United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
Drakar och Demoner
Drakar och Demoner is a Swedish fantasy role-playing game first published in 1982 by the game publishing company Äventyrsspel. The first edition was a translation of Steve Perrin's Basic Role-Playing combined with the Magic World booklet; the second Edition was published in 1984, rewriting the text from scratch, fixing many translation errors and glitches in the rules although no other major changes were made. One of the available player races, the anthropomorphic ducks, was incorporated from Glorantha; the transition to a new system of rules began in 1985, not with the third edition which corrected spelling errors, but with the publication of an "Expert" rule expansion: Drakar och Demoner Expert. This among other things introduced hit locations and the use of a 20-sided die instead of the percentile die for skill rolls; the fourth edition in 1991 was a major revision of the rules, superseding Drakar och Demoner Expert by incorporating it into the basic rules and expanding them. In 1994, Target Games released a fifth edition, called Drakar och Demoner Chronopia.
This version was notable because it came with an integrated world description. Changes to the rules were minor reflecting the new campaign setting. In the late 1990s, Target Games found itself in financial difficulties and discontinued their line of role-playing games; the rights to Drakar och Demoner were transferred to Paradox Entertainment, who in turn licensed them to Riotminds. Riotminds published a new version of the game in 2000; this sixth edition was a complete overhaul of the game rules, supporting a much less generic game world. The idea of "Expert" rules was re-used, many rules expansions followed; when Riotminds released their first take on the venerable Drakar och Demoner ruleset, it featured a concept close to levels. It didn't take long before an official addendum appeared on their website, with optional rules on how to play without this feature. In the subsequent reprints little or no traces of "yrkesnivåer" remain. In 2006, Riotminds consolidated the line with the seventh edition, which again meant many rule changes to better support its campaign world.
Among the changes was the removal of the basic character stats which were replaced with'exceptional abilities' and the introduction of specializations of skills. This edition is the first boxed one in many years. In 2015 Riotminds announced an upcoming re-release of the popular 1987-edition of the game featuring new art and minor fixes but otherwise identical. A line of products including several new campaigns is planned after the release, set for August 2016. On May 16, 2016 Riotminds announced that Drakar och Demoner Trudvang would be released in an English version, under the name Trudvang Chronicles. Like many other early role-playing games, Drakar och Demoner started out without a developed campaign setting; the first campaign setting of Drakar och Demoner was called Ereb Altor. It was created bit by bit by different writers through adventures and source books creating a somewhat haphazard world. With the fifth version Target Games decided to introduce a new, campaign setting named Chronopia, thereby ceasing publication of new material for Ereb.
After an outcry among fans of Ereb ensued, Target Games decided that Ereb and Chronopia both existed on Altor but on different hemispheres. At this time, a table top miniatures game line was started, see Chronopia below. In 2015, Cabinet Holdings acquired Paradox Entertainment Inc. and all subsidiaries and their properties, including Chronopia. Riotminds created a brand new campaign setting called Trudvang which utilized cultures and monsters based on Scandinavian folklore instead of the standard fantasy creatures. First Edition: Chronopia: Dark Fantasy Battles was a table top miniature game published by Target Games. Players would field an army composed of 25 mm miniatures which were composed of pewter, resin, or a composite of both; the game featured eight different armies for players to choose from. Second Edition: Chronopia: War in the Eternal Realm was a table top miniature game published by Excelsior Entertainment. In 2015, Cabinet Holdings acquired Paradox Entertainment Inc. and all subsidiaries and their properties, including Chronopia.
In 1999 a Drakar och Demoner video game was released by the name of Drakar och Demoner: Själarnas Brunn. The game takes place in the original campaign setting of Ereb Altor six years after the events in the popular adventure trilogy Den Nidländska Reningen. Drakar och Demoner at Curlie http://www.stacken.kth.se/~maxz/swerpg/drakar.html Riotminds website Fan website
Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates. Inkjet printers are the most used type of printer, range from small inexpensive consumer models to expensive professional machines; the concept of inkjet printing originated in the 20th century, the technology was first extensively developed in the early 1950s. Starting in the late 1970s, inkjet printers that could reproduce digital images generated by computers were developed by Epson, Hewlett-Packard and Canon. In the worldwide consumer market, four manufacturers account for the majority of inkjet printer sales: Canon, HP, Epson and Brother; the emerging ink jet material deposition market uses inkjet technologies printheads using piezoelectric crystals, to deposit materials directly on substrates. The technology has been extended and the'ink' can now comprise solder paste in PCB assembly, or living cells, for creating biosensors and for tissue engineering.
