Internet Relay Chat
Internet Relay Chat is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text. The chat process works on a client/server networking model. IRC clients are computer programs that users can install on their system or web based applications running either locally in the browser or on 3rd party server; these clients communicate with chat servers to transfer messages to other clients. IRC is designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but allows one-on-one communication via private messages as well as chat and data transfer, including file sharing. Client software is available for every major operating system; as of April 2011, the top 100 IRC networks served more than half a million users at a time, with hundreds of thousands of channels operating on a total of 1,500 servers out of 3,200 servers worldwide. IRC usage has been declining since 2003, losing 60% of its users and half of its channels. IRC was created by Jarkko Oikarinen in August 1988 to replace a program called MUT on a BBS called OuluBox at the University of Oulu in Finland, where he was working at the Department of Information Processing Science.
Jarkko intended to extend the BBS software he administered, to allow news in the Usenet style, real time discussions and similar BBS features. The first part he implemented was the chat part, which he did with borrowed parts written by his friends Jyrki Kuoppala and Jukka Pihl; the first IRC network was running on a single server named tolsun.oulu.fi. Oikarinen found inspiration in a chat system known as Bitnet Relay, which operated on the BITNET. Jyrki Kuoppala pushed Jarkko to ask Oulu University to free the IRC code so that it could be run outside of Oulu, after they got it released, Jyrki Kuoppala installed another server; this was the first "irc network". Jarkko got some friends at the Helsinki University and Tampere University to start running IRC servers when his number of users increased and other universities soon followed. At this time Jarkko realized that the rest of the BBS features wouldn't fit in his program. Jarkko got in touch with people at the University of Oregon State University.
They wanted to connect to the Finnish network. They had obtained the program from one of Jarkko's friends, Vijay Subramaniam—the first non-Finnish person to use IRC. IRC grew larger and got used on the entire Finnish national network—Funet—and connected to Nordunet, the Scandinavian branch of the Internet. In November 1988, IRC had spread across the Internet and in the middle of 1989, there were some 40 servers worldwide. In August 1990, the first major disagreement took place in the IRC world; the "A-net" included a server named eris.berkeley.edu. It required no passwords and had no limit on the number of connects; as Greg "wumpus" Lindahl explains: "it had a wildcard server line, so people were hooking up servers and nick-colliding everyone". The "Eris Free Network", EFnet, made the eris machine the first to be Q-lined from IRC. In wumpus' words again: "Eris refused to remove that line, it wasn't much of a fight. A-net was formed with the eris servers, EFnet was formed with the non-eris servers.
History showed most users went with EFnet. Once ANet disbanded, the name EFnet became meaningless, once again it was the one and only IRC network, it is around that time that IRC was used to report on the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt throughout a media blackout. It was used in a similar fashion during the Gulf War. Chat logs of these and other events are kept in the ibiblio archive. Another fork effort, the first that made a big and lasting difference, was initiated by'Wildthang' in the U. S. October 1992, it was meant to be just a test network to develop bots on but it grew to a network "for friends and their friends". In Europe and Canada a separate new network was being worked on and in December the French servers connected to the Canadian ones, by the end of the month, the French and Canadian network was connected to the US one, forming the network that came to be called "The Undernet"; the "undernetters" wanted to take ircd further in an attempt to make it less bandwidth consumptive and to try to sort out the channel chaos that EFnet started to suffer from.
For the latter purpose, the Undernet implemented timestamps, new routing and offered the CService—a program that allowed users to register channels and attempted to protect them from troublemakers. The first server list presented, from February 15, 1993, includes servers from USA, France and Japan. On August 15, the new user count record was set to 57 users. In May 1993, RFC 1459 was published and details a simple protocol for client/server operation, one-to-one and one-to-many conversations, it is notable that a significant number of extensions like CTCP, colors and formats are not included in the protocol specifications, nor is character encoding, which led various implementations of servers and clients to diverge. In fact, software implementation varied from one network to the other, each network implementing their own policies and standards in their own code bases. During the summer of 1994, the Undernet was itself forked; the new network was called DALnet, formed for better user service and more user and channel protections.
