Kyle Rayner is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character is depicted as being associated with the Green Lantern Corps, an extraterrestrial police force of which he has been a member. Rayner's original design was based on actor Keanu Reeves. In 2013, Kyle Rayner was placed 14th on IGN's list of the "Top 25 Heroes of DC Comics". Created by writer Ron Marz and artist Darryl Banks, Kyle Rayner first appeared in Green Lantern vol. 3, #48, as part of the "Emerald Twilight" storyline, in which DC Comics replaced Green Lantern Hal Jordan with Rayner, the sole Green Lantern for years until the late 1990s. He was DC's star Green Lantern into the mid-2000s. During this period he was briefly known as Ion. Following Jordan’s return to Green Lantern status in the 2004–2005 limited series Green Lantern: Rebirth, the 2005 crossover storyline "Infinite Crisis", Rayner returned to his alias of Ion. After the events of the "Sinestro Corps War", Rayner returned to his original role as a Green Lantern officer, along with a promotion to Honor Guard Illustres of the Corps.
On, he becomes a White Lantern following the mastery of all seven lantern rings. Before he acquired a Green Lantern power ring, Kyle Rayner was a struggling-but-gifted freelance comic book artist, raised in North Hollywood and lived and worked in Los Angeles. Kyle was raised by his mother as an only child, it was revealed that his father was a Mexican-American CIA agent named Gabriel Vasquez and that Aaron Rayner was an alias. Kyle and his mother lived a modest lifestyle until he reached adulthood. After Hal Jordan, grief-stricken over the destruction of his home town of Coast City, went on a mad rampage killing various members of the Green Lantern Corps and the Guardians of the Universe, Rayner was found by the last surviving Guardian of the Universe, Ganthet. Ganthet gave Kyle the last working Green Lantern power ring that would allow him to conjure any form of matter or energy through sheer force of will. Ganthet's reasons for choosing Kyle to bear the ring have never been made apparent, aside from Rayner having been in the right place at the right time: prior to bequeathing the ring upon Rayner, Ganthet utters, "You will have to do."
Ganthet revealed that humans make great Green Lanterns. Several sources, imply that Ganthet was following a deeper reason: Kyle Rayner was not chosen because he was fearless but because he was able to feel and overcome fear, thus making him, all the future Lanterns, less susceptible to Parallax's influence; the New Guardians retelling goes so far as to replace the scowling "You will have to do" with a smiling "It would seem I chose well." At first Kyle took possession of the ring lightly. His girlfriend, Alexandra DeWitt, encouraged him to be more responsible, create his own version of the Green Lantern uniform, helped him train for his new role as a superhero, but she was murdered and stuffed in a refrigerator by the supervillain Major Force; the guilt over this event drove Rayner to take his role more and as a result he strove to be the best Green Lantern he could be in honor of Alex's memory. Rayner moved to New York City, since Los Angeles reminded him of Alex and he needed a fresh start.
Rayner grew up enamored with Superman and Batman, though he had only a passing knowledge of Earth's various Green Lanterns. This soon changed, he found that the Green Lantern ring was the ultimate expression of his fertile imagination. While in battle, he used the ring's power to create constructs of just about anything his artistic mind could imagine: other superheroes, anime characters, mystical characters, futuristic weapons, original characters from his comic books. While other members of the Green Lantern Corps questioned the practicality of those constructs, they made Rayner an unpredictable and formidable opponent. After relocating to New York City, Rayner joined the superhero group the Titans for a brief time, during which he dated Donna Troy, but became a member of the Justice League, he clashed with the Flash early in his career. West had worked with Jordan since childhood and had reservations about Kyle as the new Green Lantern, but he became one of Rayner's best friends and biggest supporters.
