Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation branded as the'William H. Gates Foundation', is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates. Based in Seattle, Washington, it was launched in 2000 and is reported to be the largest private foundation in the world, holding $50.7 billion in assets. The primary aims of the foundation are, globally, to enhance healthcare and reduce extreme poverty, and, in the U. S. to expand educational opportunities and access to information technology. The foundation is controlled by its three trustees: Bill and Melinda Gates, Warren Buffett. Other principal officers include Co-Chair William H. Gates, Sr. and Chief Executive Officer Susan Desmond-Hellmann. It had an endowment of $50.7 billion as of December 31, 2017. The scale of the foundation and the way it seeks to apply business techniques to giving makes it one of the leaders in venture philanthropy, though the foundation itself notes that the philanthropic role has limitations. In 2007, its founders were ranked as the second most generous philanthropists in the US, Warren Buffett the first.
As of May 16, 2013, Bill Gates had donated $28 billion to the foundation. Since its founding, the foundation has endowed and supported a broad range of social and education developments including the establishment of the Gates Cambridge Scholarships at Cambridge University. In 1994, the foundation was formed as the William H. Gates Foundation. During the foundation's following years, funding grew to $2 billion. On June 15, 2006, Gates announced his plans to transition out of a day-to-day role with Microsoft, effective July 31, 2008, to allow him to devote more time to working with the foundation. In 2005, Bill and Melinda Gates, along with the musician Bono, were named by Time as Persons of the Year 2005 for their outstanding charitable work. In the case of Bill and Melinda Gates, the work referenced was that of this foundation. In April 2010, Gates was invited to visit and speak at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he asked the students to take on the hard problems of the world in their futures.
He explained the nature and philosophy of his philanthropic endeavors. In 2010, the foundation's founders started the Commission on Education of Health Professionals for the 21st Century, entitled "Transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world."A 2011 survey of grantees found that many believed the foundation did not make its goals and strategies clear and sometimes did not understand those of the grantees. The foundation's response was to improve the clarity of its explanations, make "orientation calls" to grantees upon awarding grants, tell grantees who their foundation contact is, give timely feedback when they receive a grantee report, establish a way for grantees to provide anonymous or attributed feedback to the foundation; the foundation launched a podcast series. In 2013, Hillary Clinton launched a partnership between the foundation and the Clinton Foundation to gather and study data on the progress of women and girls around the world since the 1995 United Nations Fourth World Conference On Women in Beijing.
This is called "No Ceilings: The Full Participation Project." On June 25, 2006, Warren Buffett pledged to give the foundation 10 million Berkshire Hathaway Class B shares spread over multiple years through annual contributions, with the first year's donation of 500,000 shares being worth $1.5 billion. Buffett set conditions so that these contributions do not increase the foundation's endowment, but work as a matching contribution, doubling the foundation's annual giving. Bloomberg News noted, "Buffett's gift came with three conditions for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: Bill or Melinda Gates must be alive and active in its administration. Buffett gave the foundation two years to abide by the third requirement." The Gates Foundation received 5% of the shares in July 2006 and will receive 5% of the remaining earmarked shares in the July of each following year. In July 2018, Buffet announced another donation of his company's Class B stock, this time worth $2 billion, to the Gates Foundation.
To maintain its status as a charitable foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation must donate funds equal to at least 5 percent of its assets each year. As of April 2014, the foundation is organized into four program areas under chief executive officer Susan Desmond-Hellmann, who "sets strategic priorities, monitors results, facilitates relationships with key partners": Global Development Division Global Health Division United States Division Global Policy & Advocacy Division Global Growth & Opportunity DivisionThe foundation maintains an online database of grants on its website which includes for each grant the name of the grantee organization, the purpose of the grant and the amount; this database is publicly available. In November 2014, the Gates Foundation announced that they were adopting an open access policy for publications and data, "to enable the unrestricted access and reuse of all peer-reviewed published research funded by the foundation, including any underlying data sets".
