Flash memory is an electronic non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. Toshiba developed flash memory from EEPROM in the early 1980s and introduced it to the market in 1984; the two main types of flash memory are named after the NOR logic gates. The individual flash memory cells exhibit internal characteristics similar to those of the corresponding gates. While EPROMs had to be erased before being rewritten, NAND-type flash memory may be written and read in blocks which are much smaller than the entire device. NOR-type flash allows a single machine word to be written – to an erased location – or read independently; the NAND type is found in memory cards, USB flash drives, solid-state drives, similar products, for general storage and transfer of data. NAND or NOR flash memory is often used to store configuration data in numerous digital products, a task made possible by EEPROM or battery-powered static RAM. One key disadvantage of flash memory is that it can only endure a small number of write cycles in a specific block.
Example applications of both types of flash memory include personal computers, PDAs, digital audio players, digital cameras, mobile phones, video games, scientific instrumentation, industrial robotics, medical electronics. In addition to being non-volatile, flash memory offers fast read access times, although not as fast as static RAM or ROM, its mechanical shock resistance helps explain its popularity over hard disks in portable devices, as does its high durability, ability to withstand high pressure and immersion in water, etc. Although flash memory is technically a type of EEPROM, the term "EEPROM" is used to refer to non-flash EEPROM, erasable in small blocks bytes; because erase cycles are slow, the large block sizes used in flash memory erasing give it a significant speed advantage over non-flash EEPROM when writing large amounts of data. As of 2013, flash memory costs much less than byte-programmable EEPROM and had become the dominant memory type wherever a system required a significant amount of non-volatile solid-state storage.
Flash memory was invented by Fujio Masuoka while working for Toshiba circa 1980. According to Toshiba, the name "flash" was suggested by Masuoka's colleague, Shōji Ariizumi, because the erasure process of the memory contents reminded him of the flash of a camera. Masuoka and colleagues presented the invention at the IEEE 1987 International Electron Devices Meeting held in San Francisco. Intel Corporation introduced the first commercial NOR type flash chip in 1988. NOR-based flash has long erase and write times, but provides full address and data buses, allowing random access to any memory location; this makes it a suitable replacement for older read-only memory chips, which are used to store program code that needs to be updated, such as a computer's BIOS or the firmware of set-top boxes. Its endurance may be from as little as 100 erase cycles for an on-chip flash memory, to a more typical 10,000 or 100,000 erase cycles, up to 1,000,000 erase cycles. NOR-based flash was the basis of early flash-based removable media.
NAND flash has reduced erase and write times, requires less chip area per cell, thus allowing greater storage density and lower cost per bit than NOR flash. However, the I/O interface of NAND flash does not provide a random-access external address bus. Rather, data must be read on a block-wise basis, with typical block sizes of hundreds to thousands of bits; this makes NAND flash unsuitable as a drop-in replacement for program ROM, since most microprocessors and microcontrollers require byte-level random access. In this regard, NAND flash is similar to other secondary data storage devices, such as hard disks and optical media, is thus suitable for use in mass-storage devices, such as memory cards; the first NAND-based removable media format was SmartMedia in 1995, many others have followed, including: MultiMediaCard Secure Digital Memory Stick, xD-Picture Card. A new generation of memory card formats, including RS-MMC, miniSD and microSD, feature small form factors. For example, the microSD card has an area of just over 1.5 cm2, with a thickness of less than 1 mm.
As of August 2017 microSD cards with capacity up to 400 GB are available. Flash memory stores information in an array of memory cells made from floating-gate transistors. In single-level cell devices, each cell stores only one bit of information. Multi-level cell devices, including triple-level cell devices, can store more than one bit per cell; the floating gate may be non-conductive. In flash memory, each memory cell resembles a standard metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor except that the transistor has two gates instead of one; the cells can be seen as an electrical switch in which current flows between two terminals and is controlled by a floating gate and a control gate. The CG is similar to the gate in other MOS transistors, but below this, there is the FG insulated all around by an oxide layer; the FG is interposed between the MOSFET channel. Because the FG is electrically isolated by its insulating layer, electrons placed on it are trapped; when the FG is charged with electrons, this charge screens the electric field from the CG, inc
Dissolved air flotation
Dissolved air flotation is a water treatment process that clarifies wastewaters by the removal of suspended matter such as oil or solids. The removal is achieved by dissolving air in the water or wastewater under pressure and releasing the air at atmospheric pressure in a flotation tank basin; the released air forms tiny bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing the suspended matter to float to the surface of the water where it may be removed by a skimming device. Dissolved air flotation is widely used in treating the industrial wastewater effluents from oil refineries and chemical plants, natural gas processing plants, paper mills, general water treatment and similar industrial facilities. A similar process known as induced gas flotation is used for wastewater treatment. Froth flotation is used in the processing of mineral ores. In the oil industry, dissolved gas flotation units do not use air as the flotation medium due to the explosion risk. Nitrogen gas is used instead to create the bubbles.