Another of Kyle's biggest supporters amongst the League was Batman, who treated him with more respect than he showed certain other League members, most due to the fact that Kyle was willing to learn from others where other Lanterns focused on their rings and pre-existing skills. Rayner entered a romantic relationship with Jade and formed friendships with the Golden Age Green Lantern, Green Arrow, Arsenal and John Stewart. During his superhero career Rayner accumulated a rogues gallery that included characters from his predecessors' pasts such as Dr. Polaris and Dr. Light. During the Fifth-week event "Circle of Fire", it is discovered that a cosmic entity named Oblivion is coming to Earth after he attacked the planet Rann; this shocked Rayner because the villain is strikingly identical to the character of a story Rayner made when he was seven during his period of struggling with his fear and anger of growing up without a father, as a nemesis to the adventurer the Cannoneer. The Justice League tries to stop Oblivion, during the battle, Kyle
Golden Age of Comic Books
The Golden Age of Comic Books describes an era of American comic books from the late 1930s to circa 1950. During this time, modern comic books were first published and increased in popularity; the superhero archetype was created and many well-known characters were introduced, including Superman, Captain Marvel, Captain America, Wonder Woman. The first recorded use of the term "Golden Age" was by Richard A. Lupoff in an article, "Re-Birth", published in issue one of the fanzine Comic Art in April 1960. An event cited by many as marking the beginning of the Golden Age was the 1938 debut of Superman in Action Comics #1, published by Detective Comics. Superman's popularity helped make comic books a major arm of publishing, which led rival companies to create superheroes of their own to emulate Superman's success. Between 1939 and 1941 Detective Comics and its sister company, All-American Publications, introduced popular superheroes such as Batman and Robin, Wonder Woman, the Flash, Green Lantern, Doctor Fate, the Atom, Green Arrow and Aquaman.
Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics, had million-selling titles featuring the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Although DC and Timely characters are well-remembered today, circulation figures suggest that the best-selling superhero title of the era was Fawcett Comics' Captain Marvel with sales of about 1.4 million copies per issue. The comic was published biweekly at one point to capitalize on its popularity. Patriotic heroes donning red and blue were popular during the time of the second World War following The Shield's debut in 1940. Many heroes of this time period battled the Axis powers, with covers such as Captain America Comics #1 showing the title character punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler; as comic books grew in popularity, publishers began launching titles that expanded into a variety of genres. Dell Comics' non-superhero characters outsold the superhero comics of the day; the publisher featured licensed movie and literary characters such as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Roy Rogers and Tarzan.
It was during this era. Additionally, MLJ's introduction of Archie Andrews in Pep Comics #22 gave rise to teen humor comics, with the Archie Andrews character remaining in print well into the 21st century. At the same time in Canada, American comic books were prohibited importation under the War Exchange Conservation Act which restricted the importation of non-essential goods; as a result, a domestic publishing industry flourished during the duration of the war which were collectively informally called the Canadian Whites. The educational comic book Dagwood Splits. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power, it was during this period that long-running humor comics debuted, including EC's Mad and Carl Barks' Uncle Scrooge in Dell's Four Color Comics. In 1953, the comic book industry hit a setback when the United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency was created in order to investigate the problem of juvenile delinquency.
After the publication of Fredric Wertham's Seduction of the Innocent the following year that claimed comics sparked illegal behavior among minors, comic book publishers such as EC's William Gaines were subpoenaed to testify in public hearings. As a result, the Comics Code Authority was created by the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers to enact self-censorship by comic book publishers. At this time, EC canceled its crime and horror titles and focused on Mad. During the late 1940s, the popularity of superhero comics waned. To retain reader interest, comic publishers diversified into other genres, such as war, science fiction, romance and horror. Many superhero titles were converted to other genres. In 1946, DC Comics' Superboy and Green Arrow were switched from More Fun Comics into Adventure Comics so More Fun could focus on humor. In 1948 All-American Comics, featuring Green Lantern, Johnny Thunder and Dr. Mid-Nite, was replaced with All-American Western; the following year, Flash Comics and Green Lantern were cancelled.