Images produced on inkjet printers are sometime sold under other names since the term is associated with words like "digital", "computers", "everyday printing", which can have negative connotations in some contexts. These trade names or coined terms are used in the fine arts reproduction field, they include Digigraph, Iris prints, Cromalin. There are two main technologies in use in contemporary inkjet printers: continuous and drop-on-demand; the continuous inkjet method is used commercially for coding of products and packages. In 1867, Lord Kelvin patented the syphon recorder, which recorded telegraph signals as a continuous trace on paper using an ink jet nozzle deflected by a magnetic coil; the first commercial devices were introduced in 1951 by Siemens. In CIJ technology, a high-pressure pump directs liquid ink from a reservoir through a gunbody and a microscopic nozzle, creating a continuous stream of ink droplets via the Plateau-Rayleigh instability. A piezoelectric crystal creates an acoustic wave as it vibrates within the gunbody and causes the stream of liquid to break into droplets at regular intervals: 64,000 to 165,000 droplets per second may be achieved.
The ink droplets are subjected to an electrostatic field created by a charging electrode as they form. This results in a variable electrostatic charge on each droplet. Charged droplets are separated by one or more uncharged "guard droplets" to minimize electrostatic repulsion between neighbouring droplets; the charged droplets pass through another electrostatic field and are directed by electrostatic deflection plates to print on the receptor material, or allowed to continue on undeflected to a collection gutter for re-use. The more charged droplets are deflected to a greater degree. Only a small fraction of the droplets is used to the majority being recycled. CIJ is one of the oldest ink jet technologies in use and is mature; the major advantages are the high velocity of the ink droplets, which allows for a long distance between print head and substrate, the high drop ejection frequency, allowing for high speed printing. Another advantage is freedom from nozzle clogging as the jet is always in use, therefore allowing volatile solvents such as ketones and alcohols to be employed, giving the ink the ability to "bite" into the substrate and dry quickly.
The ink system requires active solvent regulation to counter solvent evaporation during the time of flight, from the venting process whereby air, drawn into the gutter along with the unused drops is vented from the reservoir. Viscosity is monitored and a solvent is added to counteract solvent loss. Drop-on-demand is divided into thermal DOD and piezoelectric DOD. Most consumer inkjet printers, including those from Canon, Hewlett-Packard, Lexmark, use the thermal inkjet process; the idea of using thermal excitation to move tiny drops of ink was developed independently by two groups at the same time: John Vaught and a team at Hewlett-Packard's Corvallis Division, Canon engineer Ichiro Endo. In 1977, Endo's team was trying to use the piezoelectric effect to move ink out of the nozzle but noticed that ink shot out of a syringe when it was accidentally heated with a soldering iron. Vaught's work started in late 1978 with a project to develop low-cost printing; the team at HP found. Two years the HP and Canon teams found out about each other's work.
In the thermal inkjet process, the print cartridges consist of a series of tiny chambers, each containing a heater, all of which are constructed by photolithography. To eject a droplet from each chamber, a pulse of current is passed through the heating element causing a rapid vaporization of the ink in the chamber and forming a bubble, which causes a large pressure increase, propelling a droplet of ink onto the paper; the ink's surface tension, as well as the condensation and resultant contraction of the vapor bubble, pulls a further charge of ink into the chamber through a narrow channel attached to an ink reservoir. The inks involved are water-based and use either pigments or dyes as the colorant; the inks must have a volatile component to form the vapor bubble. As no special materials are required, the print head is cheaper to produce than in other inkjet technologies. Most commercial and industrial inkjet printers and
DOD Electronics, or DOD, is a Harman International company that makes guitar effects pedals, many of which are now discontinued. Additionally, the company has made active crossover gear. DOD stood for David Oreste Di Francesco, who founded the company in 1973 with business partner and musician John Johnson. David was the original engineer who, with his business partner John sold the company to Harman International; the engineer now runs. Over DOD's 40-year history, the company introduced many pedal lines and early multi-effect devices, like the "944 Chain-Reaction" and digital delays like the now sought-after PDS series. The'70s and early'80s 200, 400 and 600 series of stompboxes have become collectable.'70s gray "DOD Overdrive Preamp/250"s with LM741 op-amps fetch premium prices with collectors, with the yellow early'80s 250s not far behind. Later'90s DOD pedals have become collectors items like the "Gonkulator", "Grind", "Buzz Box", "Meat Box", "Vibro Thang", "Big Pig Fat" Distortion. Many of the more popular DOD pedals are now available under the DigiTech name.