The feed water to the DAF float tank is dosed with a coagulant to coagulate the colloidal particles and/or a flocculant to conglomerate the particles into bigger clusters. A portion of the clarified effluent water leaving the DAF tank is pumped into a small pressure vessel into which compressed air is introduced; this results in saturating the pressurized effluent water with air. The air-saturated water stream is recycled to the front of the float tank and flows through a pressure reduction valve just as it enters the front of the float tank, which results in the air being released in the form of tiny bubbles. Bubbles form at nucleation sites on the surface of the suspended particles, adhering to the particles; as more bubbles form, the lift from the bubbles overcomes the force of gravity. This causes the suspended matter to float to the surface where it forms a froth layer, removed by a skimmer; the froth-free water exits the float tank as the clarified effluent from the DAF unit. Some DAF unit designs utilize parallel plate packing material to provide more separation surface and therefore to enhance the separation efficiency of the unit.
DAF systems can be categorized as rectangular. The former type requires just 3 minutes. A particular circular DAF system is called "Zero speed", allowing quite water status highest performances; the rectangular type requires 20 to 30 minutes. One of the bigger advantages of the circular type is its spiral scoop. Drinking water supplies that are vulnerable to unicellular algal blooms, supplies with low turbidity and high colour employ DAF. After coagulation and flocculation processes, water flows to DAF tanks where air diffusers on the tank bottom create fine bubbles that attach to floc resulting in a floating mass of concentrated floc; the floating floc blanket is removed from the surface and clarified water is withdrawn from the bottom of the DAF tank. API oil-water separator Flotation process Industrial wastewater treatment Industrial water treatment List of waste-water treatment technologies Microflotation Treatment and Disposal of Ship-Generated Solid and Liquid Wastes
Deutsch Amerikanische Freundschaft
Deutsch Amerikanische Freundschaft or D. A. F. is an influential German electropunk/Neue Deutsche Welle band from Düsseldorf, formed in 1978 featuring Gabriel "Gabi" Delgado-López, Robert Görl, Kurt "Pyrolator" Dahlke, Michael Kemner and Wolfgang Spelmans. Kurt Dahlke was replaced by Chrislo Haas in 1979. Since 1981, the band has consisted of Görl. In interviews they claimed not to target anything or anyone specific while writing lyrics to be taken as a parody of words and phrases floating around in the public media. "Sato-Sato" and "Der Mussolini" are both examples of songs written around Delgado-López's fascination with the sound of a particular word. A few months before the 2003 invasion of Iraq, D. A. F. Released "The Sheriff"; the album Alles ist gut received the German "Schallplattenpreis" award by the "Deutsche Phono-Akademie", an association of the German recording industry. Görl described their sound on Alles is gut in Melody Maker in 1981: Most bands get a synthesizer and their first idea is to tune it!
They want a clean normal sound. They don’t work with the power you get from a synthesizer... We want to bring together this high technique with body power so you have the past time mixed with the future. Delgado described his new vocal style in the same interview: The singing isn’t like rock ’n’ roll or pop singing. It’s sometimes like in a Hitler speech, not a Nazi thing, but it’s in the German character, that crack! Crack! Crack! Way of speaking; the band determined early on. As Delgado said: It’s not only a part of image. It’s a serious matter because DAF from the first beginning didn’t want to imitate any American pop, rock or whatever. In fact we think there is a strong American influence in culture, music, everywhere. So in the first beginning one of our main content was to refuse to imitate rock ‘n’ roll, to refuse to sing in English. We don’t do that. We have our own identity. Our identity is not American identity; as a lyricist, Delgado's concerns throughout D. A. F.'s recording career have ranged from sardonic reflections on ideology and political violence, to journeys into a physical brutal, sometimes related from a child's point of view.