In 1951 All Star Comics, featuring the Justice Society of America, became All-Star Western. The next year Star Spangled Comics, featuring Robin, was retitled Star Spangled War Stories. Sensation Comics, featuring Wonder Woman, was cancelled in 1953; the only DC superhero comics to continue publishing through the 1950s were Action Comics, Adventure Comics, Detective Comics, Superboy, Wonder Woman and World's Finest Comics. Plastic Man appeared in Quality Comics' Police Comics until 1950, when its focus switched to detective stories but his solo title continued bimonthly until issue 64, cover dated November 1956. Timely Comics' The Human Torch was canceled with issue #35 and Marvel Mystery Comics, featuring the Human Torch, with issue #93 became the horror comic Marvel Tales. Sub-Mariner Comics was cancelled with issue #42 and Captain America Comics, by Captain America's Weird Tales, with #75. Harvey Comics' Black Cat was cancelled in 1951 and rebooted as a horror comic that year—the title would change to Black Cat Mystery, Black Cat Mystic, Black Cat Western for the final two issues, which included Black Cat stories.
Lev Gleason Publications' Daredevil was edged out of his title by the Little Wise Guys in 1950. Fawcett Comics' Whiz Comics, Master Comics and Captain Marvel Adventure
The DC Universe is the fictional shared universe where most stories in American comic book titles published by DC Comics take place. DC superheroes such as Superman and Wonder Woman are from this universe, it contains well known supervillains such as Lex Luthor, the Joker and Darkseid. In context, the term "DC Universe" refers to the main DC continuity; the term "DC Multiverse" refers to the collection of all continuities within DC Comics publications. Within the Multiverse, the main DC Universe has gone by many names, but in recent years has been referred to by "Prime Earth" or "Earth 0"; the main DC Universe, as well as the alternate realities related to it, began as the first shared universe in comic books and were adapted to other media such as film serials or radio dramas. In subsequent decades, the continuity between all of these media became complex with certain storylines and events designed to simplify or streamline the more confusing aspects of characters' histories; the fact that DC Comics characters coexisted in the same world was first established in All Star Comics #3 where several superheroes met each other in a group dubbed the Justice Society of America.
Subsequently, the Justice Society was reintroduced as the Justice League of America, founded with Major League Baseball's National League and American League as inspiration for the name. The comic book that introduced the Justice League was titled The Brave and the Bold However, the majority of National/DC's publications continued to be written with little regard of maintaining continuity with each other for the first few decades. Over the course of its publishing history, DC has introduced different versions of its characters, sometimes presenting them as if the earlier version had never existed, among them the Flash, Green Lantern, Hawkman, in the late 1950s, with similar powers but different names and personal histories, they had characters such as Batman whose early adventures set in the 1940s could not be reconciled with stories featuring a still-youthful man in the 1970s. To explain this, they introduced the idea of the Multiverse in Flash #123 where the Silver Age Flash met his Golden Age counterpart.
In addition to allowing the conflicting stories to "co-exist", it allowed the differing versions of characters to meet, team up to combat cross-universe threats. The writers gave designations such as "Earth-One", "Earth-Two", so forth, to certain universes, designations which at times were used by the characters themselves. Earth-One was the primary world of this publication era. Over the years, as the number of titles published increased and the volume of past stories accumulated, it became difficult to maintain internal consistency. In the face of diminishing sales, maintaining the status quo of their most popular characters became attractive. Although retcons were used as a way to explain apparent inconsistencies in stories written, editors at DC came to consider the varied continuity of multiple Earths too difficult to keep track of, feared that it was an obstacle to accessibility for new readers. To address this, they published the cross-universe miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths in 1985, which merged universes and characters, reducing the Multiverse to a single unnamed universe with a single history.
