The koruna is the currency of the Czech Republic since 1993, in English it is sometimes referred to as Czech crown or Czech krone. The koruna is one of European Union's 11 currencies, the Czech Republic is bound to adopt the euro currency in the future; the official name in Czech is koruna česká. The ISO 4217 code is CZK and the local acronym is Kč, placed after the numeric value or sometimes before it. One koruna equals 100 haléřů, but haléře have been withdrawn, the smallest unit of physical currency is 1 Kč. In 1892, the Austro-Hungarian krone replaced the gulden, at the rate of one gulden equaling two kronen; the name "krone" was invented by Franz Joseph I of Austria. After Austria-Hungary dissolved in 1918, the only successor state that kept the name of the currency, the koruna, was Czechoslovakia. In the late 1920s, the Czechoslovak koruna was the hardest currency in Europe. During the Second World War, the currency on the occupied Czech territory was artificially weakened; the Czechoslovak koruna was restored after the war.
It underwent a controversial monetary reform in 1953. The Czech koruna replaced the Czechoslovak koruna when it was introduced in 1993 after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia, it first consisted of overstamped 20-, 50-, 100-, 500-, 1000-Czechoslovak koruna banknotes, but a new series was properly introduced in 1993. In November 2013, the Czech National Bank intervened to weaken the exchange rate of the koruna through a monetary stimulus to stop the currency from excessive strengthening. In late 2016, the ČNB stated that the return to conventional monetary policy was planned for mid-2017. After higher-than-expected inflation and other figures, the national bank removed the cap on a special monetary meeting on April 6, 2017; the koruna avoided significant volatility and City Index Group stated: "If you want to drop a currency peg the ČNB can show you how to do it". The Czech Republic planned to adopt the euro in 2010, but its government suspended that plan indefinitely in 2005. Although the country is economically well positioned to adopt the euro, there is considerable opposition to the move within the Czech Republic.
According to a survey conducted in April 2014, only 16% of the Czech population was in favour of replacing the koruna with the euro. As reported by an April 2018 survey by CVVM, this value has remained at nearly identical levels over the past four years, with only 20% of the Czech population above 15 years old supporting euro adoption; the coins of the Czech koruna increase in weight with value. In 1993, coins were introduced in denominations of 10, 20 and 50 haléřů, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 korun; the 10- and 20-haléřů coins were taken out of circulation by 31 October 2003 and the 50-haléřů coins by 31 August 2008 due to their diminishing purchasing power and circulation. However, financial amounts are still written with the accuracy of 1-haléř; when transactions are made, the amount is rounded to the nearest integer. In 2000, the 10- and 20-korun coins were minted with different obverses to commemorate the millennium. In 1993 and 1994, coins were minted in Winnipeg and Hamburg in the Czech Republic.
The 10- and 50-korun coins were designed by Ladislav Kozák. Since 1997, sets for collectors are issued yearly with proof-quality coins. A tradition exists of issuing commemorative coins – including silver and gold coins – for numismatic purposes. For a complete listing, see Commemorative coins of the Czech Republic; the first Czech banknotes were issued on 8 February 1993 and consisted of Czechoslovak notes with adhesive stamps affixed to them. Only the 100-, 500- and 1,000-korun notes were overstamped, the lower denominations circulated unchanged during this transitional period; each stamp bears a Roman and Arabic numeral identifying the denomination of the banknote to which it is affixed. Subsequent issues of the 1,000-korun note replaced the adhesive stamp with a printed image of same. A newly designed series of banknotes in denominations of 20-, 50-, 100-, 200-, 500-, 1,000 and 5,000-korun were introduced in 1993 and are still in use at present – except for 20, 50 and the first versions of 1,000 and 5,000 korun notes, since the security features of 1,000 and 5,000 notes were upgraded in the subsequent issues.