This move has been applauded by those who are working in the area of capacity building and knowledge sharing. Its terms have been called the most stringent among similar OA policies; as of January 1, 2015 their Open Access polic
U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin formed in 1976. The group consists of Bono, the Edge, Adam Clayton, Larry Mullen Jr.. Rooted in post-punk, U2's musical style has evolved throughout their career, yet has maintained an anthemic quality built on Bono's expressive vocals and the Edge's effects-based guitar textures, their lyrics embellished with spiritual imagery, focus on personal and sociopolitical themes. Popular for their live performances, the group have staged several ambitious and elaborate tours over their career; the band formed as teenagers while attending Mount Temple Comprehensive School, when they had limited musical proficiency. Within four years, they released their debut album, Boy. Subsequent work such as their first UK number-one album and the singles "Sunday Bloody Sunday" and "Pride" helped establish U2's reputation as a politically and conscious group. By the mid-1980s, they had become renowned globally for their live act, highlighted by their performance at Live Aid in 1985.
The group's fifth album, The Joshua Tree, made them international superstars and was their greatest critical and commercial success. Topping music charts around the world, it produced their only number-one singles in the US to date: "With or Without You" and "I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For". Facing creative stagnation and a backlash following their documentary/double album and Hum, U2 reinvented themselves in the 1990s through a new musical direction and public image. Beginning with their acclaimed seventh album, Achtung Baby, the multimedia-intensive Zoo TV Tour, the band integrated influences from alternative rock, electronic dance music, industrial music into their sound, embraced a more ironic, flippant image; this experimentation continued through their ninth album and the PopMart Tour, which were mixed successes. U2 regained critical and commercial favour with the records All That You Can't Leave Behind and How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb, which established a more conventional, mainstream sound for the group.
Their U2 360° Tour of 2009–2011 is the highest-attended and highest-grossing concert tour in history. The group most released the companion albums Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience, the former of which received criticism for its pervasive, no-cost release through the iTunes Store. U2 have released 14 studio albums and are one of the world's best-selling music artists in history, having sold an estimated 150–170 million records worldwide, they have won 22 Grammy Awards, more than any other band, in 2005, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone ranked U2 at number 22 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". Throughout their career, as a band and as individuals, they have campaigned for human rights and social justice causes, including Amnesty International, Jubilee 2000, the ONE/DATA campaigns, Product Red, War Child, Music Rising. In 1976, Larry Mullen Jr. a 14-year-old student at Mount Temple Comprehensive School in Dublin, posted a note on the school's notice board in search of musicians for a new band.
Six people met at Mullen's house on 25 September. Set up in the kitchen, Mullen was on drums, with: Paul Hewson on lead vocals. Mullen described it as "'The Larry Mullen Band' for about ten minutes Bono walked in and blew any chance I had of being in charge." Martin, who had brought his guitar and amplifier to the first practice but could not play, did not remain with the group, McCormick was dropped after a few weeks. The remaining five members settled on the name "Feedback" for the group because it was one of the few technical terms they knew. Most of their initial material consisted of cover songs, which they admitted was not their forte; some of the earliest influences on the band were emerging punk rock acts, such as the Jam, the Clash and Sex Pistols. The popularity of punk rock convinced the group that musical proficiency was not a prerequisite to success. In April 1977, Feedback played their first gig for a paying audience at St. Fintan's High School. Shortly thereafter, the band changed their name to "The Hype".
Dik Evans, older and by this time at college, was becoming the odd man out. The rest of the band was leaning towards the idea of a four-piece ensemble. In March 1978, the group changed their name to "U2". Steve Averill, a punk rock musician and family friend of Clayton's, had suggested six potential names from which the band chose "U2" for its ambiguity and open-ended interpretations, because it was the name that they disliked the least; that same month, U2, as a four-piece, won a talent contest in Limerick sponsored by Harp Lager and the Evening Press. The prize consisted of £500 and studio time to record a demo which would be heard by CBS Ireland, a record label; the win was an important affirmation for the fledgling band. Within a few days, Dik Evans was phased out of the band with a farewell concert at the Presbyterian Church Hall in Howth. During the show, which featured the group playing cover songs as the Hype, Dik ceremonially walked offstage; the remaining four band members returned in the concert to play original material as U2.