However, not all the books rebooted post-Crisis. For example, the Legion of Superheroes book acted as if the Pre-Crisis Earth-1 history was still their past, a point driven home in the Cosmic Boy miniseries, it removed the mechanism DC had been using to deal with continuity glitches or storylines that a writer wanted to ignore resulting in a convoluted explanation for characters like Hawkman. The Zero Hour limited series gave them an opportunity to revise timelines and rewrite the DC Universe history; however this failed right out of the gate as the writers had Waverider state all alternate histories had been wiped and yet have the Armageddon 2001 saga in the timeline which required multiple timelines to work. As a result once per decade since the 1980s, the DC Universe experiences a major crisis that allows any number of changes from new versions of characters to appear as a whole reboot of the universe, restarting nominally all the characters into a new and modernized version of their lives.
Meanwhile, DC has published occasional stories called Elseworlds, which presented alternate versions of its characters. One told the story of Bruce Wayne as a Green Lantern. In another tale, Superman: Speeding Bullets, the rocket ship that brought the infant Superman to Earth was discovered by the Wayne family of Gotham City rather than the Kents. In 1999, The Kingdom reintroduced a variant of the old Multiverse concept called Hypertime which allows for alternate versions of characters and worlds again; the entire process was inspired by Alan Moore's meta-comic, Supreme: Story of the Year. The Convergence crossover retconned the events of Crisis after heroes in that series went back in time to prevent the collapse of the Multiverse. However, Brainiac states "Each world has evolved but they all still exist", it has been confirmed that all previous worlds and timelines now exist, that there multiple Multiverses now in existence, such as the Pre-Crisis infinite Multiverse, the collapsed Earth, the Pre-New 52 52 worlds Multiverse.
The Infinite Crisis event remade the DC Universe yet again, with new changes. The limited series 52 established that a new multiverse now existed, with Earth-0 as the primary Earth; the 2011 reboo
Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year; as the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope, he didn't have any gloves on, we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in
Firestorm is the name of several fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Ronnie Raymond and Martin Stein debuted as the first incarnation in Firestorm, the Nuclear Man No. 1 and were created by Gerry Conway and Al Milgrom. Jason Rusch debuted as a modern update of the character in Firestorm vol. 3 No. 1, was created by Dan Jolley and ChrisCross. Firestorm was featured in the CW's Arrowverse, portrayed by Robbie Amell, Victor Garber, Franz Drameh; the first Firestorm series was short-lived, canceled abruptly in a company-wide cutback with #5 the last to be distributed, #6 included in Cancelled Comic Cavalcade. Writer Gerry Conway added Firestorm to the roster of Justice League of America; this led to a series of eight-page stories in the back of The Flash, a revival of a monthly Firestorm comic in 1982. The Fury of Firestorm lasted from 1982 until 1990. Another Firestorm series began in 2004 with a new character in the role of Firestorm, Jason Rusch, after Ronnie Raymond was killed off in the pages of Identity Crisis.
Rusch was poorly received and his book was canceled after 30 issues and the Ronnie Raymond Firestorm was resurrected in the pages of Blackest Night. Yet another Firestorm title was launched in 2011. Starring both Ronnie and his successor Jason, it was one of the New 52 titles launched in the wake of DC's Flashpoint crossover event; the series, The Fury of Firestorm the Nuclear Men, was written by Gail Simone and Ethan Van Sciver and drawn by Yıldıray Çınar. Joe Harris replaced Simone starting in Issue 7, while co-writer Van Sciver provided the art for Issues 7 and 8 before Çınar returned. Veteran writer/artist Dan Jurgens took over the series with issue #13 in 2012, until the series' end with issue #20 in 2013. In 2016, Firestorm was one of the features in the Legends of Tomorrow miniseries, which united Martin Stein and Jefferson Jackson as Firestorm for the first time in the New 52 universe; the original Firestorm was distinguished by his integrated dual identity. High school student Ronnie Raymond and Nobel Prize-winning physicist Martin Stein were caught in an accident that allowed them to fuse into Firestorm the "Nuclear Man".
