click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Adler (comics)

Adler is a Belgian comic series written and drawn by the Belgian author René Sterne and colored by his wife Chantal De Spiegeleer. The comic was serialized in Tintin magazine beginning in 1985 and was published as ten albums by Le Lombard from 1987 to 2003, it was reissued in 2008 in two omnibus volumes collecting five albums each. Executed in classic ligne claire, the series's drawings are characterized by a stylized but realistic portrayal of the background and a stylized, nearly caricatural character design. Adler is named after the protagonist, Adler von Berg, a German pilot who deserts the Luftwaffe in 1942 and founds an airfreight company in Delhi with his Irish girlfriend Helen; the albums recount, with a humorous tone, their action-laden adventures in exotic locations such as India, Latin America, the Caribbean or a Soviet gulag. Individual albumsL'avion du Nanga Le repaire du Katana Muerte transit Dernière mission Black Bounty L'île perdue La jungle rouge Les maudits La force Le goulag CollectionsAdler: Intégrale 1 Adler: Intégrale 2 Special editionsNoël en malaisie

Dearne Valley line

The Dearne Valley line is the name given to a railway line in the north of England running from York to Sheffield via Pontefract Baghill and Moorthorpe. The northernmost section of the route was opened in stages by the fledgling York and North Midland Railway, a company which belonged to the railway empire of George Hudson. York to Sherburn Junction was completed in 1839 to form a link with the Leeds and Selby Railway, taken over by the Y&NM; this section includes Ulleskelf, Church Fenton and Sherburn-in-Elmet stations, as well as the former station sites at Copmanthorpe and Bolton Percy. Y&NM extended the line to Altofts Junction in 1840 to meet the new North Midland Railway as part of a new route from York to London St Pancras via Normanton, Swinton and Derby. Stations on this section were Milford, Monk Fryston and Burton Salmon, where the present route diverges; the next section, from Burton Salmon to Ferrybridge, was completed in 1850 to form a link between York and Knottingley. From Ferrybridge, the route takes up the course of the Swinton and Knottingley Joint Railway, constructed in 1879.

The first station encountered is Pontefract Baghill, which remains open today, before the line reaches a closed station at Ackworth the station at Moorthorpe. The small hamlet of Frickley saw its station close in 1953, but two new stations at Thurnscoe and Goldthorpe were constructed in the 1980s; these are served by Wakefield Line trains. The S&KJR's Bolton-on-Dearne station has remained open throughout. Beyond Bolton-on-Dearne the line joins the North Midland's route to the south, opened in 1840 and serving Swinton, a new station here replacing that closed in 1967 and Kilnhurst West. At Aldwarke Junction the route diverges from the North Midland via a junction constructed by British Rail and opened in 1965. Here it joins the former Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway line, part of a link between two branch lines opened many years earlier by the South Yorkshire Railway; this section once had stations at Parkgate and Aldwarke and at Rotherham Road, before reaching the former Rotherham Central re-opened nearer the College Road bridge, in 1987 by British Rail.

Leaving Rotherham Central we take the "Holmes Chord", a single line to Holmes Junction where we take to the rails of the Sheffield & Rotherham company, which opened its line in 1838 and which once served Holmes, Wincobank and Attercliffe Road, before arriving at Sheffield. The section between Holmes Junction, adjacent to the station and Grimesthorpe Junction is the oldest section of the route. Services which operate over the entire length of the route are provided by Northern. Freight trains regularly use the route. Northern services, which make just three round trips daily, call at Sheffield, Rotherham Central, Moorthorpe, Pontefract Baghill, Sherburn-in-Elmet, Church Fenton and York; this service was more frequent in the 1970s and 1980s, but since a major round of cutbacks in 1991 the service frequency has declined. The northern part of the route as far as Colton Junction is used by all Edinburgh to London King's Cross expresses, as well as the numerous CrossCountry, TransPennine Express and Northern York to Leeds workings which continue as far as Church Fenton.

Sherburn-in-Elmet is served by some York–Selby/Hull trains which diverge from the route at Sherburn South Junction, but beyond this point the only passenger trains are the infrequent Sheffield–York local services, until Moorthorpe is reached. Overall, the effect of this is that there are only three departures in each direction from Pontefract Baghill per day, although there are two other stations in Pontefract; the line is however a busy freight artery and a useful diversionary route, which ensures its continuing survival. In 2017, the section through Rotherham Central was adapted for use by Stagecoach Supertram, the light rail network that operates within Sheffield. Supertram will operate a pilot tram-train service over the route, testing the feasibility of such an operation; this is intended to run for two years, with an extension of the operation should it prove successful. It will see the construction of a new chord between the National Rail line and Supertram's own network, together with a short siding by Rotherham's Parkgate Shopping Centre and the electrification of the route as far as Parkgate.