Having grown up as the child of working class Spanish immigrants in Wuppertal, coming of age in the politically polarized era of the German Autumn (his response the left-wing extremism of that time being thematized in the 2003 song "Kinderzimmer", he was blunt and unromantically detached about social reality in West Germany, unapologetic about the provocative potential of his songs. As performers and media personalities D. A. F. Were, much like New York's Suicide, forerunners of 1980s synthpop duos, such as the Pet Shop Boys and Soft Cell, in that the singer appears extroverted while the one who plays with the electronics appears quiet and reserved. Visually, at least from Alles ist gut until 1st Step to Heaven, they cultivated an image of black leather, hairy chests, sweat. Gabi's hairy chest made a comeback appearance in the 2003 promotional video for "Der Sheriff", a song about the George W. Bush administration. Görl came to Düsseldorf in August 1978 and met Delgado as both were regulars at punk club Ratinger Hof.
Görl noted, "The earliest line up of DAF was me in the basement of the Ratinger Hof. We created our basic ideas and we had a strong will as a duo. Gabi Delgado played the stylophone and I played the drums." Several early Neue Deutsche Welle bands formed from this social group, Görl and Delgado played with multiple other bands. The first two D. A. F. Albums featured a range of styles, their first album, Ein Produkt der Deutsch-Amerikanischen Freundschaft, was released in 1979 on Dahlke's Ata Tak label. The album was 22 improvised untitled instrumentals, Delgado having temporarily left the band at the time; the band moved to London. As Delgado noted, "at that time if you wanted to do new music you’d go to London because, the center, not Düsseldorf." Daniel Miller signed DAF to Mute Records because "they weren’t relying on past rock traditions at all, the criterion of what goes on Mute." DAF recorded Die Kleinen und die Bösen for one side studio and most of the other side live. Some songs featured thrashed guitars, electronic screeching, hammered drums while Gabi screamed and ululated.
DAF shrank to just Delgado and Görl, who signed to Virgin Records and released Alles Ist Gut, their breakthrough album. The band became pop stars in Germany and gained great critical acclaim in the UK. Görl played drums — fairly simple and unsyncopated patterns, but with simple variations that prevented them sounding robotic — while Delgado sang; the only other instruments used were Korg MS-20 and ARP Odyssey analogue synthesizers driven by a Korg SQ-10 analog sequencer. Only a single sequencer-driven line would be used for a song, the sequence functioning both as melodic accompaniment and as a bassline; the song "Der Mussolini" is a perfect example of this. On other songs, such as the title track, certain notes of the sequence were set out of tune. Overall the songs entail a complex tension between the predominantly visceral, the relentlessly robotic, the drums, which lie somewhere in between. One song, Der Räuber und der Prinz (The Robber and the P
German Labour Front
The German Labour Front was the National Socialist labour organisation which replaced the various independent trade unions in Germany after Adolf Hitler's rise to power. Its leader was Robert Ley, who stated that its aim was'to create a true social and productive community'. Theoretically, DAF existed to act as a medium through which workers and owners could mutually represent their interests. Wages were set by the 12 DAF trustees; the employees were given high set wages and security of employment, dismissal was made difficult. Social security and leisure programmes were started, canteens and regular working times were established, German workers were satisfied by what the DAF gave them in repayment for their absolute loyalty. Following the National Socialist’s Volksgemeinschaft approach towards developing a greater "people's community", the DAF expanded or established new social, sports and entertainment programs for German workers via the Strength through Joy, which included factory libraries and gardens, swimming pools, low-priced hot meals, adult education programs, periodic work breaks, physical education, sports facilities, gymnastic training, orchestral music during lunch breaks, free tickets to concerts and opera, subsidized vacations that saw over 10.3 million Germans signed up by 1938.
The DAF financed the building of ocean-going vessels that permitted German workers to pay minimal prices to sail to many foreign destinations. Up to six ocean liners were operating just before the start of World War II. According to the chief of the Associated Press in Berlin, Louis P. Lochner, ticket prices for ocean streamer vessels ranged from twelve to sixteen marks for "a full week on such a steamer". For those who desired vacations closer to home, the DAF constructed summer resort complexes; the most ambitious was the 4.5 km long Prora complex on Rugen island, to have 20,000 beds, would have been the largest beach resort in the world. It was never completed and the massive complex remained an empty shell right through until the 21st century. To help finance such ambitious social programs, the DAF operated one of the largest financial institutions—the Bank of German Labour—along with additional community programs such as medical screening, occupational training, legal assistance and programs to improve the company's working environment.
