Square is a studio album by Canadian hip hop musician Buck 65. It was released on WEA in 2002. Although it consists of four tracks, each track consists of multiple songs; the album was nominated for the 2003 Juno Awards for Alternative Album of the Year and Album Design of the Year. Rollie Pemberton of Pitchfork gave the album a 7.0 out of 10, describing it as "a melodic mix of folk rock sensibility, smooth early 90s style production, clever lyrical observations and a enjoyable train ride into the mental station of Halifax's best-known emcee." Meanwhile, Clay Jarvis of Stylus Magazine gave the album a grade of B+, saying, "Square is built out of his strengths: hazy introspection, sparse snare-and-kick beats and simple, dismal instrumental refrains." Credits adapted from liner notes. Buck 65 – words, scratches Greymatter – helping hands Charles Austin – helping hands DJ Signify – helping hands Joe Run – helping hands Yan – helping hands James Paterson – cover art, design Robbie Cameron – cover art, design Square at AllMusic Square at Discogs
Untrue is the second studio album by British electronic music producer Burial. Released on 5 November 2007 by Hyperdub, the album was produced by Burial from 2006 to 2007 using the digital audio editing software Sound Forge. Untrue builds on the general atmosphere of his debut album Burial, marking a development in Burial's sound through its more prominent usage of pitch-shifted and time-stretched vocal samples; the album, like Burial's previous work draws on influences from UK garage and hardcore music. Untrue received rave reviews from critics, who praised Burial's production style on the album and hailed it as a progression and improvement over his prior musical output, it placed on the albums charts of Belgium and the United Kingdom and produced two singles, "Archangel" and "Ghost Hardware". Untrue appeared in several publications' lists of the year's best albums and received nominations for the Mercury Prize and the Shortlist Music Prize. In the years following its release, Untrue has since been viewed as a landmark album in the dubstep genre, in electronic music in general.
Following the release of his 2006 self-titled debut album, Burial began work on a second studio album. He had felt some pressure to follow up Burial, worked several hours a day creating new songs and learning how to use new sound-editing programs, he produced various songs which he described as "darker" and "more technical", but scrapped the material because he grew tired of them from the long hours he spent on their production. Burial decided to take a new direction, he wanted to capture the essence of his musical preferences—aiming to make tracks based on what UK hardcore music meant to him—while incorporating "a dose of real life... something people can relate to."Burial produced much of Untrue "in the dead of the night". He said: "I would wait for summer to end. Or I would go out, wait for it to get dark, I'd go back and work on it, sort of hypnotise myself." He produced Untrue with the software Sound Forge. He was motivated to add vocals to the songs on Untrue, influenced by the vocal-based work of producers such as A Guy Called Gerald, Foul Play, Omni Trio the "girl-next-door" quality of the vocals on tracks by the latter two.
In the absence of a session vocalist, he had friends sing over the phone and used samples of a cappellas, editing individual words to form sentences. He sampled sources including the video game Metal Gear Solid and the sound of car keys from a Vin Diesel film. Untrue, categorised as a dubstep album and described as a tribute to UK garage, retains several musical elements which marked the sound of Burial, including heavy use of sampling and Burial's trademark skipped drum patterns. In contrast to Burial's past work, the tracks on Untrue feature more prominent pitch-shifted and time-stretched vocals, many sourced from manipulated samples of R&B tracks. Throughout the album's run time, the use of beats is varied; the downbeat "Shell of Light" incorporates piano, string instruments, rain sound effects. The mix of vocals and skipped drum patterns on Untrue has been likened to 2-step garage and early jungle music. Dan Hancox of The Guardian wrote that while Untrue is "still distinctly DIY, some of the melancholy of Burial's debut has dissipated on this new album, more loaded with garage-inflected vocals, more upbeat as a consequence."