One of the more significant changes in DALnet was use of lo
Star Trek is an American space opera media franchise based on the science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. The first television series called Star Trek and now referred to as "The Original Series", debuted in 1966 and aired for three seasons on NBC, it followed the interstellar adventures of Captain James T. Kirk and his crew aboard the starship USS Enterprise, a space exploration vessel built by the United Federation of Planets in the 23rd century; the Star Trek canon includes The Original Series, an animated series, five spin-off television series, the film franchise, further adaptations in several media. In creating Star Trek, Roddenberry was inspired by the Horatio Hornblower novels, the satirical book Gulliver's Travels, Westerns such as the television series Wagon Train; these adventures continued in the 22-episode Star Trek: The Animated Series and six feature films. Five other television series were produced: Star Trek: The Next Generation follows the crew of a new starship Enterprise, set a century after the original series.
The most recent Star Trek TV series, entitled Star Trek: Discovery, aired on the digital platform CBS All Access. The adventures of The Next Generation crew continued in four additional feature films. In 2009, the film franchise underwent a "reboot" set in an alternate timeline, or "Kelvin Timeline," entitled Star Trek; this film featured a new cast portraying younger versions of the crew from the original show. Its sequel, Star Trek Beyond, was released to coincide with the franchise's 50th anniversary. Star Trek has been a cult phenomenon for decades. Fans of the franchise are called Trekkers; the franchise spans a wide range of spin-offs including games, novels and comics. Star Trek had a themed attraction in Las Vegas that opened in 1998 and closed in September 2008. At least two museum exhibits of props travel the world; the series has Klingon. Several parodies have been made of Star Trek. In addition, viewers have produced several fan productions; as of July 2016, the franchise had generated $10 billion in revenue, making Star Trek one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.
Star Trek is noted for its cultural influence beyond works of science fiction. The franchise is noted for its progressive civil rights stances; the Original Series included. Star Trek references may be found throughout popular culture from movies such as the submarine thriller Crimson Tide to the animated series South Park; as early as 1964, Gene Roddenberry drafted a proposal for the science-fiction series that would become Star Trek. Although he publicly marketed it as a Western in outer space—a so-called "Wagon Train to the Stars"—he told friends that he was modeling it on Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, intending each episode to act on two levels: as a suspenseful adventure story and as a morality tale. Most Star Trek stories depict the adventures of humans and aliens who serve in Starfleet, the space-borne humanitarian and peacekeeping armada of the United Federation of Planets; the protagonists have altruistic values, must apply these ideals to difficult dilemmas. Many of the conflicts and political dimensions of Star Trek represent allegories of contemporary cultural realities.
Star Trek: The Original Series addressed issues of the 1960s, just as spin-offs have reflected issues of their respective decades. Issues depicted in the various series include war and peace, the value of personal loyalty, imperialism, class warfare, racism, human rights, sexism and the role of technology. Roddenberry stated: " a new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, Vietnam and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek: we were sending messages and they all got by the network." "If you talked about purple people on a far off planet, they never caught on. They were more concerned about cleavage, they would send a censor down to the set to measure a woman's cleavage to make sure too much of her breast wasn't showing"Roddenberry intended the show to have a progressive political agenda reflective of the emerging counter-culture of the youth movement, though he was not forthcoming to the networks about this. He wanted Star Trek to show what humanity might develop into, if it would learn from the lessons of the past, most by ending violence.
An extreme example is the alien species, the Vulcans, who had a violent past but learned to control their emotions. Roddenberry gave Star Trek an anti-war message and depicted the United Federation of Planets as an ideal, optimistic version of the United Nations, his efforts were opposed by the network because of concerns over marketability, e.g. they opposed Roddenberry's insistence that Enterprise have a racially diverse crew. The central trio of Kirk, McCoy from Star Trek: The Original Series was modeled on classical mythological storytelling. There is a mythological component with science fiction. It's people looking for answers – and science fiction offers to explain the inexplicable, the same as religion tends to do... If we accept the premise that it has a mythological element all the stuff about going out into space and meeting new life – trying to explain it and put a human element to it – it's a hopeful visio
European dragons are legendary creatures in folklore and mythology among the overlapping cultures of Europe. The Roman poet Virgil in his poem Culex lines 163-201, describing a shepherd having a fight with a big constricting snake, calls it "serpens" and "draco", showing that in his time the two words were interchangeable. In and after the early Middle Ages, the European dragon is depicted as a large, fire-breathing, horned, lizard-like creature; some depictions show dragons with one or more of: feathered wings, ear frills, fiery manes, ivory spikes running down its spine, various exotic decorations. In folktales, dragon's blood contains unique powers, keeping them alive for longer or giving them poisonous or acidic properties; the typical dragon in Christian culture protects a castle filled with gold and treasure. An evil dragon is associated with a great hero who tries to slay it, a good one is said to give support or wise advice. Though a winged creature, the dragon is to be found in its underground lair, a cave that identifies it as an ancient creature of earth.