The DAF was one of the largest National Socialist organizations, boasting of over 35,000 full-time employees by 1939. To help Hitler keep his promise to have every German capable of owning an affordable car the DAF subsidized the construction of an automobile factory, paid from worker’s payroll deductions. None of the 340,000 workers who were paying for a car received one, since the factory had to be retooled for war production after Nazi Germany invaded Poland. In the case of workplace abuses, the DAF set up worker councils to regulate and manage business practices, along with working hours and wages, conflicts rising between employers and workers. In 1934, worker councils dismissed over 50 workers, while in the same year 13 employers were punished through the expropriation of their business. Employment contracts created under the Weimar Republic were abolished and renewed under new circumstances in the DAF. Employers could demand more of their workers, while at the same time workers were given increased security of work and enrolled into social security programmes for workers.
The organisation, by its own definition, combated capitalism and liberalism, but revolution against the factory owners and the National Socialist state. The DAF, did prefer to have large companies nationalised by the German state, instead of owned companies. DAF membership was theoretically voluntary, but any workers in any area of German commerce or industry would have found it hard to get a job without being a member. Membership required a fee within the range of 15 pfennig to three Reichsmark, depending on the category a member fell into in a large scale of 20 membership groups. A large amount of income was raised through fees. In 1934, the total intake was 300,000,000 Reichsmark. In US dollars, the annual income from dues to the Labour Front came to $160,000,000 in 1937 and $200,000,000 by 1939. There were two main components of the DAF and these were: Nationalsozialistische Betriebszellenorganisation Nationalsozialistische Handels- und Gewerbeorganisation Several other sub-organisations were set up: Kraft durch Freude – Organisation giving the workers cheap/free holidays in addition to subsidised sporting and leisure facilities.
Schönheit der Arbeit – Aimed to make workplaces more enticing to workers. The Front organised the Reichsberufswettkampf, a national vocational competition. Arbeitsfront der Volksdeutschen in der Slowakei Notes Bibliography McDonough, Frank: Hitler and Nazi Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-59502-9 Smelser, Ronald M.: Robert Ley, Hitler's Labour Front Leader. Oxford: Berg Publishers ISBN 0-85496-161-5 DAF information for AS Level History Unit 3 Deutsche Arbeitsfront at Lebendiges Museum Online, in German. Erste Verordnung des Führers und Reichskanzlers über Wesen und Ziel der Deutschen Arbeitsfront vom 24. Oktober 1934
The daf is a large Middle Eastern frame drum used in popular and classical music. The frame is made of hardwood with many metal ringlets attached, the membrane is fish skin but other skin types such as cow and horse are used; the Daf is used in the Middle East, Greater Iran, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, accompanies singers and players of the tanbur, oud and other Middle Eastern instruments. Some dafs are equipped with small cymbals; the earliest evidence of the dap dates back to Sassanid Iran. The Pahlavi name of the daf is dap; the word daf is therefore the Arabicized form of the word dap. Some pictures of dap have been found in paintings; the presence of Iranian dap in the reliefs of Behistun suggests the daf existed before the rise of Islam. Dafs were part of religious music in Iran much before Sufism. Iranian music has always been a spiritual tool, it shows that dafs played an important role in Mazdean Iran emerging as an important element during the Sassanian times during the Kâvusakân dynasty.
There is a kind of square frame drum in the stonecutting of Taq-e Bostan. These frame drums were played in the ancient Middle East and Rome and reached medieval Europe through Islamic culture. Nowruz and other festive occasions have been accompanied by dap in Sassanid periods. In this period the dap was played in order to accompany Iranian classical music. Daps were used in the court to be played in the modes and melodies of traditional music; this traditional or classical music was created by Barbod the Great and was named the khosravani after the mythical king Khosrow. Recent research reveals; the modes were passed down from master to student and are today known as the radif and dastgah system. Many of the melodies were most of those that remain date to the Sassanid period. Dafs can be played to produce complex and intense rhythms, causing one to go under a trance and reach an ecstatic and spiritually-high state. For this reason, they have always been connected with religion in Iran; the Arabs introduced the daf and other Middle Eastern musical instruments to Spain, the Spanish adapted and promoted the daf and other musical instruments in medieval Europe.
