A1 motorway between Zagreb and Bosiljevo 2 interchange south of Karlovac and the A6 motorway between Bosiljevo 2 interchange and Rijeka and it connects to nearly all motorway interchanges on that route either directly or via connecting roads; the road is 218.4 km long. The D3 state road is concurrent in parts of its route with other state roads, most notably the D1 between Zagreb and Karlovac, as well as some sections of the A4 and the A3 motorways; the A3 and A4 motorway sections that are concurrent with the D3 state road are a part of Zagreb bypass and are not tolled. The road, as well as all other state roads in Croatia, is managed and maintained by Hrvatske ceste, a state-owned company. Traffic is counted and reported by Hrvatske ceste, operator of the road
Highways in Croatia
Highways in Croatia are the main transport network in Croatia. The Croatian classification includes several classes of highways: The main motorways are named A accompanied by one or two digits. By and large they are toll highways with a ticket system. Expressways are limited-access roads with grade-separated intersections and by and large an increased speed limit without tolling, they are similar to motorways, but aren't always dual carriageway, they have no emergency lanes, their speed limit is always lower. They either are parts of major state routes, see below. Roads dedicated for motor vehicles, a category for highways which are limited-access roads similar to multiple-lane motorways/expressways, but which may have slow intersections, it has no specific naming convention, only a dedicated traffic sign, it includes major state routes or portions thereof, see below. An example is the Jadranska Avenue in Zagreb, designated as Ž1040 county road. Other than these, the national road classification includes the following categories which may be referred to as highways in a general sense, with decreasing order of priority: State roads, which are marked by letter D and a single, double or triple digit number.
County roads always are marked by a four digit number. The lowest classification comprises local roads, marked by letter L and a five digit number. Road operators differ according to the classification system: The designated motorways are operated by four different concessionaires; the state roads are maintained exclusively by Hrvatske ceste, while the county and local roads are managed by various county authorities. The road maintenance agencies are governed by various laws issued by the Parliament as well as bylaws issued by the Ministry of Transport; the primary high-speed motorways are called autoceste, they are defined as roads with at least three lanes in each direction and a speed limit of not less than 80 kilometres per hour. They are marked with a special road sign, similar to the road sign depicting a motorway/autoroute/autobahn in other parts of Europe. In Croatia this sign has green background; the national speed limit on an autocesta, effective in case no other speed limits are present, is 130 kilometres per hour, with a legal tolerance of 10% on speeds over 100 km/h.
The Croatian motorway network is 1,313.8 kilometres long. Motorways in Croatia are defined by the Ministry of Sea and Infrastructure; the same applies to names of the motorway interchanges and rest areas. The same legislation defines the origin of motorway chainages - at the northern or the western terminus of the motorway - and the motorway markings themselves; the markings are defined as consisting of letter "A" and the motorway number assigned by the legislation, except if a specific motorway is executed in construction stages and considered an expressway, in which case the applicable motorway number is preceded by letter "B" instead. The motorways in Croatia are developed and maintained by the state-owned company Hrvatske autoceste. There are several exceptions to this, namely Zagreb - Bosiljevo 2 section of the A1 motorway, the A6 and the A7 motorways which are managed by Autocesta Rijeka - Zagreb, the A2 motorway, managed by Autocesta Zagreb - Macelj and the A8 and the A9 motorways which are managed by BINA Istra.
A major reason for the motorway construction "mania" of the 2000s is a previous political halt of the major Croatian highway project, today's A1, in the 1970s and 1980s under former Yugoslavia. When Croatia declared independence in 1991, the only true motorways in the country were Zagreb–Karlovac and Zagreb-Slavonski Brod, the latter being part of the highway "Bratstvo i jedinstvo"; the dream to connect the two largest Croatian cities Zagreb and Split with a motorway went back to the times of the Croatian Spring. However, the construction of this project had not happened during Yugoslav period. In 2005, the Zagreb-Split route was constructed. In addition, the A1 was extended towards Dubrovnik, the A3 was extended so it connects Zagreb to Croatian borders with both Serbia and Slovenia. There is a motorway from Zagreb to Rijeka, the A6, as well as the A4 motorway from Zagreb to the northeast as well as the A2 motorway from Zagreb to the northwest; the A9 between Pula and the Slovenian border is largely completed.