These banknotes feature renowned Czech persons on the obverse and abstract compositions on the reverse. Modern protective elements can be found on all banknotes; the Greater coat of arms of the Czech Republic can be found on the reverse side of all denominations. For the 100th anniversary of the Czechoslovak koruna, a new banknote will be created, featuring the face of Czech politician Alois Rašín. There is an overprint on the normal 100 Korun note as second commemorative note
North Bohemia, is a region in the north of the Czech Republic. North Bohemia covers the present-day NUTS regional unit of CZ04 Severozápad and the western part of CZ05 Severovýchod. From an administrative perspective, North Bohemia is made up of the present day Ústí nad Labem Region, Karlovy Vary Region and Liberec Region. In German language usage the term Nordböhmen refers to that part of the Sudetenland once populated by Germans in North Bohemia between Karlovy Vary in the west and the Krkonoše in the east. North Bohemia is divided into many landscape areas including the Ore Mountains, the Bohemian Switzerland national park, Mácha’s Country, the Lusatian Mountains and Ještěd Ridge, Frýdlantsko and the Jizera Mountains, it is a popular tourist destination, much of, inaccessible until recently. The Jizera and Lusatian Mountains are protected landscape areas; the summits of the Jizera Mountains climb to heights of about 1,000 metres above sea level, the region’s peat bogs have been opened up with interconnecting educational trails.
The national nature reserve of the Jizera Mountain Beechwood Forest contains the largest beech woodland in the Czech Republic, covering 27 square kilometres. Major cities and towns in North Bohemia include Česká Lípa, Děčín, Jablonec nad Nisou, Litoměřice and Teplice. In the administrative system of the former Czechoslovakia there was a North Bohemia province from 1960-1990 that consisted of the present-day region of Ústí nad Labem and parts of Liberecký kraj. Bohemia Central Bohemian Uplands North Bohemian Basin
Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of 2.6 million. The city has a temperate climate, with chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe complete with a rich history. Founded during the Romanesque and flourishing by the Gothic and Baroque eras, Prague was the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia and the main residence of several Holy Roman Emperors, most notably of Charles IV, it was an important city to its Austro-Hungarian Empire. The city played major roles in the Bohemian and Protestant Reformation, the Thirty Years' War and in 20th-century history as the capital of Czechoslovakia, during both World Wars and the post-war Communist era. Prague is home to a number of well-known cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence and destruction of 20th-century Europe.
Main attractions include Prague Castle, Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, the Jewish Quarter, Petřín hill and Vyšehrad. Since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites; the city has more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries and other historical exhibits. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe. Prague is classified as an "Alpha −" global city according to GaWC studies and ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016, its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination and as of 2017, the city receives more than 8.5 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fourth most visited European city after London and Rome. During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, becoming the capital of a modern European country, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union.
The region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. A Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c. 1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. Around the fifth and fourth century BC, a Celts tribe appeared in the area establishing settlements including an oppidum in Závist, a present-day suburb of Prague, naming the region of Bohemia, which means "home of the Boii people". In the last century BC, the Celts were driven away by Germanic tribes, leading some to place the seat of the Marcomanni king, Maroboduus, in southern Prague in the suburb now called Závist. Around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map drawn by Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the late 5th century AD, during the great Migration Period following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Germanic tribes living in Bohemia moved westwards and in the 6th century, the Slavic tribes settled the Central Bohemian Region.
In the following three centuries, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in the Šárka valley and Levý Hradec. The construction of what came to be known as Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, growing a fortified settlement that existed on the site since the year 800; the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, some 70 years than Prague Castle. Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which began construction in 1344, but wasn't completed until the 20th century; the legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty. Legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied: "I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars." She ordered a town called Praha to be built on the site.
The region became the seat of the dukes, kings of Bohemia. Under Holy Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973; until Prague was elevated to archbishopric in 1344, it was under the jurisdiction of the Archbishopric of Mainz. Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub; the Old New Synagogue of 1270 still stands in the city. Prague was once home to an important slave market. At the site of the ford in the Vltava river, King Vladislaus I had the first bridge built in 1170, the Judith Bridge, named in honour of his wife Judith of Thuringia; this bridge was destroyed by a flood in 1342, but some of the original foundation stones of that bridge remain in the river. It was named the Charles Bridge. In 1257, under King Ottokar II, Malá Strana was founded in Prague on the site of an older village in what would become the Hradčany area; this was the district of the German people, who had the right to administer the law autonomously, pursuant to Magdeburg rights.