Due to Stein's being unconscious during the accident, Raymond was prominently in command of the Firestorm form with Stein a voice of reason inside his mind, able to offer Raymond advice on how to use their powers without having any control over their dual form. Banter between the two was a hallmark of their adventures. Stein was completely unaware of their dual identity, leaving him concerned about his unusual disappearances and blackouts, but Ronnie was able to convince him of the truth, allowing them to bond as separate individuals rather than as parts of a whole. After the accident, Firestorm took to defending New York City from such threats as Multiplex and Killer Frost; the 1982 series began with the teenaged Raymond adjusting to his newfound role and delved into the issue of the nuclear arms race. The Fury of Firestorm developed the lives of Raymond and Stein, as the teenager struggled with high school and moved towards graduation and the scientist found a life outside the lab after learning about his bond with Raymond.
A second nuclear hero, was added as a love interest for Firestorm in 1984. The series tried to create a sense of fun, something that Gerry Conway felt was missing during his years writing Spider-Man. Upon graduation from high school, Raymond entered college in Pittsburgh, where Stein had been hired as a professor. Afterward, together they searched for a cure for their bond; when Conway left the series in 1986, John Ostrander began writing the Firestorm stories. His first major story arc pitted Firestorm against the world, as the hero, acting on a suggestion from a terminally ill Professor Stein, demanded that the United States and the Soviet Union destroy all of their nuclear weapons. After confrontations with the Justice League and most of his enemies, Firestorm faced the Russian nuclear superhero Pozhar in the Nevada desert, where an atomic bomb was dropped on them. A new Firestorm resulted, a fusion of the two heroes: this new Firestorm was composed of Ronnie Raymond and the Russian Mikhail Arkadin but controlled by the disembodied amnesiac mind of Martin Stein.
The Firestorm with Arkadin proved to be a transitional phase, as in 1989 Ostrander fundamentally changed the character of Firestorm by revealing that Firestorm was a "Fire Elemental". Firestorm now became something of an environmental crusader, formed from Ronnie Raymond, Mikhail Arkadin and Svarozhich, a Soviet clone of the previous Firestorm, but with a new mind. Professor Stein, no longer part of the composite at all, continued to play a role, but the focus was on this radically different character. New artist Tom Mandrake would create a new look to match, it was during this phase that Firestorm met and befriended Sango and the Orishas, the elemental gods of Nigeria. He met their chief deity and Sango's older brother Obatala, Lord of the White Cloth. By the series' 100th issue, Stein learned that he was destined to be the true Fire Elemental and would have been were it not for Raymond being there by circumstance. Raymond and Arkadin were returned to their old lives, Stein as Firestorm was accidentally exiled to deep space in the process of saving the Earth.
He thereafter spent many years traveling through space as a wanderer, returning to Earth only rarely. After the transition to the elemental Firestorm, all of the main char
Black Lightning is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character, created by writer Tony Isabella and artist Trevor Von Eeden, first appeared in Black Lightning #1, during the Bronze Age of Comic Books. While his origin story has been retconned several times, his current origin story states that he was born in the DC Universe a metahuman with superhuman abilities. Black Lightning is DC Comics' third African American superhero, after John Tyroc. Born Jefferson Pierce, Black Lightning is depicted as a schoolteacher from the crime-ridden Suicide Slum area of Metropolis who acquires electrical superpowers from a technologically advanced power belt that he puts to use to clean up crime in his neighborhood. Over time, Pierce establishes himself as a successful superhero in the DC Universe, stories depict him as having "internalized" the belt's powers as a result of his latent metagene. Retellings of Black Lightning's origins simplify his story by depicting him as metahuman with the inborn ability to manipulate and generate electricity.
Tony Isabella, an experienced writer having done work for the Luke Cage character at Marvel Comics, was signed on to develop DC's first starring black character. He pitched the idea for Black Lightning and it was developed though only 11 issues were published in the first series due to the 1978 DC Implosion. However, the character continued to make appearances in other titles over the years, including a Justice League of America storyline in which Pierce is offered but turns down a position with the group. Elements of Black Lightning were controversial. In the character's early days, Black Lightning was depicted wearing a combined afro wig/mask and affecting an exaggerated Harlem jive vernacular as part of his efforts to conceal his identity as educated school professional Jefferson Pierce. Black Lightning becomes one of the founding members of the Batman-helmed Outsiders superhero team. In the 2000s, DC Comics introduced Black Lightning's daughters, who inherited metahuman abilities from their father.