Dik soon joined the Virgin Prunes, which comprised mutual friends of U2's.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another in exchange for money. A system or network that allows trade is called a market. An early form of trade, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services. Barter involves trading things without the use of money. One bartering party started to involve precious metals, which gained symbolic as well as practical importance. Modern traders negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money; as a result, buying can be separated from earning. The invention of money simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade involving more than two traders is called multilateral trade. Trade exists due to specialization and the division of labor, a predominant form of economic activity in which individuals and groups concentrate on a small aspect of production, but use their output in trades for other products and needs. Trade exists between regions because different regions may have a comparative advantage in the production of some trade-able commodity—including production of natural resources scarce or limited elsewhere, or because different regions' sizes may encourage mass production.
In such circumstances, trade at market prices between locations can benefit both locations. Retail trade consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a fixed location, online or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption or use by the purchaser. Wholesale trade is defined as traffic in goods that are sold as merchandise to retailers, or to industrial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. Commerce is derived from the Latin commercium, from cum "together" and merx, "merchandise."Trade from Middle English trade, introduced into English by Hanseatic merchants, from Middle Low German trade, from Old Saxon trada, from Proto-Germanic *tradō, cognate with Old English tredan. Trade originated with human communication in prehistoric times. Trading was the main facility of prehistoric people, who bartered goods and services from each other before the innovation of modern-day currency. Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago.
In the Mediterranean region the earliest contact between cultures were of members of the species Homo sapiens principally using the Danube river, at a time beginning 35,000–30,000 BCE. Some trace the origins of commerce to the start of transaction in prehistoric times. Apart from traditional self-sufficiency, trading became a principal facility of prehistoric people, who bartered what they had for goods and services from each other. Trade is believed to have taken place throughout much of recorded human history. There is evidence of the exchange of flint during the stone age. Trade in obsidian is believed to have taken place in Guinea from 17,000 BCE; the earliest use of obsidian in the Near East dates to the Middle paleolithic. Trade in the stone age was investigated by Robert Carr Bosanquet in excavations of 1901. Trade is believed to have first begun in south west Asia. Archaeological evidence of obsidian use provides data on how this material was the preferred choice rather than chert from the late Mesolithic to Neolithic, requiring exchange as deposits of obsidian are rare in the Mediterranean region.
Obsidian is thought to have provided the material to make cutting utensils or tools, although since other more obtainable materials were available, use was found exclusive to the higher status of the tribe using "the rich man's flint". Obsidian was traded at distances of 900 kilometres within the Mediterranean region. Trade in the Mediterranean during the Neolithic of Europe was greatest in this material. Networks were in existence at around 12,000 BCE Anatolia was the source for trade with the Levant and Egypt according to Zarins study of 1990. Melos and Lipari sources produced among the most widespread trading in the Mediterranean region as known to archaeology; the Sari-i-Sang mine in the mountains of Afghanistan was the largest source for trade of lapis lazuli. The material was most traded during the Kassite period of Babylonia beginning 1595 BCE. Ebla was a prominent trading centre during the third millennia, with a network reaching into Anatolia and north Mesopotamia. Materials used for creating jewelry were traded with Egypt since 3000 BCE.
