South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population of 1.34 million in 2011. It has an area of 1,552 square kilometres and consists of four metropolitan boroughs, Doncaster and Sheffield. South Yorkshire was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, its largest settlement is Sheffield. Lying on the east side of the Pennines, South Yorkshire is landlocked, borders Derbyshire to the west and south-west, West Yorkshire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north-east, Lincolnshire to the east and Nottinghamshire to the south-east; the Sheffield Urban Area is the tenth most populous conurbation in the UK, dominates the western half of South Yorkshire with over half of the county's population living within it. South Yorkshire lies within the Sheffield City Region with Barnsley being within the Leeds City Region, reflecting its geographical position midway between Yorkshire's two largest cities.
South Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 and its metropolitan boroughs are now unitary authorities, although the metropolitan county continues to exist in law. As a ceremonial county, South Yorkshire has a High Sheriff. South Yorkshire was created from 32 local government districts of the West Riding of Yorkshire, with small areas from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire. In the 2016 referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union, South Yorkshire voted 62% leave and 38% remain, making it one of the most Leave areas in the country. Although the modern county of South Yorkshire was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements and parts goes back centuries. Prehistoric remains include a Mesolithic "house" dating to around 8000 BC, found at Deepcar, in the northern part of Sheffield. Evidence of earlier inhabitation in the wider region exists about 3 miles over the county boundary at Creswell Crags in Derbyshire, where artefacts and rock art found in caves have been dated by archaeologists to the late Upper Palaeolithic period, at least 12,800 years ago.
The region was on the frontier of the Roman Empire during the Roman period. The main settlements of South Yorkshire grew up around the industries of mining and steel manufacturing; the main mining industry was coal, concentrated to the north and east of the county. There were iron deposits which were mined in the area; the rivers running off the Pennines to the west of the county supported the steel industry, concentrated in the city of Sheffield. The proximity of the iron and coal made this an ideal place for steel manufacture. Although Christian nonconformism was never as strong in South Yorkshire as in the mill towns of West Yorkshire, there are still many Methodist and Baptist churches in the area. South Yorkshire has a high number of followers of spiritualism, it is the only county. The Local Government Commission for England presented draft recommendations, in December 1965, proposing a new county—York and North Midlands—roughly centred on the southern part of the West Riding of Yorkshire and northern parts of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire.
The review was abolished in favour of the Royal Commission on Local Government before it was able to issue a final report. The Royal Commission's 1969 report, known as the Redcliffe-Maud Report, proposed the removal of much of the existing system of local government; the commission described the system of administering urban and rural districts separately as outdated, noting that urban areas provided employment and services for rural dwellers, open countryside was used by town dwellers for recreation. Redcliffe-Maud's recommendations were accepted by the Labour government in February 1970. Although the Redcliffe-Maud Report was rejected by the Conservative government after the 1970 general election, there was a commitment to local government reform, the need for a metropolitan county of South Yorkshire; the Local Government Act 1972 reformed local government in England by creating a system of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts throughout the country. The act formally established South Yorkshire on 1 April 1974, although South Yorkshire County Council had been running since elections in 1973.
The leading article in The Times on the day the Local Government Act came into effect noted that the "new arrangement is a compromise which seeks to reconcile familiar geography which commands a certain amount of affection and loyalty, with the scale of operations on which modern planning methods can work effectively". South Yorkshire had a two tier structure of local government with a strategic-level county council and four districts providing most services. In 1974, as part of the South Yorkshire Structure Plan of the environment and land use, South Yorkshire County Council commissioned a public attitudes survey covering job opportunities, educational facilities, leisure opportunities and medical services, shopping centres and transport in the county. In 1986, throughout England the metropolitan county councils were abolished; the functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs. The joint boards continue to include the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive; the South Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner oversees South Yorkshire Police.
