The Schempp-Hirth Ventus-2 is a sailplane produced by Schempp-Hirth since 1994. It replaced the successful Schempp-Hirth Ventus; the Ventus-2a and 2b are 15 metre sailplanes. The'a' version has a narrow fuselage and the wider fuselage version is called the 2b. Winglets are used with these models; the 18 metre span Ventus-2c was introduced in 1995 and was an different aircraft with a different fuselage and wings, but it has the option of shorter tips with winglets to fly as a 15-metre sailplane. From 2003 the Schempp-Hirth Discus-2 fuselage was used for all versions, which now have the designations 2ax, 2bx and 2cx. Flight tests in 1996 showed that the 15 metre version had a glide angle of 46:1 but only after considerable work on sealing gaps and by using turbulators; the narrow fuselage Ventus-2a has been successful in competitions with consecutive World Championship wins from 1995 to 2003. A narrow fuselage version with an 18-metre span, the Ventus 2cxa has been built; some Ventus-2c and 2cx are fitted with small Solo 2350 sustaining engines and are designated with a T suffix, while some are self-launching with a more powerful Solo 2625 and have the suffix'M'.
The 2cT climbs at the 2cM at over 3 m/s. Ranges for the powered versions in saw-tooth operation are 840 km respectively; the 2cxa has been designed to take a jet engine. Production of the 2a and 2b has reached 168 aircraft, while the 2c, 2cT, 2CM have reached 459. A replacement model, the Ventus 3 first flew on 29 January 2016 and serial production started in April 2016. General characteristics Crew: One Capacity: 200 kg water ballast Length: 6.81 m Wingspan: 15.00 m Height: 1.30 m Wing area: 9.7 m2 Aspect ratio: 23.3 Empty weight: 290 kg Gross weight: 525 kg Performance Maximum speed: 285 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 46 Rate of sink: 0.51 m/s Armament Specifications of Schempp-Hirth gliders
The Schempp-Hirth Discus-2 is a Standard Class sailplane produced by Schempp-Hirth since 1998. It replaced the successful Schempp-Hirth Discus. In plan view is the crescent shape of the leading edge is similar to the Discus but is tapered in three stages. An new wing section is used; the dihedral towards the tips was increased compared with the Discus. Winglets are an optional extra. A version with a narrow fuselage is called the Discus-2a and the wider fuselage version is called the 2b; the fuselage was designed to be crash resistant. In U. S. Air Force service the Discus-2b is known as the TG-15B; the Discus-2 has been successful though the competition from the Rolladen-Schneider LS8 and the Alexander Schleicher ASW 28 has meant that the Discus-2 has not sold in such great numbers as its predecessor, which went unchallenged for many years. A version with an 18-metre span, with the option of smaller wing tips to fly as a Standard Class glider, was launched in 2004 and designated Discus-2c; when fitted with a small sustaining engine it is designated Discus-2cT.
Discus-2a Production variant with narrow cockpit. 0.54 m in width, 0.75 m in height. Discus-2b Production variant with wider cockpit. 0.62 m in width, 0.81 m in height. Discus-2T "Turbo" variant with 15 metre wingspan and a 15.3 kW SOLO 2350 2-stroke, 2 cylinder sustainer engine. Discus-2c Production variant with 18 metre wingspan. Discus-2cT "Turbo" variant with 15 metre or 18 metre wingspan and a 15.3 kW SOLO 2350 2-stroke, 2 cylinder sustainer engine. Discus-2c FES Production variant with 15 metre or 18 metre wingspan equipped with a front electric sustainer. General characteristics Crew: One Capacity: 200 kg water ballast, plus 7.8 kg in tail Length: 6.41 m Wingspan: 15.00 m Height: 1.30 m Wing area: 10.16 m2 Empty weight: ca. 242 kg Gross weight: 525 kg Performance Maximum speed: 250 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 42 Rate of sink: 0.59 m/s Armament Aircraft of comparable role and era Rolladen-Schneider LS8 Schleicher ASW 28 Related lists List of gliders Schempp-Hirth Discus 2c
Some of the pilots in the sport of gliding take part in gliding competitions. These are racing competitions, but there are aerobatic contests and on-line league tables. In the early days, the main goal was to stay airborne for as long as possible. However, flights could last for days and some pilots killed themselves by falling asleep; this type of duration contest was abandoned by 1939. From the earliest days of gliding there was also'free distance' flying. Pilots launched themselves from a hill top. Once pilots learned to exploit ridge lift and thermals, flights could be extended further, they mastered flying from thermal to thermal, resulting in longer retrieves. As the pilots and gliders became better, the winner of a competition day might fly so far that they could not get back to the competition site for the next day. Turn-points were therefore used; those pilots who managed to fly all the way to the turn-point and back would score the same distance as for free distance flights. When pilots and gliders became better, most of the pilots would complete the task.