Long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BCE, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley. The Phoenicians were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean Sea, as far north as Britain for sources of tin to manufacture bronze. For this purpose they established trade colonies. From the beginning of Greek civilization until the fall of the Roman empire in the 5th century, a financially lucrative trade brought valuable spice to Europe from the far east, including India and China. Roman commerce allowed its empire to endure; the latter Roman Republic and the Pax Romana of the Roman empire produced a stable and secure transportation network that enabled the shipment of trade goods without fear of significant piracy, as Rome had become the sole effective sea power in the Mediterranean with the conquest of Egypt and the near east. In ancient Greece Hermes was the god of trade and weights and measures, for Romans Mercurius god of merchants, whose festival was celebrated by traders on the 25th day o
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt
Paul David Hewson, KBE OL, known by his stage name Bono, is an Irish singer-songwriter, venture capitalist and philanthropist. He is best known as the lead vocalist and primary lyricist of rock band U2. Bono was raised in Dublin, Ireland, he attended Mount Temple Comprehensive School where he met his future wife, Alison Stewart, as well as schoolmates with whom he founded U2 in 1976. Bono soon established himself as a passionate frontman for the band through his expressive vocal style and grandiose gestures and songwriting, his lyrics are known for their social and political themes, for their religious imagery inspired by his Christian beliefs. During U2's early years, Bono's lyrics contributed to the group's spiritual tone; as the band matured, his lyrics became inspired more by personal experiences shared with the other members. As a member of U2, Bono has received 22 Grammy Awards and has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Bono is well known for his activism both through U2 and as an individual.
He is active in campaigning for Africa, for which he co-founded DATA, EDUN, the ONE Campaign, Product Red. In pursuit of these causes, he has participated in benefit concerts and met with influential politicians. Bono has been praised for his philanthropic efforts. In 2005, Bono was named one of the Time Persons of the Year. Outside the band, he has recorded with numerous artists, he has collaborated with U2 bandmate the Edge on several projects, including: songs for Roy Orbison and Tina Turner. He is Managing Director and a Managing Partner of the private equity firm Elevation Partners, which has invested in several companies. Bono was born in the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, on 10 May 1960, he was raised in the Northside suburb of Finglas with his brother by their mother, Iris, a member of the Church of Ireland, their father, Brendan Robert "Bob" Hewson, a Roman Catholic. His parents agreed that the first child would be raised Anglican and the second Catholic. Although Bono was the second child, he attended Church of Ireland services with his mother and brother.
He went to the local primary Glasnevin National School. Bono's mother died on 10 September 1974, after suffering a cerebral aneurysm at her father's funeral. Many U2 songs, including "I Will Follow", "Mofo", "Out of Control", "Lemon" and "Tomorrow" focus on the loss of his mother. Bono attended a multi-denominational school in Clontarf. During his childhood and adolescence and his friends were part of a surrealist street gang called "Lypton Village". Bono met one of Guggi, in Lypton Village; the gang had a ritual of nickname-giving. Bono had several names: first, he was "Steinhegvanhuysenolegbangbangbang" just "Huyseman", followed by "Houseman", "Bon Murray", "Bono Vox of O'Connell Street", just "Bono". "Bono Vox" is an alteration of Bonavox, a Latin phrase which translates to "good voice". It is said he was nicknamed "Bono Vox" by his friend Gavin Friday, he disliked the name. Hewson has been known as "Bono" since the late 1970s. Although he uses Bono as his stage name, close family and friends refer to him as Bono, including fellow band members.
After he left school, his father Bob Hewson, told him he could live at home for one year but if he was not able to pay his own way, he would have to leave the house. Bono is married to businesswoman Alison Hewson; the couple have four children: daughters Jordan and Memphis Eve and sons Elijah Bob Patricius Guggi Q and John Abraham. Bono was a close friend to INXS frontman Michael Hutchence. Bono is never seen in public without sunglasses, as he suffers from glaucoma. During a Rolling Stone interview he stated: sensitive eyes to light. If somebody takes my photograph, I will see the flash for the rest of the day. My right eye swells up. I've a blockage there. So it's it's part privacy and part sensitivity. In the late 1980s or early 90s, Bono bought a top-floor duplex apartment in Manhattan's San Remo apartment building from Steve Jobs for $15 million. Jobs never moved in. In 2004, Bono was given an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Pennsylvania. In May 2010, Bono suffered a spinal injury while preparing for a U2 tour, was taken to a German clinic in Munich for emergency neurosurgery.