Dave Stelfox of The Village Voice expressed a similar sentiment, noting a "shift from dystopian melancholy to restrained optimism." Critics have noted that the increased emphasis on vocal effects on Untrue over his previous works contributes to its more emotional nature. Pitchfork critic Philip Sherburne wrote that Untrue is "not a pop album, at least not by Top 40 standards, but his voices—male and ambiguous—wriggle deep into the listener's consciousness."Burial uses pitch-shifting to make male vocals sound feminine and female vocals sound masculine, resulting in the album's vocals taking on a more androgynous nature. Sherburne stated that "they toy with r&b's conventions, heavy with breath and rippling with trills and melisma, some of it digitally imposed." In addition, references to angels and supernatural phenomena recur in several of the album's vocal samples and track titles, including "Archangel" and "Ghost Hardware", Burial has stated that these were intended to connect to people "maybe taking a battering in their life, but still handle themselves with grace".
He added: "When you think of some of the things people go through, everyday troubles, relationship things, other stuff. Everyone knows those sorts of feelings. I wanted to do songs about that low-key stuff." On 17 October 2007, Scottish musician and Hyperdub label owner Kode9 appeared as a guest on the BBC programme Radio 1's Experimental Show, where he played several tracks from Untrue. Following much anticipation, Untrue was released by Hyperdub on 5 November 2007, it was released as thirteen-track Digipak CD and a nine-track double vinyl LP on which some beatless pieces were edited out. Untrue debuted at number 121 on the UK Albums Chart for the week ending 17 November 2007. In the Belgian region of Flanders, Untrue spent one week at number 57 on the Ultratop 50 albums chart. On the Ultratop Alternative Albums chart, it debuted at number 23 and remained on the chart for eight weeks. Hyperdub issued "Archangel" as the album's first single, and
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Hip hop production
Hip hop production is the creation of hip hop music in a recording studio. While the term encompasses all aspects of hip hop music creation, including recording the rapping of an MC, a turntablist or DJ providing a beat, playing samples and "scratching" using record players and the creation of a rhythmic backing track, using a drum machine or sequencer, it is most used to refer to recording the instrumental, non-lyrical and non-vocal aspects of hip hop. Hip Hop Producers credited as the record producer and songwriter, are composers of a musical composition and creative directors involved in guiding and supervision of recording sessions; this can range from a single song to a full-length album or EP. A hip hop instrumental is colloquially referred to as a beat or musical composition and its composer is referred to as a programmer, songwriter or beat maker. In the studio, a hip hop producer functions as a traditional record producer, being the person, responsible for the final sound of a recording, for guiding the artists and performers and giving advice to the audio engineer on the selection of microphones and effects processors and on how to mix the levels of the vocals and instrumentals.
Since Hip hop producers co-write the original music such as the beat, they are known as Record Producer / Songwriters, that's wearing two hats. They receive production and songwriting credits for both acting roles esp Pharrell Williams, J. R. Rotem, Tricky Stewart, Teddy Riley, Bryan-Michael Cox, Rodney Jerkins, Dr. Dre, Scott Storch, Timbaland etc. Modern producers use producer tags known as audio tags, musical tags or tags, they function as a watermark for beatmakers to make sure that they are given credit. These can range from producers reciting the producer's name or stage name to a phrase unique to them. An example of the former is when Drake starts his song "In My Feelings" with the lyric "Trap, TrapMoneyBenny", shouting out one of the song's co-producers. An example of the latter is Metro Boomin's " Metro Boomin want some more, nigga!" which comes from a sample of Young Thug on his track "Some More" in which he shouts out Boomin, who co-produced the song along with Sonny Digital and TM88.
Producers and beatmakers times utilize a number of tags in order to personalize the track. A prime example is producer CAB's variation between "CAB you're crazy for this", "CAB!", "Yo, it's Charlot". These originate from hip-hop record producers shouting their name over a track before it started, vocal processing became involved, resulting in tags that sound like part of the song, in artists shouting the producer's name rather than producers doing so themselves; the Roland TR-808 drum machine was introduced in 1980, consisted on an analog machine with step programming method. The 808 was used by Afrika Bambaataa, who released "Planet Rock" in 1982, in addition to the electro hip hip groundbreaking classic "Nunk" by Warp 9, produced by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, giving rise to the fledgling Electro genre. An notable artist is the genre's own pioneer Juan Atkins who released what is accepted as the first American techno record, "Clear" in 1984; these early electro records laid down the foundations that Detroit techno artists such as Derrick May built upon.