English "dragon" derives from Ancient Greek δράκων drákōn, "serpent, dragon" related to δέρκομαι, "I see". The Greek word derives from an Aryan base derk- meaning "to see" and the Sanskrit dŗç- signifying "to see". Notwithstanding their folkloric associations, there is no etymological connection between dragons and the ghoulish figures known as draugar in Old Norse, who haunt rich burial mounds. Roman dragons developed from serpentine Greek ones, combined with the dragons of the Near East, in the context of the hybrid Greek/Eastern Hellenistic culture. From Babylon, the muš-ḫuššu was a classic representation of a Near Eastern dragon. St John's Book of Revelation—Greek literature, not Roman—describes Satan as "a great dragon, flaming red, with seven heads and ten horns". Much of St John's literary inspiration is late Hebrew and Greek, but his dragon is more to have symbolized the dragons from the Near East. In the Roman Empire, each military cohort had a particular identifying signum. With the jaws facing into the wind, the silken body rippled, resembling a windsock.
Several personifications of evil or allusions to dragons in the Old Testament are translated as forms of draco in Jerome's Vulgate. E.g. Deuteronomy, Psalms, Isaiah and Malachi. Dragons in Greek mythology guard treasure. For example Ladon, a hundred-headed dragon, guarded the tree of Herodias until he was slain by Heracles. Python guarded the oracle of Delphi until he was slain by Apollo out of revenge for Python tormenting his mother; the Lernaean Hydra, a multiple-headed serpentine swamp monster killed by Heracles, is said to be a dragon. The Roman poet Virgil in his poem Culex lines 163-201, describing a shepherd having a fight with a big constricting snake, calls it "serpens" and "draco", showing that in his time the two words were interchangeable. Classical European dragons are described as illuminating the air; this is taken by Christian writers as a metaphor for Lucifer, whose name means "bearer of light". During the early Middle Ages, European culture was out of contact with classical literature for centuries.
During this time there was a gradual change in the usual mental image of the "dragon", i.e. the Latin draco and its equivalents in vernacular languages, which occurred in oral and written literature, including in classical literature. This led to the depiction in this literature of "modern-type" dragons, whose features are described below; the modern western image of a dragon developed in western Europe during the Middle Ages through the combination of the snakelike dragons of classical Graeco-Roman literature, references to Near Eastern European dragons preserved in the Bible, western European folk traditions. The period between the 11th and 13th centuries represents the height of European interest in dragons as living creatures. Dragons are shown in modern times with a body more like a huge lizard, or a snake with two pairs of lizard-type legs, breathing fire from their mouths; this traces back to the continental dragon referred to as a fire-breathing dragon. The continental, like many other European dragons, has bat-like wings growing from its back.
The Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf refers to a dragon as a draca and as a wyrm. Its movements are denoted by the Anglo-Saxon verb bugan, "to bend", it is said to have a venomous bite, poisonous breath; the Ramsund carving from Viking-age Sweden, around 1030, depicts events related in the Old Norse Völsunga saga about the hero Sigurd. It shows the dragon Fafnir as a big and long wingless snake, drawn rather fancifully, surrounding the scene; the oldest recognizable image of a "modern-style" western dragon appears in a hand-painted illustration from the bestiary MS
Flooding or scrolling on an IRC network is a method of disconnecting users from an IRC server, exhausting bandwidth which causes network latency, or just disrupting users. Floods can either be done by external programs; the history of Internet Relay Chat flooding started as a method of taking over an IRC channel from the original founders of the channel. The first attacks used a modified IRC client or an application to flood a channel or a user, they started to be based on bots and scripts. This moved on to starting IRC-based botnets which were capable of DDoS and IRC floods. Connecting and disconnecting from a channel as fast as possible, therefore spamming the channel with dis/connect messages called q/j flooding. Since CTCP is implemented in every client, most users respond to CTCP requests. By sending too many requests, after a couple of answers they get disconnected from the IRC server; the most used type is CTCP PING, although some clients implement other CTCP replies. This type consists of initiating many DCC requests simultaneously.