The North American leg of the tour was postponed and rescheduled for 2011. Bono was named one of the 17 Irish artists to be proud of by the Irish Post on 9 April 2013. Time magazine ranked him at the 8th place on its list of the "Most Influential Celebrities" in 2013. Bono's work as an activist, due to his Christian beliefs, began in earnest when, inspired by Live Aid, he travelled to Ethiopia to work in a feeding camp with his wife Alison and the charity World Vision, an Evangelical Christian humanitarian aid and advocacy organisation. With regard to Bono's 2013 declarations in interviews published and videotaped of his faith in Jesus Chri
Transparency, as used in science, business, the humanities and in other social contexts, is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed. Transparency implies openness and accountability. Transparency is practiced in companies, organizations and communities. For example, a cashier making change after a point of sale transaction by offering a record of the items purchased as well as counting out the customer's change on the counter demonstrates one type of transparency; the term transparency has a different meaning in information security where it is used to describe security mechanisms that are intentionally in-detectable or hidden from view. Examples include hiding utilities and tools which the user does not need to know in order to do their job, like keeping the remote re-authentication operations of Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol hidden from the user. In Norway and in Sweden, tax authorities annually release the "skatteliste" or "tax list".
Regulations in Hong Kong require banks to list their top earners – without naming them – by pay band. In 2009, the Spanish government for the first time released information on how much each cabinet member is worth, but data on ordinary citizens is private. Radical transparency is a management method where nearly all decision making is carried out publicly. All draft documents, all arguments for and against a proposal, all final decisions, the decision making process itself are made public and remain publicly archived; this approach has grown in popularity with the rise of the Internet. Two examples of organizations utilizing this style are Indymedia. Corporate transparency, a form of radical transparency, is the concept of removing all barriers to —and the facilitating of— free and easy public access to corporate information and the laws, social connivance and processes that facilitate and protect those individuals and corporations that join and improve the process. Accountability and transparency are of high relevance for non-governmental organisations.
In view of their responsibilities to stakeholders, including donors, programme beneficiaries, staff and the public, they are considered to be of greater importance to them than to commercial undertakings. Yet these same values are found to be lacking in NGOs; the International NGO Accountability Charter, linked to the Global Reporting Initiative, documents the commitment of its members international NGOs to accountability and transparency, requiring them to submit an annual report, among others. Signed in 2006 by 11 NGOs active in the area of humanitarian rights, the INGO Accountability Charter has been referred to as the “first global accountability charter for the non-profit sector”. In 1997, the One World Trust created an NGO Charter, a code of conduct comprising commitment to accountability and transparency. Media transparency is the concept of determining how and why information is conveyed through various means. If the media and the public knows everything that happens in all authorities and county administrations there will be a lot of questions and suggestions coming from media and the public.
People who are interested in a certain issue will try to influence the decisions. Transparency creates an everyday participation in the political processes by the public. One tool used to increase everyday participation in political processes is freedom of information legislation and requests. Modern democracy builds on such participation of the media. There are, for anybody, interested, many ways to influence the decisions at all levels in society; the right and the means to examine the process of decision making is known as transparency. In politics, transparency is used as a means of holding public officials accountable and fighting corruption; when a government's meetings are open to the press and the public, its budgets may be reviewed by anyone, its laws and decisions are open to discussion, it is seen as transparent. It is not clear however if this provides less opportunity for the authorities to abuse the system for their own interests; when military authorities classify their plans as secret, transparency is absent.
This can be seen as either negative. While a liberal democracy can be a plutocracy, where decisions are made behind locked doors and the people have fewer possibilities to influence politics between the elections, a participative democracy is more connected to the will of the people. Participative democracy, built on transparency and everyday participation, has been used in northern Europe for decades. In the northern European country Sweden, public access to government documents became a law as early as 1766, it has been adopted as an ideal to strive for by the rest of EU, leading to measures like freedom of information laws and laws for lobby transparency. To promote transparency in politics, Hans Peter Martin, Paul van Buitenen and Ashley Mote decided to cooperate under the name Platform for Transparency in 2005. Similar organizations that promotes transparency are Transparency International and the Sunlight Foundation. A recent political movement to emerge in conjunction with the demands for transparency is the Pirate Party, a label for a number of political parties across different countries who advocate freedom of information, direct democracy, network neutrality, the free sharing of knowledge.
21st century culture affords a h