Although the county council was abolished, Sou
Snooker is a cue sport which originated among British Army officers stationed in India in the half of the 19th century. It is played on a rectangular table covered with a green cloth, or baize, with pockets at each of the four corners and in the middle of each long side. Using a cue and 22 coloured balls, players must strike the white ball to pot the remaining balls in the correct sequence, accumulating points for each pot. An individual game, or frame, is won by the player scoring the most points. A match is won. Snooker gained its own identity in 1884 when army officer Sir Neville Chamberlain, while stationed in Ooty, devised a set of rules that combined pyramid and life pool; the word "snooker" was a long-used military term used to describe inexperienced or first-year personnel. The game grew in popularity in the United Kingdom, the Billiards Association and Control Club was formed in 1919, it is now governed by the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association. The World Snooker Championship has taken place since 1927, with Joe Davis becoming a key figure in the early growth of the sport winning the championship fifteen times from 1927 to 1946.
The "modern era" began in 1969 after the BBC commissioned the snooker television show Pot Black and began to air the World Championship in 1978, leading to the sport's new peak in popularity. Ray Reardon dominated the game in the 1970s, Steve Davis in the 1980s, Stephen Hendry in the 1990s. Since 2000, Ronnie O'Sullivan has won the most world titles, with 5. Top professional players now compete around the world and earn millions of pounds; the sport has become popular in China. The origin of snooker dates back to the latter half of the 19th century. In the 1870s, billiards was a popular activity amongst British Army officers stationed in India and several variations of the game were devised during this time. One such variation originated at the officers' mess of the 11th Devonshire Regiment in 1875, which combined the rules of two pocket billiards games and life pool; the former was played with fifteen red balls and one black positioned in a triangle, while the latter involved the potting of designated coloured balls.
The game developed its own identity in 1884 when its first set of rules was finalised by Sir Neville Chamberlain, an English officer who helped develop and popularise the game at Stone House in Ooty on a table built by Burroughes & Watts, brought over by boat. The word "snooker" was a slang term for first-year cadets and inexperienced military personnel, but Chamberlain would use it to describe the inept performance of one of his fellow officers at the table. In 1887, snooker was given its first definite reference in England in a copy of Sporting Life which caused a growth in popularity. Chamberlain came out as the game's inventor in a letter to The Field published on 19 March 1938, 63 years after the fact. Snooker grew in popularity across the Indian colonies and the United Kingdom, but it remained a game for the gentry, many gentlemen's clubs that had a billiards table would not allow non-members inside to play. To accommodate the growing interest and more open snooker-specific clubs were formed.
In 1919, the Billiards Association and the Billiards Control Board merged to form the Billiards Association and Control Club and a new, standard set of rules for snooker first became official. The game of Snooker grew in the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century, by 1927 the first World Snooker Championship had been organised by Joe Davis who, as a professional English billiards and snooker player, moved the game from a pastime activity into a more professional sphere. Davis won every world championship until 1946; the game went into a decline through the 1950s and 1960s with little interest generated outside of those who played. In 1959, Davis introduced a variation of the game known as "Snooker Plus" to try to improve the game's popularity by adding two extra colours, but it never caught on. A major advance occurred in 1969, when David Attenborough commissioned the snooker television series Pot Black to demonstrate the potential of colour television with the green table and multi-coloured balls being ideal for showing off the advantages of colour broadcasting.
The series was for a time the second-most popular show on BBC Two. Interest in the game increased and the 1978 World Snooker Championship was the first to be televised; the game became a mainstream game in the UK, Ireland and much of the Commonwealth and has enjoyed much success since the late 1970s, with most of the ranking tournaments being televised. In 1985 a total of 18.5 million viewers watched the concluding frame of the world championship final between Dennis Taylor and Steve Davis known as the "black ball final". The loss of tobacco sponsorship during the 2000s led to a decrease in the number of professional tournaments, although some new sponsors were sourced. By 2007, the BBC dedicated 400 hours to snooker coverage compared to just 14 minutes forty years earlier. In 2010, promoter Barry Hearn gained a controlling interest in World Snooker Ltd. the professional sport's commercial arm, pledging to revitalise the "moribund" professional game. Under his direction, the number of professional tournaments has increased, certain tournament formats have been changed in an attempt to increase their appeal, and, by 2013, total prize money had more than doubled from £3 million to more than £7 million for the tour.