In the 15th century, the daf was only used in Sufi ceremonies. The art of daf playing in Iranian Kurdistan and other parts of Iran has reached us by the effort of Iranian Sufis; the daf still functions as an important part of Persian art music. It encourages many young Iranians to take up learning this ancient instrument; the dayereh is an instrument, used to keep the rhythm of the music. This instrument is smaller than daf; the membrane is made of goatskin stretched over a wooden ring. Along the edge of the dayereh there are several pairs of loosely attached metal disks, which produce short crisp sounds as the player strikes the dayereh with the wrist and the fingers. Traditionally, the dayereh is a female instrument, it is sometimes used on festive occasions. The defi is a large frame drum with metal bangles. Similar to a tambourine in construction, the defi is made with a metal screw system so that the head can be tightened and tuned, it is popular in many forms all over Greece in the mainland klarino music.
The defi is popular in the Epirus region of northwestern Greece, where they are still handmade today. They have a low tone, the bangles are low pitched as well. In the history of Iran, daf had important usage specially in celebrations. In Pakistan it is used in wedding celebrations. Many poems in Persian mention the daf. A daf is depicted on the reverse of the Azerbaijani 1 qəpik coin minted since 2006 and on the obverse of the Azerbaijani 1 manat banknote issued since 2006. Frame drum Tar Bodhrán Bendir Riq Mazhar Davul Innaby, Azerbaijani dance Nasehpour, Peyman. "On Persian Daf, the Spiritual Frame Drum and Sufi Music". Nasehpour.com. Peyman Nasehpour. Media related to Dafs at Wikimedia Commons
United States Department of the Air Force
The Department of the Air Force is one of the three Military Departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Air Force was formed on September 18, 1947, per the National Security Act of 1947 and it includes all elements and units of the United States Air Force; the Department of the Air Force is headed by the Secretary of the Air Force, a civilian, who has the authority to conduct all of its affairs, subject to the authority and control of the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Air Force's principal deputy is the Under Secretary of the Air Force, their senior staff assistants in the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force are four Assistant Secretaries for Acquisition, Financial Management & Comptroller, Environment & Logistics, Manpower & Reserve Affairs and a General Counsel. The highest-ranking military officer in the department is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, the senior uniformed adviser to the Secretary, represents the Air Force on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, heads the Air Staff and is assisted in the latter capacity by the Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force.
By direction of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Air Force assigns Air Force units – apart from those units performing duties enumerated in 10 U. S. C. § 8013 -- to the Commanders of the Combatant Commands. Only the Secretary of Defense has the authority to approve transfer of forces between Combatant Commands. See Structure of the United States armed forces According to the FY2019_Budget_Request_Overview_Book | 8-12, the Department of Defense claims the Department of the Air Force is as follows *$ in Millions Numbers May Not Add Due to Rounding On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. In addition, the proposal would create an Undersecretary of the Air Force for the Space Force to provide civilian oversight, as well as providing the Space Force with a distinct budget. Organizational structure and hierarchy of the United States Air Force Department of the Air Force Police Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations Air Force Cross Department of the Air Force Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service Witt v. Department of the Air Force "Airman Magazine: The Book 2010 – Personnel Facts and Figures".
Airman Magazine, Volume 54 Number 3. Official site Department of the Air Force in the Federal Register
Desert Air Force
The Desert Air Force known chronologically as Air Headquarters Western Desert, Air Headquarters Libya, the Western Desert Air Force, the First Tactical Air Force, was an Allied tactical air force created from No. 204 Group under RAF Middle East Command in North Africa in 1941 to provide close air support to the British Eighth Army. Throughout World War II, the DAF was made up of squadrons from the Royal Air Force, the South African Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, the United States Army Air Forces and other Allied air forces. In October 1941, the Western Desert Air Forces had 16 squadrons of aircraft and fielded 1,000 combat aircraft by late 1941. By the time of the Second Battle of El Alamein, the DAF fielded 29 squadrons flying Boston and Mitchell medium bombers and Hurricane, Tomahawk and Spitfire fighters and fighter-bombers. There were over 1,500 combat aircraft, more than double the number of aircraft the Axis could field. Prior to the establishment of the Desert Air Force, several RAF formations operated in North Africa.