Theoretically it can be used to disconnect users, because the target client sends information back about what port is intended to be used during the DCC session. Referred to as a ping flood; this attack overloads the victim's internet connection with an amount of ICMP data exceeding the connection's capacity causing a disconnection from the IRC network. For the duration of the attack, the user's internet connection remains hindered. Technically speaking, this is not an IRC flood, as the attack itself doesn't traverse the IRC network at all, but operates independent of anything but the raw internet connection and its IP protocol. So, the actual IP address to flood is obtained by looking at the victim's user information on the IRC network. Sending disruptive numbers of invites to a certain channel; this is the simplest type of IRC flooding. It involves posting large numbers of posts or one long post with repetitive text; this type of flood can be achieved, by copying and pasting one short word repeatedly.
Sending massive numbers of private messages to the victim from different connections called clones. Since some clients separate the private conversations into another window, each new message could open a new window for every new user a message is received from; this is exploitable by sending messages from multiple names, causing the target client to open many new windows and swamping the user with boxes. Sometimes the easiest way to close all the windows is to restart the IRC client, although scripts exist to'validate' unknown nicknames before receiving messages from them. Similar to the message, but uses the "notice" command. Changing the nick as fast as possible, thus disrupting conversation in the channel. Computer security Flood Smurf attack WinNuke mIRC script database Flood protection and ignoring information
The Apple II is an 8-bit home computer, one of the first successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed by Steve Wozniak. It was introduced in 1977 at the West Coast Computer Faire by Jobs and was the first consumer product sold by Apple Computer, Inc, it is the first model in a series of computers which were produced until Apple IIe production ceased in November 1993. The Apple II marks Apple's first launch of a personal computer aimed at a consumer market – branded towards American households rather than businessmen or computer hobbyists. Byte magazine referred to the Apple II, Commodore PET 2001 and the TRS-80 as the "1977 Trinity." The Apple II had the defining feature of being able to display color graphics, this capability was the reason why the Apple logo was redesigned to have a spectrum of colors. By 1976, Steve Jobs had convinced the product designer Jerry Manock to create the "shell" for the Apple II – a smooth case inspired by kitchen appliances that would conceal the internal mechanics.
The earliest Apple IIs were assembled in Silicon Valley, in Texas. The first computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1.023 MHz, two game paddles, 4 KB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. The video controller displays 24 lines by 40 columns of monochrome, uppercase-only text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator; the original retail price of the computer was $1,298 and $2,638. To reflect the computer's color graphics capability, the Apple logo on the casing has rainbow stripes, which remained a part of Apple's corporate logo until early 1998. Most the Apple II was a catalyst for personal computers across many industries. In the May 1977 issue of Byte, Steve Wozniak published a detailed description of his design; this arrangement eliminated the need for a separate refresh circuit for the DRAM chips, as the video transfer accessed each row of the dynamic memory within the timeout period.
In addition, it did not require separate RAM chips for the video RAM, while the PET and TRS-80 had SRAMs for the video. Rather than use a complex analog-to-digital circuit to read the outputs of the game controller, Wozniak used a simple timer circuit whose period is proportional to the resistance of the game controller, used a software loop to measure the timer. A single 14.31818 MHz master oscillator was divided by various ratios to produce all other required frequencies, including the microprocessor clock signals, the video transfer counters, the color-burst samples. The text and graphics screens have a complex arrangement. For instance, the scanlines were not stored in sequential areas of memory; this complexity was due to Wozniak's realization that the method would allow for the refresh of the dynamic RAM as a side effect. This method had no cost overhead to have software calculate or look up the address of the required scanline and avoided the need for significant extra hardware. In the high-resolution graphics mode, color is determined by pixel position and thus can be implemented in software, saving Wozniak the chips needed to convert bit patterns to colors.