Points were awarded for speed. Observers would be stationed at the turn-points to verify that the pilots rounded them. Large seen contest numbers were, still are, located on the bottom of one wing, each side of the fin, to ease identification; as the years progressed, pilots used cameras to photograph each turnpoint from the air to prove that they had rounded each one and a barograph to prove that they had not landed en route. Today, all tracking methods have been replaced with GPS-based FAI approved flight recorders to log their positions and flight so that they can prove that the task was completed. Modern gliding competitions now comprise closed tasks where everyone races on an aerial route around specified turn-points, plus start and finish points, that brings everybody back to base; the weather forecast and the performance of the gliders, as well as the experience level of the pilots, dictate the length of the task. Today, most of the points are speed points; the general rule is to set the task so that all pilots have a fair chance of completing it, with the fastest pilot gaining the most points for that day.
With the advent of GPS, new types of tasks were introduced such as speed or distance tasks within assigned areas, speed or distance tasks with pilot-selected turn-points. Despite the use of pilot-selected turn-points made possible by GPS, tasks over a fixed course are still used frequently. In the European Gliding Championships in 2005, a task of 1,011 km was set in the open class; the FAI Sporting Code for gliders sets out the rules and procedures to be used to verify soaring performances in competitions and badge flights. The main objective of these rules is to ensure that a consistent level of proof is achieved for all flights. Competitions are held at the local, regional and international level. Strong performance at the regional level allows pilots to gain a high enough ranking to enter national championships. Thereafter international competitions are available for the most ambitious pilots: the European Gliding Championships, the World Gliding Championships. There is the prestigious Barron Hilton Cup, an invitation event for the top pilots.
There are now six classes open to both sexes, plus three classes just for women, two junior classes. Some competitive classes have scoring systems that are handicapped based on the type of glider each pilot is flying; this allows pilots to compete on a equal basis if their gliders have varying performance. Gliding contests last one week, but international contests last two weeks. Sometimes days are allocated for practice before the contest to allow non-local pilots to familiarize themselves with the contest area; each day an initial decision is made as to the likelihood that the conditions for the day are adequate to remain aloft. If so, the pilots are told to prepare their gliders and move them onto the runway launch grid and prepare to launch; the order of the gliders on the grid is predetermined for rotates amongst the pilots. The contest pilots gather at the start of each contest day to learn about the day's forecast weather conditions, to obtain briefings on operational and safety related issues, to hear about the previous day's results and to hear from the previous day's winning pilot.
Behind the scenes, the weather forecaster will discuss the local predicted conditions for the day with the task-setter. Once the task for the day has been decided, a pilot's briefing is held to describe the task and provide an update on forecast weather and any airspace restrictions. A non-competing pilot will make a preliminary flight to verify conditions aloft. Launching takes place; the task for the day is based on the predicted soaring and weather conditions of the day and is made up of a combination of a minimum time in the air coupled with a collection of locations which must be overflown. Some turnpoints may be mandatory, others may be a combination of both; some days can not be flown and are referred to as "non-contest" days. In a typical 7 day regional contest, at least 3 days must be "contest days" to constitute a valid contest. If every day of the contest can be flow
DG Flugzeugbau GmbH is a manufacturer of sailplanes and other composite parts based in Bruchsal near Karlsruhe, Germany. The business was founded in 1973 by Gerhard Glaser and Wilhelm Dirks as Glaser-Dirks Flugzeugbau GmbH. In 2018 the company received an order to build "a large number" of the Volocopter 2X design under contract to Volocopter; the Glaser-Dirks company produced the following gliders: DG-100 DG-200 DG-300 DG-400 DG-500 DG-600 LS10 DG Flugzeugbau produces: DG-808C DG-1001 Rolladen-Schneider LS8c-neo, Official website
The Rolladen-Schneider LS1 is a Standard Class single seater glider, manufactured by Rolladen-Schneider from 1968 to 1977. The LS-1 Standard Class design was the first aircraft type arising from the partnership between Wolf Lemke and Walter Schneider, who had worked together as students on the ground breaking Akaflieg Darmstadt D-36. Here, in subsequent Lemke-Schneider designs, Wolf Lemke concentrated on the aerodynamics while Walter Schneider contributed to the structural and production issues; the LS1 made its debut at the 1968 German National Championships, taking first and second place with the designers themselves at the controls. The success of this design increased in the subsequent years until, in 1975, it was the most flown glider in the German Nationals; the LS1-c took first place in the 1970 World Championships at Texas. The manufacture of the LS1 was discontinued after the IGC introduced the new unrestricted 15 metre-class in the spring 1977, as the manufacturer needed all its resources to increase production of the LS3.