His eldest daughter Anissa, known as Thunder, can alter her density, rendering her indestructible, create shockwaves by stomping the ground. Pierce's younger child Jennifer a superhero known as Lightning, has powers identical to her father though she is still inexperienced and not in full control of them. Along with his presence in comics, Black Lightning has made various appearances in DC-related animated television series, video games and comic strips; the character is being portrayed in live action for the first time by Cress Williams for the eponymous television series, which runs on The CW. In 2011, he was ranked 85th overall on IGN's "Top 100 Comic Books Heroes" list; the original candidate for DC Comics' first headlining black superhero was a character called the Black Bomber, a white racist who would turn into a black superhero under stress. Comics historian Don Markstein described the character as "an insult to everybody with any point of view at all"; when the editor who had approved the Black Bomber left the company before the character had seen print, Tony Isabella was asked to salvage the character.
Isabella convinced editors to instead use his Black Lightning character, which he had been developing for some time. Isabella wrote the first 10 issues of Black Lightning before handing it over to Dennis O'Neil. Only one issue scripted by O'Neil came out before the series was canceled in 1978 as part of a general large-scale pruning of the company's superhero titles known as the DC Implosion. Issue #12 was published in Cancelled Comic Cavalcade and World's Finest Comics #260. Black Lightning made a number of guest appearances in various titles over the next few years, including a string of issues of World's Finest Comics written by O'Neil shifted to Detective Comics and a two-part story in Justice League of America in which he declined an offer of membership. In 1983, with his powers restored, he appeared again as a member of Batman's spinoff superhero team, the Outsiders; when The Outsiders ended, he returned to making occasional guest appearances. In 1995, a new Black Lightning series began with art by Eddy Newell and again written by Tony Isabella, fired after the eighth issue and replaced with Australian writer Dave de Vries.
The series was canceled five issues after Isabella left the title, the decision having been made before these issues had seen print. Isabella said he believes the editor replaced him with a newer writer to consolidate his position in the company. A "Black Lightning: Year One" six-issue limited series, written by Jen Van Meter and illustrated by Cully Hamner saw a bi-weekly release in 2009, was nominated for two Glyph Awards in 2010; as part of the New 52, a revamped version of Black Lightning appeared in DC Universe Presents, paired with the Blue Devil. A gold medal-winning Olympic decathlete, Jefferson Pierce, returned to his old neighborhood in the Southside section of the city of Metropolis, with his wife Lynn Stewart and his daughter Anissa to become the principal of Garfield High School. Southside, as it was once known, was where his father - renowned journalist Alvin Pierce - had been murdered. Guilt over this event was a factor in his decision to leave the city of Metropolis. Suicide Slum was being torn apart by a local organized criminal gang called the 100, shady corporations, crooked local politicians like Tobias Whale.
A family friend and tailor, Peter Gambi, had taught a much younger Jefferson how to suppress his inborn metahuman abilities so that he would not accidentally hurt any of
Justice League (TV series)
Justice League is an American animated television series which ran from 2001 to 2004 on Cartoon Network. It is part of the DC animated universe; the show was produced by Warner Bros. Animation, it is based on the Justice League of America and associated comic book characters published by DC Comics. After two seasons, the series was replaced by Justice League Unlimited, a successor series which aired for three seasons. Bruce Timm, who co-produced Batman: The Animated Series and Superman: The Animated Series in the 1990s, became producer on an animated series focusing on the Justice League; the roster consisted of Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, The Flash, Martian Manhunter, Hawkgirl. According to audio commentary on the DVD release of Season 2, the second season finale "Starcrossed" was expected to be the final episode of the series. However, in February 2004, Cartoon Network announced a follow-up series, Justice League Unlimited, which premiered on July 31, 2004 and featured a larger roster of characters.