The new district was on the bank opposite of the Staré Město, which had borough status and was bordered by a line of walls and fortifications. Prague flourished dur
Řehlovice is a village and municipality in Ústí nad Labem District in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. The municipality covers an area of 27.96 square kilometres, has a population of 1,235. Řehlovice lies 8 kilometres south-west of Ústí nad Labem and 68 km north-west of Prague. Czech Statistical Office: Municipalities of Ústí nad Labem District
Ústí nad Labem Region
Ústí nad Labem Region or Ústecký Region known as Region Aussig, is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western part of the historical land of Bohemia, named after the capital, Ústí nad Labem. It covers the majority of the former North Bohemia province and is part of the broader area of North Bohemia; the region borders the regions of Liberec, Central Bohemia, Plzeň, Karlovy Vary and the German region of Saxony to the north. The Ústí region comprises a range of different types of landscape. Between the high escarpment of the Ore Mountains range and the Bohemian Central Uplands with many volcanic hills, there are vast areas devastated by surface coal mining being recultivated into an artificial landscape with ponds and groves; the Elbe river runs through the Central Uplands in a winding gorge of the Porta Bohemica. The southern part of the region, Polabí, is flat and fertile, while in the northeast are the sandstone formations of Bohemian Switzerland, including the monumental Pravčická brána, a natural sandstone arch.
The geographical location of the area, between Prague and Germany, has been a significant factor in the region’s development. The Ústí nad Labem Region is divided into 7 districts: The districts are further subdivided into 16 ORP districts; as of 30 June 2013, the region had 826,037 inhabitants, the fifth most populous in the Czech Republic. The population density is higher than the national average, the region is the fourth most densely populated in the country; the most densely populated areas of the region are the areas on the brown coal basin while areas with a lower population density are the Ore Mountains and the Louny District and Litoměřice District, which predominantly contain smaller country settlements. The largest municipality is the region's seat, with 95,477 inhabitants; the Ústí nad Labem region has a young population. The Ústí nad Labem Region ranks second-highest in the Czech Republic in the number of live births per 1,000 inhabitants, alongside the Liberec Region, but has one of the highest mortality rates.
The Ústí nad Labem Region ranks second nationally in the number of divorces per 1,000 inhabitants and first in the number of abortions per 100 live births. The region has 46 cities, in which 80.7% of its inhabitants reside, 354 villages. 54% of the region's villages have a population greater than 500, but only 5.8% of the region's inhabitants live there. The composition of the population according to nationality is: Czech: 92.12% Slovak: 2.71% German: 1.25% Romani: 0.23% Polish: 0.2% Moravian: 0.13% Other: 3.45% The table below shows the population of the largest cities and towns of the region as of 31 December 2012. Other significant towns and villages of the Ústí nad Labem Region Česká Kamenice; the total area of the region is 6.8 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. The region's geography is diverse; the area along the German borders is dominated by the Ore Mountains, the sandstone rocks of Labe and the Lužice Mountains. The Ore Mountains are old and formed of volcanic rocks or Palaeozoic schist.
In contrast, the south-eastern part of the region is formed by the plains that originate from Mesozoic era. The Bohemian Central Uplands and Říp Mountain are both located in this area; the Bohemian Central Uplands originated from volcanic activity in the Tertiary. The highest point of the region lies on the hillside of Klínovec, the highest peak of the Ore Mountains. However, the top of the mountain is located in the territory of the Karlovy Vary Region. Not taking into account the bottoms of surface mines, the lowest point of the region, the whole country, is the surface of the Elbe River at Hřensko, at 115 metres above sea level; the Elbe River is the largest watercourse in the region. Other main rivers in the region include Ohře, Bílina, Ploučnice and Kamenice, all tributaries of the Elbe; the largest water area is the Nechranice reservoir built on the Ohře River in the western part of the region. The region contains a number of mineral and thermal springs. In 2010, the region's gross domestic product accounted for 6.6% of the national GDP.