In 1983, Run-DMC recorded "It's Like That" and "Sucker MC's," two songs which relied on synthetic sounds, in this case via an Oberheim DMX drum machine, ignoring samples entirely. This approach was much like early songs by the Furious Five. Kurtis Blow was the first hip hop artist to use a digital sampler, when he used the Fairlight CMI for their 1984 album "Ego Trip", specially on the track "AJ Scratch"; the E-mu SP-12 came out in 1985. The E-mu SP-1200 promptly followed with an expanded recording time of 10 seconds, divided on 4 banks. One of the earliest songs to contain a drum loop or break was "Rhymin and Stealin" by the Beastie Boys, produced by Rick Rubin. Marley Marl popularized a style of restructuring drum loops by sampling individual drums, in the mid 1980s, a technique, popularized by the MC Shan's 1986 single "The Bridge" which used chops of "Impeach the President" on two Korg Delay/sampling triggered by a Roland TR-808; the Akai MPC60 came out in 1988. The Beastie Boys released Paul's Boutique in 1989, an entire album created from an eclectic mix of samples, produced by the Dust Brothers using an Emax sampler.
De La Soul released 3 Feet High and Rising that year. Public Enemy's Bomb Squad revolutionized the sound of hip-hop with dense production styles, combining tens of samples per song combining percussion breaks with a drum machine, their beats were much more structured than repetitive beats. The MPC3000 was released in 1994, the AKAI MPC2000 in 1997, followed by the MPC2000XL in 1999 and the MPC2500 in 2006; these machines combined a sampling drum machine with an onboard MIDI sequencer and became the centerpiece of many hip hop producers' studios. The Wu Tang Clan's producer RZA is credited for getting hip hop attention away from Dr. Dre's more polished sound in 1993. RZA's more gritty sound with low rumbling bass, sharp snare drum sounds and unique sampling style based on Ensoniq sampler. With the 1994 release of The Notorious B. I. G.'s Ready to Die, Sean Combs and his assistant producers ushered in a new style where entire sections of records were sampled, instead of short snippets. Records like "Warning", "One More Chance" epitomized this aesthetic.
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Adrian Nicholas Matthews Thaws, better known by his stage name Tricky, is an English record producer and rapper. Born and raised in Bristol, he began his career as an early collaborator of Massive Attack before embarking on a solo career with his debut album, Maxinquaye, in 1995; the release won Tricky popular acclaim and marked the beginning of a lengthy collaborative partnership with vocalist Martina Topley-Bird. He released four more studio albums before the end of the decade, including Pre-Millennium Tension and the pseudonymous Nearly God, both in 1996, he has gone on to release eight studio albums since 2000, most Ununiform. Tricky is a pioneer of trip hop music, his work is noted for its dark, layered musical style that blends disparate cultural influences and genres, including hip hop, alternative rock and ragga, he has collaborated with a wide range of artists over the course of his career, including Terry Hall, Björk, Grace Jones, PJ Harvey. Tricky was born in the Knowle West neighbourhood of Bristol, to a Jamaican father and a mixed-race Anglo-Guyanese mother.
His mother, Maxine Quaye, either committed suicide or died due to epilepsy complications when Tricky was four. His father, Roy Thaws, who left the family before Tricky was born, operated the Studio 17 sound system with his brother Rupert and father Hector. Bristol musician Bunny Marrett claimed in 2012, "It became the most popular sound system in Bristol at the time."Tricky experienced a difficult childhood in Knowle West, a "white ghetto" in Southern Bristol. He became involved in crime at an early age, joined a gang, involved in car theft, burglary and promiscuity. Tricky spent his youth in the care of his grandmother, who let him watch old horror films instead of going to school. At the age of 15, he began to write lyrics. At 17, he spent some time in prison after he purchased forged £50 notes from a friend, who informed the police. Tricky stated in an interview afterward: "Prison was good. I'm never going back". In the mid-1980s, Tricky met DJ Milo and spent time with a sound system called the Wild Bunch, which by 1987 evolved into Massive Attack.