Kevin Conroy reprised his voice role as Batman from Batman: The Animated Series, The New Batman Adventures, Batman Beyond. Batman's costume was redesigned, but this time, his costume was a combination of his last three costumes; the same costume from The New Batman Adventures is retained, but with the blue highlights from the Batman: The Animated Series costume and the long-ears from the Batman Beyond costume are added to the costume. Tim Daly, who voiced Superman in Superman: The Animated Series was involved but was unable to continue his role due to involvement with The Fugitive, was replaced by George Newbern. Superman was redesigned to have a bit of a squint to his eyes and slight wrinkles, meant to make him look older, in addition to having a noticeable shining streak to his hair. Fans did not like the older appearance and in the second season the streak was toned down to the point of disappearing and the squint was removed, in essence reverting Superman to his earlier animated look; as an in-joke, Superman's season one facial designs are used for an older Jor-El in the Justice League Unlimited episode "For the Man Who Has Everything".
Most of the characters retained their general comic book origins and continuity, with Wonder Woman being the notable exception. In the Justice League series continuity, the premiere story arc "Secret Origins" revises the plot of Diana's competition against her fellow Amazons to be the ambassador of peace to man's world, she is referred to as a "rookie" superhero during her first encounter with the League.. In an interview segment on the Season One DVD, Bruce Timm stated that he ran into some legal issues in using the Wonder Woman character, but was adamant that she be used in the series. Additionally, the character of The Flash was portrayed as somewhat younger and more brash than his comic book counterpart, taking on a number of personality traits of Plastic Man, who provides a similar comic relief function in the JLA comics. Charlie Schlatter, who voiced the Flash in one episode of Superman: The Animated Series, was unavailable to reprise the role and was replaced by Michael Rosenbaum. Major changes were made to the Hawkgirl character.
The character of Hawkgirl became romantically involved with the John Stewart Green Lantern as the series progressed. A romantic relationship between Batman and Wonder Woman was "shown" by the show's creators, who disliked pairing Wonder Woman with Superman despite fan requests. Robin is not paired with Batman in this animated series. Although the series itself is animated in traditional 2-dimensional style, the opening credits are rendered in 3D with toon shading; the intro is a "stock" intro used throughout the series until Justice League Unlimited premieres. List of DC animated universe characters Kevin Conroy – Batman / Bruce Wayne George Newbern – Superman / Clark Kent, D. J. Rubber Ducky Susan Eisenberg – Wonder Woman / Princess Diana Phil LaMarr – Green Lantern / John Stewart, Ed Reiss Michael Rosenbaum – Flash / Wally West, Arkkis Chumuck, Colonel Josef, André, Franzee Carl Lumbly – Martian Manhunter / J'onn J'onzz, Krizblack Maria Canals – Hawkgirl / Shayera Hol, Livewire, Py'tar From 2006-2011, Warner Home Entertainment released the entire series of Justice League on DVD and Blu-ray, presented in original broadcast version and story arc continuity order.
Season releases Warner Home Video released another DVD title Justice League The Complete Animated Series. It contained all 91 episodes of Justice League and Justice League Unlimited on a 15 disc set with the 15th disc containing a bonus documentary. Individual releases A 4-disc soundtrack of musical highlights from both seasons of Justice League was released by La-La Land Records in July 2016, it can be ordered at the La-La Land Records website. The set includes tracks from fan-favorite episodes like A Better World, Wild Cards and Starcrossed. La-La Land are hoping to release a soundtrack for Justice League Unlimited as well, provided that sales of the Justice League soundtrack improve and that there is sufficient demand from fans. A second Justice League volume may follow if fans support the existing release; the show was aired in the Republic of Ireland on TG4 from 2002 to 2007. The series has received acclaim. In January