This allowed for subpixel font rendering, since orange and blue pixels appear half a pixel-width farther to the right on the screen than green and purple pixels. The Apple II at first used data cassette storage like most other microcomputers of the time. In 1978, the company introduced an external 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive, the Disk II, attached via a controller card that plugs into one of the computer's expansion slots; the Disk II interface, created by Wozniak, is regarded as an engineering masterpiece for its economy of electronic components. The approach taken in the Disk II controller is typical of Wozniak's designs. With a few small-scale logic chips and a cheap PROM, he created a functional floppy disk interface at a fraction of the component cost of standard circuit configurations. Steve Jobs extensively pushed to give the Apple II a case that looked visually appealing and sellable to people outside of electronics hobbyists, rather than the generic wood and metal boxes typical of early microcomputers.
The result was a futuristic-looking molded white plastic case. Jobs paid close attention to the keyboard design and decided to use dark brown keycaps as it contrasted well with the case; the first production Apple IIs had hand-molded cases. In addition, the initial case design ha
EFnet or Eris-Free network is a major Internet Relay Chat network, with more than 35,000 users. It is the modern-day descendant of the original IRC network. Most IRC servers formed a single IRC network, to which new servers could join without restriction, but this was soon abused by people who set up servers to sabotage other users, channels, or servers. Restriction grew and, in August 1990, eris. Berkeley. EDU was the last server indiscriminately allowing other servers to join it, Eris being the Greek goddess of strife and discord. A group of operators, with the support of Jarkko Oikarinen, introduced a new "Q-line" into their server configurations, to "quarantine" themselves away from eris by disconnecting from any subset of the IRC network as soon as they saw eris there. For a few days, the entire IRC network suffered frequent netsplits, but the majority of servers added the Q-line and created a new separate IRC net called EFnet. A-net soon vanished. Continuing problems with performance and abuse led to the rise of another major IRC network, which split off in October 1992.
In July 1996, disagreement on policy caused EFnet to break in two: the larger European half formed IRCnet, while the American servers continued as EFnet. This was known as The Great Split. In July 2001, after a string of DDoS attacks a service called CHANFIX was created, designed to give back ops to channels which have lost ops or been taken over. In 2007, various EFnet servers began implementing SSL. February 2009 saw the introduction of a new CHANFIX module called OPME, a mechanism for EFnet Admins to use to restore ops in an opless channel, it was proposed by Douglas Boldt to provide a much cleaner alternative to masskill, unnecessarily invasive and disruptive to the network. In 2009, some major IRC servers were delinked: irc.vel.net, irc.dks.ca, irc.pte.hu, EFnet's only UK server efnet.demon.co.uk, EFnet's only UK hub hub.uk, which were sponsored by Demon Internet. In September 2010, the two western regions of the network merged into the North American region. While the North American and European regions are technically independent of each other, today many issues within EFnet are handled at a global level.
On April 1, 2018, as an April Fools' joke, the 1990s IRC server eris. Berkeley. EDU server was resurrected; some EFnet admins worked with the OCF department of UC Berkeley for months to resurrect the server for April Fools. Only a few EFnet staff were aware of the efforts and the server was linked in via a defunct H:line for the leaf server irc.efnet.nl, bypassing the normal linking procedure. As of 12:30 UTC on April 01 2018, eris. Berkeley. EDU was once again accepted clients. At the same time, efnet.org begin redirecting to erisnet.org. The server has since delinked. EFnet has large variations in rules and policy between different servers as well as the two major regions. Both have their own policy structure, each region votes on their own server applications. However, central policies are voted upon by the server admin community, archived for referencing. Due to EFnet's nature, it has gained recognition over the years for warez, DoS attacks. EFnet has always been known for its lack of IRC services.
Instead, the CHANFIX service was introduced to fix "opless" channels. Most servers on EFnet run ircd-ratbox with one running ircd-hybrid. EFnet's channel operators are free to run their channels however they see fit without the intervention of IRC operators. IRC ops are there to handle network and server related issues, get involved with channel-level issues. Official website EFnet at CurlieQuery netsplit.de's IRC network database for EFnet Query SearchIRC's IRC network database for EFnet
Bahamut (Dungeons & Dragons)
In the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game, Bahamut ( bə-HAH-mət is a powerful draconic deity, who has the same name as Bahamut from Arabic mythology. Introduced in the 1st Edition of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons and continuing into 2004's release of Complete Divine, the Platinum Dragon, is the King of the Good Dragons, he is a member of the default pantheon of D&D gods. His counterpart in Dragonlance is Paladine. Bahamut is a child of the dragon god Io, he is referred to as the God of Dragons or the Lord of the North Wind. In many campaign settings, the draconic pantheon of gods consists of the leader Io, his children Aasterinian, Chronepsis, Faluzure and Tiamat. Other draconic gods may be present in different campaign settings. For example, the Forgotten Realms draconic pantheon includes Astilabor, Hlal and Tamara. Bahamut's personal name is derived from the Bahamut of Arabic mythology, an elephant-headed fish that supports the world; the character was introduced to the game in its first supplement, Greyhawk, by Gary Gygax and Rob Kuntz.