The construction of additional motorways has noticeably slowed in the 2010s. As of 2014, the A8–Kanfanar-Rijeka, the remaining part of the Istrian Y–is being upgraded from semi-highway status; the other motorways are in various early stages of development, coming up to a total of 11 motorway routes. The A1 is considered unfinished as it is planned to be extended from Ploče to Dubrovnik, but the status is unclear because of the Neum enclave of Bosnia and Herzegovina; the initial A1 setup was made under the first HDZ government. As development has accelerated, so did environmental concerns, concerns relating to the use and abuse of eminent domain by institutions involved
D1 road (Croatia)
The state road D1 is a national highway in Croatia. It is a one-lane highway that spans from Macelj border crossing in the north via Krapina, Karlovac, Gračac, Sinj, ending in Split, it is 421.2 kilometres long overall. Before the A1 and A2 dual carriage motorways have been completed, the D1 was the busiest road during the summer in Croatia as it connected the northern border as well as the city of Zagreb with the tourist resorts at the Adriatic Sea. Since the traffic has waned but the D1 remains relevant as an alternative to the tolled highways. North of Zagreb the D1 is parallel to the A2 motorway up to the Krapina interchange, connecting to a number of the A2 interchanges directly or via connector roads, it runs parallel with railway tracks in some sections running through hilly terrain. A part of the D1 state road is concurrent with other routes: the A2 motorway between Zaprešić and Jankomir interchanges, the A3 motorway between Jankomir and Lučko interchanges, the D3 state road between the A3 motorway Lučko interchange and Karlovac, the D6 state road in Karlovac, the D33 state road in Knin and the D219 state road in Sinj.
Parts of the D1 have been upgraded to expressway status. Two sections of the D1 are considered as such, since they comprise dual carriageways or are expanded to four traffic lanes: an urban expressway in Karlovac, between the A1 motorway Karlovac interchange and Mostanje an expressway in and near Split, between the A1 motorway Dugopolje interchange and Bilice roundabout in Split itselfThe northern part of the D1 in Karlovac is a lower road category because there are several intersections with traffic lights which slow the traffic down. Parts of the road in Lika have climbing lanes; the road, as well as all other state roads in Croatia, is managed and maintained by Hrvatske ceste, a state-owned company. Traffic is counted and reported by Hrvatske ceste, operator of the road; the D1 AADT and ASDT figure variations observed south of Karlovac are attributed to tourist traffic to various regions of Adriatic Sea coast in Dalmatia region of Croatia. A1 motorway A2 motorway A3 motorway Media related to Državna cesta 1 at Wikimedia Commons
Dugi Otok is the seventh largest island in the Adriatic Sea, part of Croatia. It is located off the Dalmatian coast, west of Zadar, it is the largest and westernmost of the Zadarian Islands, derives its name from its distinctive shape: it is 44.5 km long by 4.8 km wide, with an area of 114 square kilometres ). Its elevation reaches 300 m; the western coast is tall and rugged, many of the towns are clustered on the eastern side, including Sali, the largest, Božava, Soline, Luka, Verona, Veli Rat, Žman. A nature park, Telašćica, covers the southern part of the island and is adjacent to Kornati Islands National Park; the island has been inhabited since prehistoric times, as evidenced by many archeological sites that have still not been investigated. The earliest findings date back to Paleolithic, numerous hillforts and grave sites are evidence of continuous settlement throughout Eneolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age; the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII in the 10th century mentioned it under the name of Pizuh, it was called Insula Tilagus in documents, its Latin name was Insula maior.
In the 15th century it was registered as Veli otok. The old and main settlement on the island was located in the southern area, it has only been inhabited since the Turkish invasions. Until the island belonged to Zadar monasteries and citizens. Nowadays there is a total of 10 settlements on the island, they are all on the north-eastern side of the island concerned with fishing, although salt was once produced here; the village of Veli Rat is home to the Veli Rat lighthouse, another spectacular sight. The beautiful island of Dugi Otok, with a Mediterranean climate and ancient Croatian culture, receives few visitors. Olive oil, figs and wine accompany the seafood in the natives' diet. A definite step back in the island boasts an ancient church and some Roman ruins, it is in close proximity to Kornati. More than 1500 hectares are covered with vineyards and arable land, about 752 hectares are pasture land and about 300 hectares undergrowth which in some places is used as a forest land; the vegetation is more pronounced in the central areas of the island.