He received the nickname "Tricky Kid" and at age eighteen became a member of the Fresh 4, a rap group built from the Wild Bunch. He rapped on Massive Attack's acclaimed debut album Blue Lines. In 1991, before the release of Massive Attack's album Blue Lines, he met Martina Topley-Bird in Bristol; some time she came to his house, mentioned to Tricky and Mark Stewart that she could sing. Martina was only fifteen years old, but her "honey-coated vox" impressed them and they recorded a song called "Aftermath". Tricky showed "Aftermath" to Massive Attack. So in 1993 he decided to press a few hundred vinyl copies of the song, he cut it directly off the tape, so that the song is "just bassline and hiss".. In 1995, a white label got him a contract with Island Records and he started to record his first solo album, Maxinquaye, he rapped on former Wild Bunch member Neneh Cherry's song "Sassy" from her 1992 album Homebrew. Tricky left Massive Attack to release his debut album Maxinquaye, co-produced by himself and Mark Saunders and prominently featured singer Martina Topley-Bird.
The album was successful and Tricky attained international fame, something he was notably uncomfortable with. The Maxinquaye album review by Rolling Stone read: "Tricky devoured everything from American hip-hop and soul to reggae and the more melancholic strains of'80s British rock". Authors David Hesmondhalgh and Caspar Melville wrote in the book Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA: "Tricky showed his debt to hip-hop aesthetics by reconstructualising samples and slices of both the most respected black music and the tackiest pop." As the Rolling Stone article further explained, Tricky created "a mercurial style of dance music that finds it own fast feet."Tricky failed to complete a number of lyrics for the Massive Attack album Protection and gave the band some of the lyrics he had written for Maxinquaye instead. Thus, there are songs across the two albums that share the same lyrics —entitled "Overcome" and "Hell is'Round the Corner" on Maxinquaye and "Karmacoma", "Eurochild" on Protection, respectively.
Tricky found it difficult to cope with the huge success of Maxinquaye and subsequently eschewed the laid-back soul sound of the first album to create an edgy and aggressive punk style of music. In 1996, Neneh Cherry and Björk appeared as guests on his second album Nearly God; the opening number was a cover of the Siouxsie and the Banshees pre-trip-hop song "Tattoo" that had inspired Tricky when he forged his style. In 2001, Tricky appeared on the Thirteen Ghosts soundtrack with the song "Excess" which features Alanis Morissette during two of the choruses. In 2002 that song appeared on the Queen of the Damned soundtrack. Tricky's studio album Knowle West Boy was released in the UK and Ireland in July 2008, September 2008 in the US; the first single from the album was "Council Estate" and features the artist as the sole vocalist: "It's the first single I've done with just me on vocals. I couldn't whisper that song. I do a loud, screaming vocal. I wanted to be a proper frontman on that one." In an interview with The Skinny in July 2008, Tricky mentioned that Knowle West Boy was the first album for which he decided to enl
Clouddead is the debut album by American hip hop trio Clouddead. It was released on May 1, 2001 on Big Dada in the United Kingdom and on May 8, 2001 on Mush Records in the United States. Stevie Chick of NME said, "This music takes the most abstract fallout of trip-hop as its starting point, working in white noise, telephone pranks and post-rock textures to create a disorientating mush you'll spend weeks getting lost in." Thomas Quinlan of Exclaim! said, "Clouddead follows more along the lines of Frank Zappa or Captain Beefheart than it does hip-hop, but it remains rooted at all times in beats and samples."Clay Jarvis of Stylus Magazine gave the album a grade of A, saying, "No combination of adjectives could portray what you'll hear and no second-hand gushing will prepare you for the immense pleasure, sure to wash over you when you put this album on." Mark Pytlik of AllMusic gave the album 4 stars out of 5, saying, "It's menacing, it's enthralling, it's one of few modern-day records that doesn't sound like anything -- or anyone -- else."In 2014, it was described by Arron Merat of Fact as "a key touchstone for the North American hip-hop underground."
Credits adapted from liner notes. Yoni Wolf – vocals Adam Drucker – vocals David Madson – production cLOUDDEAD at Discogs
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai