The Caterpillar D7 is a medium bulldozer manufactured by Caterpillar Inc.. The first D7 appeared in 1938; the D7C came next in 1955. The D7D came in 1959; the 160 hp D7E in 1961. The 180 hp D7F 1969; the 200 hp D7G in 1974. The 215 hp D7H in 1986; the D7H was the first D7 to come with the exclusive elevated drive sprocket undercarriage. The D7R replaced the D7H in 1996, followed by the D7R Series 2; the electric drive D7E entered service in early 2009. In March 2008, at Conexpo 2008 held every 3 years in Las Vegas, Caterpillar introduced the D7E; this 235 hp D7E comes with an electric drive system powered by a 537cid C9.3 diesel engine. The C9.3 powers a generator that turns out electricity that supplies power to a pair of AC drive motors. Compared to the Caterpillar D7R Series II, the D7E was projected to deliver 25 percent more material moved per gallon of fuel, 10 percent greater productivity and 10 percent lower lifetime operating costs; the D7R Series II at 240 hp power and an operating weight of around 20 tons, is in the middle of Caterpillar's track-type tractors, which range in size from the D3 57 kW, 7 t, to the D11 698 kW, 112 t.
It is used to move material short distances or through challenging terrain. The vehicle is small and light; this makes it ideal for working on steep slopes, in forests, for backfilling pipelines safely without risking damage to the pipe. An agricultural version without the blade and rippers is used by farmers. Specially modified D7E's fitted with Rome plows were used to clear forest in the Vietnam war; the US Army unarmored D7G and D7H for earthworks. The armor was developed by the Israel Military Industries; the US Army developed a remote controlled version of the D7G for mine-clearing applications. The United States Marine Corps has replaced its fleet of D7Gs with John Deere's 850J MCT in 2009 The Egyptian Army operates an unknown number of armored D7R II; the dozer blade on front of the tractor comes in 4 varieties: Straight, short and has no lateral curve, no side wings, can be used for fine grading. Angle: A type of blade only 4' in height, that attaches to the dozers C-frame; the C-frame has 3 holes on each side where the blade will be manually pinned into, thus the angle blade has 3 set positions: right angle, left angle, centered.
Most found in pipeline construction, due to the fact that an experienced operator can move and grade large quantities of material in a short amount of time. Universal, tall and curved, has large side wings to carry more material. "S-U" combination blade, shorter, has less curvature, smaller side wings. Various other blade types are used including landfill U-Blades, woodchip U-blades, two-way blades for work inside the holds of ships. A Caterpillar D7G makes an appearance in Maximum Overdrive which shows up along with an M274 Mule and drives through the diner. A WW-II era Caterpillar D7 is the main antagonist in the novelette Killdozer! by Theodore Sturgeon. In the movie the dozer has changed to a D9 instead. G-numbers army tractors Rome plow Caterpillar D8 Caterpillar D6 List of Caterpillar Inc. machines Article on the Hybrid Dozer - D7E Field Evaluation Caterpillar D7E Track-Type Tractor - Official Caterpillar website Caterpillar D-Series Track-Type Tractors - Official Caterpillar website olive-drab.com: Caterpillar D7 Bulldozer replaced in 2009
D7 motorway (Czech Republic)
D7 motorway Expressway R7 is a highway northwest from Prague to Chomutov and the German border. As of 2018, 45.6 km of the highway are in operation
D7 road (Croatia)
D7 is a state road connecting Beli Manastir, Osijek, Čepin and Đakovo to Slavonski Šamac border crossing to Bosnia and Herzegovina and to Duboševica border crossing to Hungary. The road is 115.2 km long. The D7 state road runs parallel to the A5 motorway along its entire length, connecting to all A5 interchanges directly or indirectly, thus serving as an alternate and backup road to the motorway. Since the A5 motorway is not completed to the national borders, the D7 road serves as connecting road for A5 traffic to the border crossings to Hungary and Bosnia and Herzegovina; the road, as well as all other state roads in Croatia, is maintained by Hrvatske ceste. Traffic is counted and reported by Hrvatske ceste, operator of the road
Bavarian D VII
The locomotives of the Bavarian Class D VII were saturated steam locomotives of the Royal Bavarian State Railways. The D VII was built, as a six-coupled locomotive for hilly routes. A total of 75 examples 41 by Krauss and 34 by Maffei. From 1885 the locomotives were somewhat longer, had more water and coal capacity, so were heavier; the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft took over all 75 locomotives in 1925 as DRG Class 98.76. Most were retired by the end of the 1920s, the last one however not until 1935. One example, D VII no. 1854 – 98 7658, is in the branch line museum at Bayerisch Eisenstein owned by the Bavarian Localbahn Society. Royal Bavarian State Railways List of Bavarian Locomotives
The ATS D7 was a Formula One racing car used by Team ATS in the 1984 Formula One season. The car was designed by Gustav Brunner and was driven for most of the season by German Manfred Winkelhock, he was joined in a second car late in the season by Formula One rookie, Austrian driver Gerhard Berger. It was the last car produced by the ATS team. Early in the season, the D7 with its powerful turbocharged BMW engine, showed surprising speed, if not reliability. Winkelhock qualified sixth at Zolder for the Belgian Grand Prix and early in the race ran confidently in fourth place behind the Ferraris of Michele Alboreto and René Arnoux and the Renault of Derek Warwick before exhaust failure put him out on lap 39, he qualified seventh for the next race in San Marino and again was racing in the points before his race ended in turbo failure. Winkelhock only managed to finish two races in the quick but unreliable D7, finishing eighth in both Canada and Dallas. After joining the team for his first race in Austria, Berger enjoyed better reliability.
He finished 12th at the Österreichring before gaining his first points finish in F1 by placing sixth in Italy at Monza. However, as ATS had only entered one car for the season and Berger was in a second entered car, no points were awarded for his drive. Despite Berger's sixth place at Monza, the ATS D7 scored no points for the 1984 season. Following the season BMW stopped supplying the team with its engines due to the lack of results and bad publicity team owner Günter Schmid had gained for his pit lane antics; as a result, Schmid closed the team at the end of the season. ‡ As Gerhard Berger was the team's second entry and as the team had only entered one car for the entire championship, the second entry was ineligible to score points
A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of multiple notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. For many practical and theoretical purposes and broken chords, or sequences of chord tones, may be considered as chords. Chords and sequences of chords are used in modern West African and Oceanic music, Western classical music, Western popular music. In tonal Western classical music, the most encountered chords are triads, so called because they consist of three distinct notes: the root note, intervals of a third and a fifth above the root note. Chords with more than three notes include added tone chords, extended chords and tone clusters, which are used in contemporary classical music and other genres. A series of chords is called a chord progression. One example of a used chord progression in Western traditional music and blues is the 12 bar blues progression. Although any chord may in principle be followed by any other chord, certain patterns of chords are more common in Western music, some patterns have been accepted as establishing the key in common-practice harmony—notably the resolution of a dominant chord to a tonic chord.
To describe this, Western music theory has developed the practice of numbering chords using Roman numerals to represent the number of diatonic steps up from the tonic note of the scale. Common ways of notating or representing chords in Western music include Roman numerals, the Nashville number system, figured bass, macro symbols, chord charts; the English word chord derives from Middle English cord, a shortening of accord in the original sense of agreement and harmonious sound. A sequence of chords is known as a chord harmonic progression; these are used in Western music. A chord progression "aims for a definite goal" of establishing a tonality founded on a key, root or tonic chord; the study of harmony involves chords and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them. Ottó Károlyi writes that, "Two or more notes sounded are known as a chord," though, since instances of any given note in different octaves may be taken as the same note, it is more precise for the purposes of analysis to speak of distinct pitch classes.
Furthermore, as three notes are needed to define any common chord, three is taken as the minimum number of notes that form a definite chord. Hence, Andrew Surmani, for example, states, "When three or more notes are sounded together, the combination is called a chord." George T. Jones agrees: "Two tones sounding together are termed an interval, while three or more tones are called a chord." According to Monath. However, sonorities of two pitches, or single-note melodies, are heard as implying chords. A simple example of two notes being interpreted as a chord is when the root and third are played but the fifth is omitted. In the key of C major, if the music comes to rest on the two notes G and B, most listeners will hear this as a G major chord. Since a chord may be understood as such when all its notes are not audible, there has been some academic discussion regarding the point at which a group of notes may be called a chord. Jean-Jacques Nattiez explains that, "We can encounter'pure chords' in a musical work," such as in the Promenade of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition but, "Often, we must go from a textual given to a more abstract representation of the chords being used," as in Claude Debussy's Première arabesque.
In the medieval era, early Christian hymns featured organum, with chord progressions and harmony an incidental result of the emphasis on melodic lines during the medieval and Renaissance. The Baroque period, the 17th and 18th centuries, began to feature the major and minor scale based tonal system and harmony, including chord progressions and circle progressions, it was in the Baroque period that the accompaniment of melodies with chords was developed, as in figured bass, the familiar cadences. In the Renaissance, certain dissonant sonorities that suggest the dominant seventh occurred with frequency. In the Baroque period, the dominant seventh proper was introduced and was in constant use in the Classical and Romantic periods; the leading-tone seventh remains in use. Composers began to use nondominant seventh chords in the Baroque period, they became frequent in the Classical period, gave way to altered dominants in the Romantic period, underwent a resurgence in the Post-Romantic and Impressionistic period.
The Romantic period, the 19th century, featured increased chromaticism. Composers began to use secondary dominants in the Baroque, they became common in the Romantic period. Many contemporary popular Western genres continue to rely on simple diatonic harmony, though far from universally: notable exceptions include the music of film scores, which use chromatic, atonal or post-tonal harmony, modern jazz, in which chords may include up to seven notes; when referring to chords that do not function as harmony, such as in atonal music, the term "sonority" is used to avoid any tonal implications of the word "chord". Chords can be represent
In the Star Trek franchise, the Klingon Empire makes use of several classes of starships. As the Klingons are portrayed as a warrior culture, driven by the pursuit of honor and glory, the Empire is shown to use warships exclusively and their support ships, such as troop transports and colony ships, are armed for battle; this contrasts with the exploration and research vessels used by Starfleet, the protagonists of the franchise. The first Klingon ship design used in The Original Series, the D7-class battlecruiser, was designed by Matt Jefferies to evoke a shape akin to that of a manta ray, providing a threatening and recognizable form for viewers; the configuration of Jefferies's design featured a bulbous forward hull connected by a long boom to a wing-like main hull with the engine nacelles mounted on each wingtip. Though a variety of Klingon ships have appeared in Star Trek, their design conforms to this style. Most Klingon vessels were physically built as scale models, although computer-generated imagery was used to create the models.
In recent years, many of the original studio models have been sold at auctions. All Klingon ships are equipped with some form of sublight engine, most of these ships are equipped with superluminal propulsion technology called warp drive. Klingon vessels are depicted as being armed, equipped with particle beam weapons called disruptors and photon torpedoes, an antimatter weapon, as primary offensive weaponry. Klingon ships use cloaking devices. For The Next Generation and Deep Space Nine, Klingon ships were designed by Rick Sternbach to reflect technology exchanges as a result of an alliance between the Klingons and Starfleet. In the prequel television series Enterprise, Klingon ships are designed to appear more primitive than those chronologically in the franchise; the interior of Klingon vessels is utilitarian in nature: this is intended to mimic an old submarine. Klingon ship names are preceded by the prefix "IKS", an abbreviation for "Imperial Klingon Starship"; the D7-class battlecruiser is the first Klingon starship observed in the Star Trek franchise.
The vessel was designed by Matt Jefferies to be distinctive and recognized by viewers. As Jefferies wanted the D7-class to appear "threatening vicious", the design was modelled on a manta ray in both basic shape and color; the spread-wing primary hull, long neck and bulbous command module configuration of the D7-class became the basic blueprint for Klingon vessels in the television series. Jefferies's original model for the D7-class now resides in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum, along with the original studio model for USS Enterprise; the D7-class model was produced for The Original Series episode "Elaan of Troyius". It is shown to be armed with several disruptor banks that fire in pulses, in the remastered version, with a torpedo launcher in the forward module. In one episode of The Animated Series, "More Tribbles, More Troubles", a D7-class battlecruiser is equipped with an experimental stasis weapon, capable of paralyzing target vessels; the vessel possesses warp drive, allowing for faster-than-light travel.
While Klingon vessels in the television series set after The Original Series possess cloaking devices, the Klingon D7-class does not at first. This is changed after "The Enterprise Incident", several D7-class battlecruisers are shown under Romulan control as the result of a technology exchange between the Romulans and the Klingons; the appearance of the D7-class has been revisited several times in the Star Trek series. With an overall green hue, this model had a more detailed hull in comparison to the bland gray of the original. A D7-class ship appears in the Voyager episode "Prophecy"; the D7-class was again revisited for the remastered version of The Original Series, in which Michael Okuda created a new CGI D7-class model, with improved hull detail and Romulan bird markings for the D7-class vessels in "The Enterprise Incident". This remastered D7-class was digitally inserted into episodes earlier than their original appearances. An upgrade of the design used for the D7-class vessel, the K't'inga-class battlecruiser was first conceived for use in the pilot episode of Star Trek: Phase II.
When Phase II was abandoned, the story of the pilot was adapted for Star Trek: The Motion Picture, where three K't'inga-class battlecruisers are used in the opening scenes. Andrew Probert is credited as the designer of the K't'inga model in its design patent, while the class name was given by Gene Roddenberry in his novelization of The Motion Picture. Although sharing a nearly identical configuration with the D7-class, the primary difference in the K't'inga-class is the level of detail on the hull, enhanced to make the model appear more believable to viewers on screen; the configuration of the vessel's impulse engines differs from that of the D7-class. The K't'inga model was revisited for Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, in which Industrial Light & Magic enhanced the original studio model with glowing engine nacelles and changed the color from muted gray-greens to light gray with gold accents and maroon paneling. ILM's alterations were meant to "contrast... with the Enterprise-A, smooth and monochromatic and cool, while this Klingon ship is regal and ostentatious and warm".