New tram platforms were built at Parkgate. The extension opened on 25 October 2018. Rail Atlas: Great Britain & Ireland, by S. K. Baker The Railways of Great Britain: A Historical Atlas, by Colonel Michael H. Cobb

Cannabis in New York

Cannabis is illegal for recreational use in the State of New York. The medical use of cannabis is permitted in certain circumstances. In 1914, New York first began to restrict cannabis by requiring a prescription to obtain the drug. In an amendment to the Boylan Bill, they added "Cannabis indica, the Indian hemp from which the East Indian drug called hashish is manufactured," to the city's list of restricted drugs; the New York Times on the following day commented: Devotees of hashish are now hardly numerous enough here to count, but they are to increase as other narcotics become harder to obtain. In their study of the history of marijuana prohibition, Richard J. Bonnie & Charles H. Whitebread note that "only four articles about marijuana appeared in the major New York newspaper during the entire period from 1914 until 1927." In 1927, New York removed restricted cannabis completely. In New York City, there were more than 19,000 kg of marijuana growing like weeds throughout the boroughs until 1951, when the "White Wing Squad", headed by the Sanitation Department General Inspector John E. Gleason, was charged with destroying the many pot farms that had sprouted up across the city.

The Brooklyn Public Library reports: this group was held to a high moral standard and was prohibited from "entering saloons, using foul language, neglecting horses." The Squad found the most weed in Queens but in Brooklyn dug up "millions of dollars" worth of the plants, many as "tall as Christmas trees". Gleason oversaw incineration of the plants in Queens. In 1939, New York Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia assigned a committee to investigate the issue of cannabis in his city; the committee released its report in 1944, concluding that the "gateway theory" was false, that cannabis was not associated with addiction, school children, or juvenile delinquency. The report infuriated Harry Anslinger, commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, who branded it unscientific. In 1973, New York governor Nelson Rockefeller signed legislation increasing the penalty for selling two ounces or more of heroin, morphine, "raw or prepared opium," cocaine, or cannabis or possessing four ounces or more of the same substances, was a minimum of 15 years to life in prison, a maximum of 25 years to life in prison.

In 1977, New York decriminalized possession of 25 grams or less of marijuana, to an infraction with a $100 fine. However, possession in public view remained a misdemeanor, civil rights advocates stated that this was used as a loophole to unfairly arrest. A New York Times editorial noted in 2012: Marijuana arrests declined after passage of the 1977 law, but that changed in the 1990s. Between 1997 and 2010, the city arrested 525,000 people for low-level, public-view possession, according to a legislative finding. Lawmakers and civil rights lawyers are outraged that more than 80 percent of those arrested in the city are black and Latino, despite "data showing that whites are more to use the drug". In response to the continued arrests for marijuana possession, in 2014 New York City mayor Bill de Blasio directed the NYPD to cease arrests, instead issue tickets, for small possession in cases where the 1977 law might allow an arrest, such as cannabis entering "public view" during a stop-and-frisk.

However, the Village Voice noted in 2016 that despite a sudden drop following de Blasio's direction, arrests have "gone back up just as quickly."In 2018 the Manhattan and Brooklyn district attorneys announced that they would continue reducing the set of offenses that they would prosecute. In July 2014, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo signed legislation permitted the use of cannabis for medical purposes, following a "lengthy, emotional debate" in the issue in the Senate and 49–10 Senate vote. Cuomo's signing began an 18-month window for the state Department of Health to enact a medical marijuana program to provide non-smoked methods of cannabis consumption to patients; the legislation awarded five contracts to private marijuana growers who would each be allowed to operate four dispensaries. Offenses related to the possession or sale of marijuana and "concentrated cannabis", outside those allowed by the state's medical marijuana statute, are defined in Article 221 of the New York State Penal Law.

The former term is defined in the state's Public Health Law as "all parts of the plant of the genus Cannabis, whether growing or not. Stalks from the mature plant, fiber and cake made from it, sterilized seeds and compounds or preparations from them are not considered marijuana. "Concentrated cannabis", meant to refer to hashish, refers to the plant's "separated resin, whether crude or purified" and any substance, whether derived from the plant or not, containing more than 2.5% by weight of delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, delta-8 dibenzopyran, delta-1-THC or delta-1 monoterpene, an isomer of the last compound. Possession of less than 25 grams of marijuana, in any form, is unlawful possession of marijuana, punishable by a fine of no more than $100 if the defendant has no convictions for the offense within the last three years; those who do can be fined up to $200. The offense is considered a violation, the lowest level of offense defined in state law, thus does not show up on a criminal record.

If the marijuana is burning or in public view, no matter the amount, or is between 25 g

Chadstone Shopping Centre

Chadstone Shopping Centre is a super regional shopping centre located in the south-eastern suburb of Malvern East, Victoria in the city of Melbourne, Australia. Chadstone Shopping Centre is the biggest shopping centre in Australia and claims to be the biggest in the Southern Hemisphere; the centre opened on 3 October 1960 and was the first self-contained regional shopping centre in Melbourne. The centre contains 129,924m2 of shop floor space, about 530 stores and more than 9300 free car parking spaces, it has as many as 68,000 visitors on its busiest trading days and attracts about 400,000 tourists a year from interstate and 200,000 from overseas. Sales at the centre exceed $1.4 billion—the highest turnover of all Australian shopping centres—and it has more than 20 million visitors annually. The centre known colloquially as "Chaddy", includes anchor stores such as the Myer and David Jones department stores, H&M, Zara and UNIQLO, Coles and Aldi supermarkets, as well as Kmart and Target discount department stores, JB Hi-Fi, more than 500 specialty stores, of which the majority are fashion-related, including numerous high-end labels.