On 3 September 1939, RAF Middle East Command—under Air Chief Marshal Sir William Mitchell, Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief Middle East—comprised four separate commands: for Egypt, RAF Iraq, Mediterranean at Malta, RAF Aden. Mitchell handed over to Air Vice Marshal Sir Arthur Longmore in early May 1940; when Italy declared war in June 1940, Longmore had just 29 squadrons numbering less than 300 aircraft – dispersed across the four commands detailed above. On 10 June 1940, RAF bomber squadrons in AHQ Egypt—under the direction of No. 202 Group RAF—totalled five squadrons of Bristol Blenheims, one of Vickers Valentias and one of Bristol Bombays. The Valentia and Bombay could either be used as troop transports or medium bombers. HQ 202 Group, Ma'aten Bagush No. 250 Wing RAF, Ismailia No. 30 Squadron RAF, Ismailia No. 55 Squadron RAF, Fuka No. 113 Squadron RAF, Blenheim, Ma'aten Bagush No. 253 Wing RAF, Advanced HQ Ma'aten Bagush No. 45 Squadron RAF, Fuka No. 211 Squadron RAF, Daba No. 70 Squadron RAF, Helwan No. 216 Squadron RAF, Heliopolis AHQ Sudan had 254 Wing with No.
14, No. 223 and No. 47 squadrons, AHQ Aden had No. 8, No. 11, No. 39 squadrons, No. 84 Squadron RAF was at Shaibah in Iraq with Blenheims. Prior to the Italian invasion of Egypt, under Air Commodore Raymond Collishaw, the RAF in Egypt—which comprised nine squadrons—focused its activities on ground support and only when necessary aerial combat with the Italian Regia Aeronautica; the force at Collishaw's disposal consisted of No. 33, No. 80, No. 112 Squadrons with Gloster Gladiators, No. 208 Squadron RAF with Westland Lysanders, four Blenheim squadrons and No. 216 Squadron RAF with Bombays. With this small force, the RAF had to "equate its attempt to dominate the front line with avoidance of unnecessary losses". Aggressive actions induced a "defensive mentality among the Italians", aided by expedients such as using the single Hawker Hurricane in the Middle East switched between landing grounds, to provide an exaggerated picture of British strength in the eyes of Italian reconnaissance aircraft. There were occasional signal successes as well.
The force in the Middle East was too small, reinforcement by sea was a 14,000-mile trip that required three months to complete, reinforcement via the Western Mediterranean was hardly practical due to the ranges involved, which only bombers could achieve. Thus, an alternate reinforcement route began to be pioneered via Takoradi in the Gold Coast, from which new aircraft were received by sea, test flown, ferried across Africa to Khartoum, a route first pioneered by Air Vice-Marshal Arthur Coningham in 1925. By this and other means, by the end of November 1940 the RAF in Egypt had been bolstered by No. 73 and No. 274 Squadrons with Hurricanes and No. 37 and No. 38 Squadrons with Vickers Wellingtons, as well as several South African Air Force squadrons, ready for the beginning of Operation Compass. During Compass, "the squadrons of Hurricanes and Blenheims.. Strove hard to keep pace landing after a combat sortie at a more advanced strip than from which they had set out."On 19 April 1941, RAF No. 204 Group was created under the command of Air Commodore Raymond Collishaw and consisted of the following units: No. 73 Squadron at Tobruk No. 274 Squadron at Gerawla No. 14 Squadron at Burg el Arab Detachment of No. 39 Squadron at Maaten Baggash Detachment of No. 24 Squadron at Fuka No. 45 Squadron at Fuka No. 55 Squadron at Zimla No. 6 Squadron at Tobruk.
On 30 July 1941, Collishaw handed over No. 204 Group to Coningham. That year, the RAF's whole Middle East Command came under the command of Air Marshal Sir Arthur Tedder. On 21 October 1941, Air Headquarters Western Desert was created by upgrading 204 Group to command status. Three wings operated in North Africa at first, 258 and 269 Wings operated over the front line and 262 Wing defended the Nile Delta. On 20 January 1942, the command was renamed Air Headquarters Libya. On 27 October 1942, the Western Desert Air Force was organised as shown below:S