The regional GDP per capita was 83.4% of the national average. The regional employment is 362,000 people. In 2013, the average wage in the region was CZK 22,172; the unemployment rate was 11%. The Ústecký Region is one of the most industrialized areas in Central Europe; the economy used to be based on metallurgy and the chemical industry, though is now more diverse. The region's traditional branches of industry are chemicals and petrochemicals and thermal energy; the economic importance of the Ústí nad Labem Region lay in its reserves of raw materials deposits of brown coal, quality glass and foundry sands and building stone. The brown coal basin stretches under the hillsides of the Ore Mountains from Ústí nad Labem to Kadaň; the region is part of the Black Triangle, an area of industrialization and environmental damage on the three-way border of Poland, Germa
Grout is a dense fluid, used to fill gaps or used as reinforcement in existing structures. Grout is a mixture of water and sand and is employed in pressure grouting, embedding rebar in masonry walls, connecting sections of pre-cast concrete, filling voids, sealing joints such as those between tiles. Common uses for grout in the household include filling in tiles of shower floors and kitchen tiles, it is color tinted when it has to be kept visible and sometimes includes fine gravel when being used to fill large spaces. Unlike other structural pastes such as plaster or joint compound mixed and applied grout forms a waterproof seal. Although both grout and its close relative mortar are applied as a thick emulsion and harden over time, grout is distinguished by its low viscosity and lack of lime. Grout varieties include tiling grout, flooring grout, resin grout, non-shrink grout, structural grout and thixotropic grout. Tiling grout is used to fill the spaces between tiles or mosaics and to secure tile to its base.
Although ungrouted mosaics do exist, most have grout between the tesserae. Tiling grout is cement-based, comes in sanded as well as unsanded varieties; the sanded variety contains finely ground silica sand. They are enhanced with polymers and/or latex. Structural grout is used in reinforced masonry to fill voids in masonry housing reinforcing steel, securing the steel in place and bonding it to the masonry. Non-shrink grout is used beneath metal bearing plates to ensure a consistent bearing surface between the plate and its substrate. Portland cement is the most common cementing agent in grout, but thermoset polymer matrix grouts based on thermosets such as urethanes and epoxies are popular. Portland cement-based grouts come in different varieties depending on the particle size of the ground clinker used to make the cement, with a standard size of around 15 microns, microfine at around 6–10 microns, ultrafine below 5 microns. Finer particle sizes let the grout penetrate more into a fissure; because these grouts depend on the presence of sand for their basic strength, they are somewhat gritty when cured and hardened.
From the different types of grout, a suitable one has to be chosen depending on the load. For example, a load of up to 7.5 tons can be expected for a garage access, whereas a cobbled garden path is only designed for a pedestrian load. Furthermore, various substructures determine whether the type of grout should be permanently permeable to water or waterproof for example by concrete subfloors. Tools associated with groutwork include: Grout saw or grout scraper, a manual tool for removal of old and discolored grout; the blade is composed of tungsten carbide. Grout float, a trowel-like tool for smoothing the surface of a grout line made of rubber or soft plastic Grout sealer, a water-based or solvent-based sealant applied over dried grout that resists water and acid-based contaminants Grout cleaner, an acidic or basic solution, applied on grout lines and removes the surrounding dirt and debris Die grinder, for faster removal of old grout than a standard grout saw Pointing trowel, used for applying grout in flagstone and other stone works Mortar Mortar joint Caulk Thinset Glue
Lovosice is a small town in northern Bohemia, the western part of the Czech Republic. Geographic coordinates of Lovosice are: latitude 50° 51' and longitude: 14° 05'. Lovosice is located on the left bank of the Labe River, at the northern border of the Labe lowlands and at the southern foot of Bohemian Highlands; the closest mountain is Lovoš. The capital Prague is about 60 km towards south. Lovosice belongs to Litoměřice district. Lovosice is a long and narrow town; this shape is the origin of the common Czech saying "as long as Lovosice". Due to its strategic location, Lovosice is a significant transport junction. Besides a cargo port on the Labe River, the town has a great connection to Prague and Germany via the D8 motorway and high speed railway Prague – Ústí nad Labem – Dresden; the town is quite industrial with a long tradition of food-processing factories. The region of Lovosice was inhabited in the Bronze Age; some evidence indicates. The first mention of Lovosice is from April 12, 1143. Prince Vladislav II gave this small village to the Strahov monastery.
Emperor Rudolf II promoted the village to the status of town on July 4, 1600. Lovosice was 1756 the site of a major battle between Prussia and the Austrian empire, at the Battle of Lobositz. During World War II, due to the Munich Agreement, Lovosice fell within a German occupation zone called Sudetenland. Only 600 Czechs stayed in the town at that time. After the war, the German population was expelled as a result of the Beneš decrees. Karl von Czyhlarz, Czech-Austrian jurist and politician Municipal office Information pages