There are two food courts and two office towers located at the southern side of the centre. The centre's owners have sought a further expansion to include a 250-room hotel and 15,000m2 of offices, to take total floor space to 221,217m2, including 156,924m2 of shop floor space. Construction of the $130 million building started in early 2018 and is set to open to the public in late 2019. Opened in October 1960 at a cost of £6 million, Chadstone Shopping Centre was the first self-contained regional shopping centre in Melbourne, the largest built in Australia to that time; the centre was built and owned by the Myer Emporium, marked the transformation of shopping in Australia from the traditional central city and strip-shopping precincts to the now familiar mall-type shopping centre. The site of the current shopping centre was once extensive paddocks of the Convent of the Good Shepherd on which cattle grazed until the mid-1950s; the initial 12 ha of land was sold to Myer in March 1958. The development of Chadstone was driven by Ken Myer, who in 1949 looked to the USA for the lead in retail developments, with decentralised centres fuelled by expanding suburban growth and car reliance.

Further development of the concept occurred after Myer's 1953 visit to the USA, where he met with a number of architects involved with the design of shopping malls, in 1954 Myer secured 35 ha of land in Burwood for a shopping centre. The Burwood site was not used for the project. In 1958 the American firm of Welton Becket and Associates was appointed as the design architect, with Tompkins and Shaw Architects as the production architect. During the project the senior board of Myer was unhappy with the process, concerned that the architects did not understand the "Australian Concept", were blindly adopting the American shopping mall model. In 1960 the Myer board wrote: "Although based in a broad way on the pattern of shopping centres in the United States, Chadstone has been individually designed to suit local needs and its own location."The original shopping centre consisted of a single open-air mall with Myer at the southern end and a Dickins New World supermarket at the northern end. The first major change was made to the centre in the 1970s or 1980s: the mall was roofed over with translucent fibreglass, an acknowledgement that the open mall did not suit the Melbourne climate.

During the same period a bowling alley and auditorium were opened, the Dickens store was altered to be more accessed from the mall. In the early 1980s, the Myer Emporium sold the shopping centre to the Gandel Group, which has since managed and developed the complex. In 1984 the centre had its first major expansion: in 1985 now Coles New World was relocated into a new mall and a Target Discount Department Store was relocated from downstairs to a new store where Coles used to be, in 1986 a Hoyts 8 Cinema Complex was opened. A major extension doubled the lettable area in the late 1980s, during the same era the Convent of the Good Shepherd was demolished to extend the carpark of the complex. Chadstone has reclaimed the title "Southern hemisphere's largest shopping centre" since 2009 and "Australia's largest shopping centre" since 2007, thanks to regular development. Westfield Knox held the latter title from November 2002 until 2007 after the completion of their own expansion works. Chadstone held both of these titles from its original opening day to 2002 and was inspired to take back the records.

Chadstone's main local rivals are Westfield Doncaster to the north, Westfield Knox to the east and Westfield Southland to the south. Throughout the 1990s, Chadstone had undergone numerous developments; these include the development of multi-storey carparks due to the boundaries of the centre being built-up with no further room to expand. 20% of the original mall structure is left intact with this number to be reduced due to the construction of the West Mall. By 1999 Chadstone's lettable area covered 126,000m2, after the extension of the Myer and David Jones stores. Part of stages 20 and 21, this expansion cost $150 million and took two and a half years to complete. Local construction company Probuild has been responsible for every major stage of expansion and redevelopment at Chadstone Shopping Centre, commencing at stage 5 in 1989, with stage 33 having been completed in 2009. In December 2007 a A$100 million upgrade saw the centre's owners extend Chadstone's lettable area to 171,217 m², with the centre reclaiming the title

Tanama River

The Tanama is a river in northern Siberia, Russia. It is one of the main tributaries of the Yenisei River; the Tanama is 521 kilometres long, the area of its basin is 23,100 square kilometres. The river has the lowest during the winter, it flows through desolate, uninhabited areas and there are no permanent settlements along its course. River Tanama has its source in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Tyumen Oblast, it flows first northwestwards and northwards, forming a wide arch across the tundra above the Arctic Circle. In its upper and middle course the river forms the border of the Tyumen Oblast for about 430 km; the Tanama changes direction in its lower course and meanders eastwards, flowing across the swampy lowlands of the northeastern part of the West Siberian Plain. About 40 kilometres before the mouth the river splits into many branches and joins the western bank of the left channel of the Yenisei near Polikarpovsk village, not far from the Yenisei Gulf and about 200 km northwest of Dudinka.

The river stays frozen until late May or early June. The Tanama has 30 tributaries; the main tributaries are six of these that are over 100 km in length: the Ngarka-Lybonkatyakha, Nenereyakha, Payotayakha on the left and the Big Pyakoyakha and Yara on the right. List of rivers of Russia Fishing in Russia