In this book, he was only known as the Dragon King called the Platinum Dragon, did not have a personal name. The character appears in the first edition Monster Manual. In this book, the Platinum Dragon was given the personal name Bahamut. Bahamut, the Platinum Dragon, King of the Good Dragons, Angel of the Seven Heavens is further described in Dragon #38. Bahamut's role in the outer planes is detailed in the first edition Manual of the Planes. Bahamut was detailed as a deity in the book Monster Mythology, including details about his priesthood. Bahamut was initially, first detailed as a deity for the Forgotten Realms campaign setting in the original Draconomicon. Bahamut is described in Cult of the Dragon, his role in the cosmology of the Planescape campaign setting was described in On Hallowed Ground. Several draconic children of Bahamut are described in the article "Spawn of Tiamat, Children of Bahamut", in Dragon #260. Bahamut is described as one of the good deities that celestials can serve in the supplement Warriors of Heaven.
Bahamut appears in a preview article for the third edition, in Dragon #272. This information is included in the Manual of the Planes,Bahamut is further detailed as a deity in Defenders of the Faith and Deities and Demigods. Bahamut's priesthood and his role as a draconic deity are further detailed for this edition in Draconomicon: The Book of Dragons, Complete Divine, Races of the Dragon. Bahamut appears, he has a stat block in the Draconomicon: Metallic Dragons. Bahamut options for PCs and details of his clergy as an enemy threat are detailed in the articles "Channel Divinity: Bahamut" and "Deities & Demigods: Bahamut" in Dragon #378. Bahamut is depicted as a massive and sinuous dragon with silver-white scales and blue, catlike eyes. According to Complete Divine and Races of the Dragon, the exact color is hard to specify and may depend on Bahamut's mood, ranging from sky-blue to frosty indigo. About a quarter of the time, Bahamut wanders Oerth in the shape of some other guise, he is said to have been encountered as a frail old hermit, with the seven great golden wyrms that accompany him disguised as seven canaries singing sweetly nearby.
The same edition of Dungeons & Dragons that introduced Bahamut introduced his antithesis, named Tiamat, the Chromatic Dragon and Queen of Evil Dragons, as well as the mother and deity of all evil dragons. This pairing features prominently in the deity lore of the game, with Tiamat being featured in the television cartoon adaptation of the game; this pairing of Tiamat and Bahamut as the antithesis of each other has since recurred in other fantasy settings. In both the original Final Fantasy and Final Fantasy VIII, Bahamut is portrayed as benevolent, while Tiamat is portrayed as malevolent, keeping close to their origins in D&D. Both occur in the card game Three-Dragon Ante, Aspects of them have been created as plastic miniatures. Bahamut is a child of the dragon god Io, a fierce enemy of Tiamat, his evil sister and twin, he respects Heironeous, Moradin and other lawful good deities. Some myths claim he is the son of Lendys, god of justice, Tamara, goddess of mercy, but more those deities are said to be among his younger siblings, which include Aasterinian, Astilabor, Faluzure and Nathair Sgiathach.
A number of non-divine dragons and dragonlike beings serve Bahamut: Medrinia is a blue-green aquatic dragon said to have been born from the first tear that Bahamut shed after witnessing the desolation left after the first battle between Tiamat and the dragons of good. She dwells in the undersea palace of Sea Reach on the Prime Material Plane, allying with dolphins, sea-horses, other aquatic dragons to defeat evil and protect good. Xathanon is a burst of golden energy with draconic shape, said to be a physical embodiment of the Positive Energy Plane, it was created by Bahamut from positive energy long ago, it serves Draco Paladin unswervingly. It has a special hatred for a negative energy being created by Tiamat. Vanathor, the Golden Harpist, is Bahamut's advisor and bard, appearing as a gold dragon with a swirl of rainbow colors on