A total of 464 LS1 were built. It was succeeded by the LS2 and LS4; the designers desired to demonstrate that high performance and pleasant flight characteristics could coexist in a standard class sailplane built with the still unexplored GRP technology. The performance came from the high wing aspect ratio, the double tapered wing and the new FX 66-S-196 profile; this profile possesses a shallow but wide laminar bucket. The natural qualities of the profile combined with careful wing design yielded gentle low speed behaviour. Variants up to the LS1-d had an all-flying tail with oversensitive handling characteristics at high speeds. A conventional stabiliser and elevator were adopted for variants. Although fractionally less efficient, this is more pleasant to fly; the front of the original two-piece canopy was blended with the fuselage for improved aerodynamics. The materials used were glass fibre, Conticell foam, plywood for the spar webs and hardwood in reinforcements. Wood was phased out in the LS1-f version.
The FX 66-S-196 profile, with a thickness-to-chord ratio of 20%, made it possible to build a light and economical spar. This was important because in the late sixties glass fibre was the only affordable reinforcement material - carbon was still too expensive; the GRP fuselage shell was produced in female moulds, in an innovative method developed by Wolf Lemke. The LS1 V-1 prototype was the pattern or ‘plug’ for the serial production moulds; the undercarriage was fixed, as required by the standard class rules of the time. The wheel was had its own wheel housing, separate from the internal fuselage space; the wheel brake was coupled to the air brake system. The new one-piece canopy of the LS1-f required an innovative hinge with complex kinetics to deliver the forward opening movement. LS1-0 V-1 - prototype had an internal load bearing tubular steel scaffold; this structure was substituted by full GRP construction in production versions. LS1-0 - angle of incidence was increased and improvements to the control system.
LS1-a - trailing edge air brakes of the prototype were dropped in favour of conventional Schempp-Hirth air brakes LS1-b - LS1-c - LS1-d - was the first to have water ballast, following a class rule change. LS1-e - version was built by a Rolladen-Schneider employee under the direction of Wolf Lemke. Differs from the LS1-c only in the use of an LS2 type tailplane LS1-ef - tailplane of the LS1-f and the same fuselage as former versions LS1-f - introduced the one-piece canopy, conventional tailplane, redesigned rudder and structural changes that allowed more water ballast and higher flight mass, it has a reduced wing incidence relative to the fuselage, resulting in noticeably better high speed performance than the earlier LS1 variants. LS1-f - Data from General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 6.75 m Wingspan: 15 m Height: 1.37 m Wing area: 9.75 m2 Aspect ratio: 23.1 Airfoil: modified Wortmann FX-66-S-196 sections Empty weight: 230 kg Max takeoff weight: 390 kg Water ballast: 90 l Performance Stall speed: 70 km/h Never exceed speed: 250 km/h in smooth and rough air170 km/h maneuvering speed 170 km/h on aero-tow 130 km/h on winch launchg limits: +5.3 -2.65 at 170 km/h.
The wing configuration of a fixed-wing aircraft is its arrangement of lifting and related surfaces. Aircraft designs are classified by their wing configuration. For example, the Supermarine Spitfire is a conventional low wing cantilever monoplane of straight elliptical planform with moderate aspect ratio and slight dihedral. Many variations have been tried. Sometimes the distinction between them is blurred, for example the wings of many modern combat aircraft may be described either as cropped compound deltas with swept trailing edge, or as tapered swept wings with large leading edge root extensions; some are therefore duplicated here under more than one heading. This is so for variable geometry and combined wing types. Most of the configurations described here have flown on full-size aircraft. A few significant theoretical designs are noted. Note on terminology: Most fixed-wing aircraft have left hand and right hand wings in a symmetrical arrangement; such a pair of wings is called a wing plane or just plane.
However, in certain situations it is common to refer to a plane as a wing, as in "a biplane has two wings", or to refer to the whole thing as a wing, as in "a biplane wing has two planes". Where the meaning is clear, this article follows common usage, only being more precise where needed to avoid real ambiguity or incorrectness. Fixed-wing aircraft can have different numbers of wings: Monoplane: one wing plane. Since the 1930s most aeroplanes have been monoplanes; the wing may be mounted at various positions relative to the fuselage: Low wing: mounted near or below the bottom of the fuselage. Mid wing: mounted halfway up the fuselage. Shoulder wing: mounted on the upper part or "shoulder" of the fuselage below the top of the fuselage. A shoulder wing is sometimes considered a subtype of high wing. High wing: mounted on the upper fuselage; when contrasted to the shoulder wing, applies to a wing mounted on a projection above the top of the main fuselage. Parasol wing: raised clear above the top of the fuselage by cabane struts, pylon or pedestal.