The objective of
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Wetherby is a market town and civil parish within the City of Leeds metropolitan borough, in West Yorkshire, England. Close to the county's border with North Yorkshire, it stands on the River Wharfe, for centuries has been a crossing place and staging post on the Great North Road midway between London and Edinburgh. A part of the Claro Wapentake within the West Riding of Yorkshire, Wetherby is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Wedrebi, thought to derive from wether- or ram-farm or else meaning "settlement on the bend of a river". Wetherby Bridge, which spans the River Wharfe, is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and a Grade II listed structure; the course of the Old Great North Road passes through the town and, as result of its situation on the road, a large number of coaching inns were established in Wetherby which are still used by travellers today. The town was listed in the 2018 Sunday Times report on Best Places to Live in northern England, it sits in the Wetherby ward of Leeds City Council and Elmet and Rothwell parliamentary constituency.
In the 12th and 13th centuries the Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitallers were granted land and properties in Yorkshire. The local preceptory founded in 1217 was at Ribston Park. In 1240 the Knights Templar were granted by Royal Charter of Henry III the right to hold a market in Wetherby. On Thursdays and a yearly fair was permitted lasting three days over the day of St James the Apostle. From 1318 to 1319 the North of England suffered many raids from the Scots. After the Battle of Bannockburn Wetherby was burned and many people were taken and killed. According to the blue plaque at the entrance to the lane, Scott Lane could be named after the Scottish raiders in 1318 or the 18th-century drovers who used Wetherby as a watering place. In the English Civil War in 1644, before marching to Tadcaster and on to Marston Moor, the Parliamentarians spent two days in Wetherby joining forces with the Scots. In the heyday of the coaching era, Wetherby had up to forty alehouses; the first recorded mail coach arrived in Wetherby in 1786.
In 1824, William Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire sold the town of Wetherby to finance work at Chatsworth. Wetherby provides the setting for the novel Oldbury by Annie Keary. During the First World War, many Wetherby men served with either the 5th or 9th Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment, which had great losses in Flanders. A war memorial designed by E. F. Roslyn was dedicated on 22 April 1922. In 1918, residents contributed to support the crew of the Racecourse class minesweeper HMS Wetherby despite hardship and shortages caused by the war. During the Second World War, nearby RAF Tockwith was renamed RAF Marston Moor to avoid confusion with RAF Topcliffe. Part of the airfield is now a driver training centre and the old control tower is used as the offices. Parts of the runways can still be seen. Clark Gable was stationed at Marston Moor, during the Second World War, as a member of the USAAF ground staff, with the rank of captain, he was transferred to RAF Polebrook in Northamptonshire. Adolf Hitler offered a reward to anyone, able to catch the airman.
Group Captain Leonard Cheshire was stationed at Marston Moor for a short while before leaving to become commander of the 617 Dam Buster squadron. Wetherby had the only stone frigate north of London, named in turn; the base was transferred to Chatham. Throughout the 1960s the town council deliberated over how best to enlarge the town centre to cope with the needs of a growing population and to provide the town with a purpose built supermarket. Plans were put forward to enlarge the town over the ings, or to develop the town centre into a pedestrian precinct. In the end it was decided to build a purpose built shopping precinct, built in the 1970s and underwent a significant redevelopment throughout 2003. By 2006 the remaining open parts of the Horsefair Centre were enclosed under a glass canopy roof. Since 2010 Wetherby has been in a marginal seat. Wetherby is an electoral ward of Leeds City Council and has a town council responsible for amenities such as parks. – Privas, France Micklethwaite was a village in its own right but its identity as a separate place has disappeared since the Micklethwaite Farm's buildings were demolished in the 2000s and replaced by 150 dwellings known as'Micklethwaite'.
It is situated south of the River Wharfe and contains the police station, magistrates court, the Ramada Jarvis Hotel and the town's Leisure Centre and Swimming Baths. Wetherby Athletic and Wetherby Bulldogs RLFC play on the Wetherby ings, while Wetherby RUFC and Wetherby CC play at Grange Park. Ainsty is off the B1224 Deighton Road, its earliest buildings date from the 1940s made up of private housing. Much of the area was built by developer Norman Ashton in the 1960s, its amenities have declined leaving only three shops on the estate, a Co-op, a dog grooming shop and a decorating shop. Hallfield in the southeast is a large council estate and has some houses built by the prison service and some sheltered housing; the area is home to Wetherby High School, St James' Primary School, the cemetery, the Church on the Corner and Mason House Community Centre. A new medical centre has been built on the edge of the estate on the site of the demolished Hallfield Mansion. Deighton Bar is situated in the northeast bordering Ainsty and Sandbeck and the village of Kirk Deighton in North Yorkshire, as is one street in Deighton Bar, Autumn Avenue.