The south-eastern part belong to the Kornati. Šibenik Čuka, Anica. "Utjecaj litoralizacije na demogeografski razvoj Dugog otoka". Geoadria. 11: 63–92. Retrieved 28 December 2015. Džaja, Katarina. "Geomorfološke značajke Dugog otoka". Geoadria. 8: 5–44. Retrieved 31 October 2016. Media related to Dugi otok at Wikimedia Commons
Zadar is the oldest continuously-inhabited Croatian city. It is situated at the northwestern part of Ravni Kotari region. Zadar serves of the wider northern Dalmatian region; the city proper covers 25 km2 with a population of 75,082 in 2011, making it the second-largest city of the region of Dalmatia and the fifth-largest city in the country. The area of present-day Zadar traces its earliest evidence of human life from the late Stone Age, while numerous settlements date as early as the Neolithic. Before the Illyrians, an ancient Mediterranean people of a pre-Indo-European culture inhabited the area. Zadar traces its origin to its 9th-century BC founding as a settlement of the Illyrian tribe of Liburnians known as Iader. In 59 BC it was renamed Iadera. In 48 BC it became a Roman colonia. During Roman rule Zadar acquired the characteristics of a traditional Ancient Roman city with a regular road network, a public square, an elevated capitolium with a temple. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and the destruction of Salona by the Avars and Croats in 614, Zadar became the capital of the Byzantine theme of Dalmatia.
In the beginning of the 9th century, Zadar came under Frankish rule, but the Pax Nicephori returned it to the Byzantines in 812. The first Croatian rulers gained brief control over the city in 10th century. In 998 Zadar swore allegiance to Doge Pietro Orseolo II and became a vassal of the Republic of Venice. In 1186 it placed itself under the protection of King of Hungary. In 1202 the Venetians, with the help of Crusaders and sacked Zadar. Hungary regained control over the city in 1358. In 1409 king Ladislaus I sold Zadar to the Venetians; when the Turks conquered the Zadar hinterland at the beginning of the 16th century, the town became an important stronghold, ensuring Venetian trade in the Adriatic, the administrative center of the Venetian territories in Dalmatia and a cultural center. This fostered an environment in which arts and literature could flourish, between the 15th and 17th centuries Zadar came under the influence of the Renaissance, giving rise to many important Italian Renaissance figures like Giorgio da Sebenico, Giorgio Ventura, Andrea Meldolla and Giovanni Francesco Fortunio, who wrote the first Italian grammar book, many famous Croatian writers, such as Petar Zoranić, Brne Krnarutić, Juraj Baraković and Šime Budinić, who wrote in the Croatian language.
After the fall of Venice in 1797 Zadar came under the Austrian rule until 1918, except for the period of short-term French rule, still remaining the capital of Dalmatia. During French rule the first newspaper in the Croatian language, Il Regio Dalmata – Kraglski Dalmatin, was published in Zadar. During the 19th century Zadar functioned as a center of the Croatian movement for cultural and national revival in a context of increasing polarization and politicization of ethnic identities between Croats and Dalmatian Italians. With the 1920 Treaty of Rapallo Zadar was given to the Kingdom of Italy. During World War II, it was witnessed the evacuation of ethnic Italians. Partisans captured the city on 1 November 1944. Today, Zadar is a historical center of Dalmatia, Zadar County's principal political, commercial, industrial and transportation centre. Zadar is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zadar; because of its rich heritage, Zadar is today one of the most popular Croatian tourist destinations, named "entertainment center of the Adriatic" by The Times and "Croatia's new capital of cool" by The Guardian.
In 2016 the Belgian portal Europe's Best Destinations.com named Zadar the "Best European Destination" after a three-week period of online voting involving more than 288,000 votes. UNESCO's World Heritage Site list included the fortified city of Zadar as part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar in 2017; the name of the city of Zadar emerged as Iadera and Iader in ancient times, but the origin of the name is older. It was most related to a hydrographical term, coined by an ancient Mediterranean people and their Pre-Indo-European language, they transmitted it to settlers, the Liburnians. The name of the Liburnian settlement was first mentioned by a Greek inscription from Pharos on the island of Hvar in 384 BC, where the citizens of Zadar were noted as Ίαδασινοί. According to the Greek source Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax the city was Ίδασσα a Greek transcription of the original Liburnian expression. During Antiquity the name was recorded in sources in Latin in two forms: Iader in the inscriptions and in the writings of classic writers, Iadera predominantly among the late Antiquity writers, while usual ethnonyms were Iadestines and Iadertines.
The accent was on the first syllable in both Iader and Iadera forms, which influenced the early-Medieval Dalmatian language forms Jadra and Jadertina, where the accent kept its original place. In the Dalmatian language, Jadra was pronounced Zadra, due to the phonetic transformation of Ja- to Za-; that change was reflected in the Croatian name Zadar, developed from masculine Zadъrъ. An ethnonym graphic Jaderani from the legend of Saint Chrysogonus in the 9th century, was identical to the initial old-Slavic form Zadъrane, or Renaissa