A fixed-wing aircraft may have more than one wing plane, stacked one above another: Biplane: two wing planes of similar size, stacked one above the other. The biplane is inherently lighter and stronger than a monoplane and was the most common configuration until the 1930s; the first Wright Flyer I was a biplane. Unequal-span biplane: a biplane in which one wing is shorter than the other, as on the Curtiss JN-4 Jenny of the First World War. Sesquiplane: "one-and-a-half planes" is a type of biplane in which the lower wing is smaller than the upper wing, either in span or chord or both; the Nieuport 17 of World War I was notably successful. Inverted sesquiplane: has a smaller upper wing; the Fiat CR.1 was in production for many years. Triplane: three planes stacked one above another. Triplanes such as the Fokker Dr. I enjoyed a brief period of popularity during the First World War due to their manoeuvrability, but were soon replaced by improved biplanes. Quadruplane: four planes stacked one above another.
A small number of the Armstrong Whitworth F. K. 10 never saw service. Multiplane: many planes, sometimes used to mean more than one or more than some arbitrary number; the term is applied to arrangements stacked in tandem as well as vertically. The 1907 Multiplane of Horatio Frederick Phillips flew with two hundred wing foils. See the tandem wing, below. A staggered design has the upper wing forward of the lower. Long thought to reduce the interference caused by the low pressure air over the lower wing mixing with the high pressure air under the upper wing, it is common on triplanes. Backwards stagger is seen in a few examples such as the Beechcraft Staggerwing. A tandem wing design has two wings, one behind the other: see foreplanes below; some early types had tandem stacks of multiple planes, such as the nine-wing Caproni Ca.60 flying boat with three triplane stacks in tandem. A cruciform wing is a set of four individual wings arranged in the shape of a cross; the cross may take either of two forms: Wings spaced around the cross-section of the fuselage, lying in two planes at right angles, as on a typical missile.
Wings lying together in a single horizontal plane about a vertical axis, as in the cruciform rotor wing or X-wing. To support itself a wing has to be rigid and strong and may be heavy. By adding external bracing, the weight can be reduced; such bracing was always present, but it causes a large amount of drag at higher speeds and has not been used for faster designs since the early 1930s. The types are: Cantilevered: self-supporting. All the structure is buried under the aerodynamic skin. Braced: the wings are supported by external structural members. Nearly all multi-plane designs are braced; some monoplanes early designs such as the Fokker Eindecker, are braced to save weight. Braced wings are of two types: Strut braced: one or more stiff struts help to support the wing, as on the Fokker D. VII. A strut may act in tension at different points in the flight regime. Wire braced: alone or, more in addition to struts, tension wires help to support the wing. Unlike a strut, a wire can act only in tension.
A braced multiplane may have one or more "bays", which are the compa
DG Flugzeugbau DG-1000
The DG Flugzeugbau DG-1000 is a glider of the Two Seater Class built by DG Flugzeugbau. It first flew in July 2000 at Speyer in Germany. There are four models, with 18- and 20-metre wings of HQK-51 profile; the 1001 replaced the DG-505 in production. With an 18-metre span it is certified for aerobatics; the retractable engine is mounted on a pylon aft of the double cockpit. There is a reduction gear between the two-blade carbon-fibre composite propeller; the propeller is produced by the DG factory. In 2011, the DG-1000 was selected by the USAF as a replacement for the Blanik TG-10, it will serve as a basic soaring trainer for cadets at the United States Air Force Academy. It serves as the primary competition platform for the USAF Academy Aerobatic Demonstration Team, its USAF designation is TG-16A. DG-1000S Standard 20 metre span version DG-1000S 18/20 Model Flown either as an 18 metre or 20 metre glider DG-1000S Club Only 18 metre span, fixed undercarriage and no capacity for water ballast DG-1001 Refined version with electric landing gear retraction DG-1000T/DG-1001T 18 or 20 metre span with a 2-stroke piston engine Akaflieg Karlsruhe DG-1000J Turbine The DG-1000T with a turbojet engine installation DG-1001M 20 metre self-launching version with SOLO 2-stroke TG-16A USAF designation.
Used to train cadets in soaring at the United States Air Force Academy. Replaces the Blanik TG-10. AustraliaRoyal Australian Air Force Australian Air Force Cadets - 8 IndonesiaIndonesian Air Force - 3 United StatesUnited States Air Force Academy 94th Flying Training Squadron General characteristics Crew: Two Capacity: 160 kg of water ballast Length: 8.57 m Wingspan: 20.00 m Height: 1.83 m Wing area: 17.5 m2 Aspect ratio: 22.8 Empty weight: 461 kg Gross weight: 750 kg Powerplant: 1 × Solo 2350C two-cylinder-two-stroke-engine, 22 kW Performance Maximum speed: 270 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 46.5 Rate of climb: 1.3 m/s Rate of sink: 0.5 m/s Armament DG-Flugzeugbau website Specification DG-1000 The New Two Seater from DG Flugzeugbau