The oldest houses are in a row of terrace houses on Deighton Road. The area is home to Deighton Gates
Daily Record (Scotland)
The Daily Record is a Scottish tabloid newspaper based in Glasgow. It is published six days a week, its sister paper is the Sunday Mail; as part of Reach plc, it has a close kinship with the British-based Daily Mirror, with major stories of British significance being reported in both titles. The Daily Record had a print circulation in December 2016 of a drop of 9.7 % year on year. According to NRS PADD figures, the Daily Record is by far the leading news brand in Scotland with a total audience of 3.1 million. This compares with The Scottish Sun's audience in Scotland of 1.41 million and The Scotsman at 1.13 million. The Daily Record's print sales are dropping at a rate of over 20,000 a year, its January 2010 circulation was 323,831. This has dropped to a January 2017 circulation of 155,772; the Daily Record was founded in 1895. The North British Daily Mail ceased publication in 1901 and was incorporated into the Daily Record, renamed the Daily Record and Mail. Lord Kemsley bought the paper for £1 million in 1922, forming a controlling company known as Associated Scottish Newspapers Limited.
Production was transferred from Renfield Lane to 67 Hope Street in 1926. In 1971 the Daily Record became the first European newspaper to be printed with run-of-paper colour, was the first British national to introduce computer page make-up technology, it was purchased from the estate of Robert Maxwell. A Daily Record newspaper archives website expected to be launched in 2019 will the first edition in 1895 to most recent will be online. Historical copies of the Daily Record from the years 1914 to 1918 are available to search and view in digitised form at The British Newspaper Archive. In August 2006, the paper launched afternoon editions in Glasgow and Edinburgh entitled Record PM. Both papers had a cover price of 15p, but in January 2007, it was announced that they would become freesheets, which are distributed on the streets of the city centres, it was announced that new editions were to be released in Aberdeen and Dundee. The PM is no longer published by the Daily Record. Politically, the Daily Record supported the conservative Unionist Party until the 1964 general election, when it switched its allegiance to the Labour Party.
The paper continues to support the Labour Party and has a close relationship with it, including donating £10,000 to the party in 2007. It opposes both Scottish independence. On the day of the 2007 Scottish Parliament election, it ran a front-page editorial attacking the SNP. Since Murray Foote became editor in February 2014, the publication's stance has become less clear cut. For many years there has been a close relationship between Daily Record journalists and Labour Party politicians in Scotland, a revolving door between newspaper staff and Labour advisers. Helen Liddell went from being General Secretary of the Scottish Labour Party to being Robert Maxwell’s Head of Corporate Affairs at the Daily Record. Tom Brown worked as one of the Daily Record’s highest-profile columnists and served as its political editor, before advising his friend, First Minister Henry McLeish. Paul Sinclair was political editor of the Daily Record, before becoming a special advisor to Douglas Alexander, to Gordon Brown.
He has been Johann Lamont's special adviser and official spokesperson since 2011. Labour peer, former MP and MSP, Lord Watson of Invergowrie has reflected that ‘the one paper no Labour MP or MSP can afford to ignore is the Daily Record'; the Daily Record, along with Brian Souter, spearheaded the "Keep the Clause" campaign which aimed to prevent the Scottish Parliament from repealing Section 28. This law prevented local authorities from promoting "the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship" in state schools. Section 28 was repealed in Scotland in 2000 by 99 votes to 17 in the Scottish Parliament, was repealed in England and Wales in 2003. Former Scottish Labour Leader Kezia Dugdale is a weekly columnist in the paper, every Monday 1937: Clem Livingstone 1946: Alistair M. Dunnett 1955: Alex Little 1967: Derek Webster 1984: Bernard Vickers 1988: Endell Laird 1994: Terry Quinn 1998: Martin Clarke 2000: Peter Cox 2003: Bruce Waddell 2011: Allan Rennie 2014: Murray Foote 2016 Sports Production: Allan Bryce, Darren Cooney 2018: David Dick Mhairi Black - Member of Parliament for SNP.
Kezia Dugdale - Former Scottish Labour leader. Des Clarke - Comedian & Radio Host, works include. Nicola Sturgeon - Leader of SNP. Coleen Nolan - Singer and TV Host, works include. List of newspapers in Scotland List of newspapers in the United Kingdom by circulation Daily Record
Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping. Furniture is used to hold objects at a convenient height for work, or to store things. Furniture is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a religious purpose, it can be made from many materials, including metal and wood. Furniture can be made using a variety of woodworking joints which reflect the local culture. People have been using natural objects, such as tree stumps and moss, as furniture since the beginning of human civilisation. Archaeological research shows that from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood and animal bones. Early furniture from this period is known from artwork such as a Venus figurine found in Russia, depicting the goddess on a throne; the first surviving extant furniture is in the homes of Skara Brae in Scotland, includes cupboards and beds all constructed from stone.
Complex construction techniques such as joinery began in the early dynastic period of ancient Egypt. This era saw constructed wooden pieces, including stools and tables, sometimes decorated with valuable metals or ivory; the evolution of furniture design continued in ancient Greece and ancient Rome, with thrones being commonplace as well as the klinai, multipurpose couches used for relaxing and sleeping. The furniture of the Middle Ages was heavy and ornamented. Furniture design expanded during the Italian Renaissance of the fifteenth century; the seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent gilded Baroque designs. The nineteenth century is defined by revival styles; the first three-quarters of the twentieth century are seen as the march towards Modernism. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is a return to natural textures; the English word furniture is derived from the French word fourniture, the noun form of fournir, which means to supply or provide.
Thus fourniture in French means provisions. The English usage, referring to household objects, is specific to that language; the practice of using natural objects as rudimentary pieces of furniture dates to the beginning of human civilisation. Early humans are to have used tree stumps as seats, rocks as rudimentary tables, mossy areas for sleeping. During the late palaeolithic or early neolithic period, from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood and animal bones; the earliest evidence for the existence of constructed furniture is a Venus figurine found at the Gagarino site in Russia, which depicts the goddess in a sitting position, on a throne. A similar statue of a Mother Goddess was found in Catal Huyuk in Turkey, dating to between 6000 and 5500 BCE; the inclusion of such a seat in the figurines implies that these were common artefacts of that age. A range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae, a Neolithic village in Orkney, Scotland.
The site dates from 3100–2500 BCE and due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone, a available material that could be worked and turned into items for use within the household. Each house shows a high degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards and beds to shelves, stone seats, limpet tanks; the stone dresser was regarded as the most important as it symbolically faces the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item seen when entering displaying symbolic objects, including decorative artwork such as several Neolithic Carved Stone Balls found at the site. Ancient furniture has been excavated from the 8th-century BCE Phrygian tumulus, the Midas Mound, in Gordion, Turkey. Pieces found here inlaid serving stands. There are surviving works from the 9th-8th-century BCE Assyrian palace of Nimrud; the earliest surviving carpet, the Pazyryk Carpet was discovered in a frozen tomb in Siberia and has been dated between the 6th and 3rd century BCE.
Civilisation in ancient Egypt began with the clearance and irrigation of land along the banks of the River Nile, which began in about 6000 BCE. By that time, society in the Nile Valley was engaged in organized agriculture and the construction of large buildings. At this period, Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were herding cattle and constructing large buildings. Mortar was in use by around 4000 BCE The inhabitants of the Nile Valley and delta were self-sufficient and were raising barley and emmer and stored it in pits lined with reed mats, they raised cattle and pigs and they wove linens and baskets. Evidence of furniture from the predynastic period is scarce, but samples from First Dynasty tombs indicate an advanced use of furnishings in the houses of the age. During the dynastic period, which began in around 3200 BCE, Egyptian art developed and this included furniture design. Egyptian furniture was constructed using wood, but other materials were sometimes used, such as leather, pieces were adorned with gold, silver and ebony, for decoration.
Wood found in Egypt was not suitable for furniture construction