This includes the Envelope Filter. In early 2010 Harman employee Tom Cram began a clandestine skunkworks project to revive DOD; this resulted in the prototypes for what would be the new DOD 250, 201, an unidentified third red pedal. This skunkworks project was unknown to Harman and only became official after Mr. Cram showed his completed prototypes. Mr. Cram has subsequently become the marketing manager for DigiTech/DOD and continues to work on new DigiTech and DOD pedals. On September 16, 2013, DOD returned with updated versions of the venerable "Overdrive Preamp/250", "Phasor/201". Both feature true bypass, blue LEDs, modern power jack, lighter aluminum chassis, two tone flat-black and metal-flake paint jobs; the 2013 250 features an LM741 op-amp to replicate the sounds of the original 250. In 2014 three more updated DOD pedals were released, the "BIFET Boost 410", the "Envelope Filter 440", the "Electro-Optical Compressor 280"; the 410 features a new buffer on/off toggle and the 440 features an up/down voicing toggle, the 280 circuit is untouched except for the addition of true bypass, LED, modern PSU jack.
All feature true bypass, blue LEDs, modern power jack, lighter aluminum chassis, two tone flat-black and metal-flake paint jobs. In early 2015 a new DOD pedal called. Official website AmericasPedal.net
Day of Darkness
Day of Darkness was the original name of Ireland's D. O. D. Festival, it happened annually in Ballylinan from 2002 to 2008 as a metal music festival. The 2002 line-up was headlined by Primordial and ran for a second year in 2003. Numbers however dwindled that year and a number of changes were implemented before the festival's third running in 2004. In 2005, the festival was moved to the first week in July and has been held on the same weekend each year since. In 2006 a second day was added to the festival and camping tickets were introduced; the festival discontinued in 2008. Friday Line-Up Watain Nifelheim Stand-Up Guy Old Season Neocosmic Sirocco Victim X Visceral AttackSaturday Line-Up Doomsword Mourning Beloveth Celtic Legacy Thy Sinister Bloom Chambercraft Graveyard Dirt Overoth Darkest Era Nephridium Unleashed Saturday Line-Up Entombed Sabbat Abaddon Incarnate Cruachan Conquest of Steel The Prophecy Spearhead Hatred Era VulgarisFriday Line-Up Candlemass Skyforger Mael Mórdha Gorilla Monsoon Putrefy The Swarm Warpath Hallowed Saturday Line-Up Destruction Primordial Morphosis Hexxed Mass Extinction Aftermath Primed For Ruin A Distant Sun Nothing is SacredFriday Line-Up Moonsorrow Geasa Sorrowfall Ground of Ruin Minds Astray Rotting Christ Desaster Mourning Beloveth Scavenger Waylander Carnún Rising Primal Dawn devilmakesthree Wreck of the Hesperus Ground of RuinEve of Darkness Warm-up Show Steel Tormentor Primed Slave Zero Skoll Dismember Ancient Rites Abaddon Incarnate Mael Mórdha Putrefy The Swarm Old Season Sinister Demise Sol Axis Mabus Demize+ Special tribute to Bathory featuring members from Primordial, Sol Axis and Kingdom Mourning Beloveth Mael Mórdha Honey for Christ Waylander Die Laughing Scavenger Carnún Rising Old Season Inhumane The Swarm Primordial Mourning Beloveth Primal Dawn Geasa Condemned Bloodbox Coldwar Corrupted Slave Zero The 8th Day Die Laughing Official website
A death anniversary is the anniversary of the death of a person. It is the opposite of birthday, it is a custom in several Asian cultures, including Cambodia, Georgia, Hong Kong, India, Iran, Japan, Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia and Vietnam, as well as in other places with significant overseas Chinese, Jewish and Vietnamese populations, to observe the anniversary on which a family member or other significant individual died. There are similar memorial services that are held at different intervals, such as every week. Although a manifestation of ancestor worship, the tradition has been associated with Confucianism and Buddhism or Hinduism. In Judaism, such a commemoration is called a yahrtzeit. Celebration of mass in memory of a loved one on or near the anniversary of their death is a part of Roman Catholic tradition. In China, a death anniversary is called 忌辰; this type of ceremony dates back thousands of years in China and involved making sacrifices to the spirits of one's ancestors.
In Nepal and India, a death anniversary is known as shraadh. The first death anniversary is called a barsy, from the word baras, meaning year in the Nepali and Hindi languages. Shraadh means to offer one's respect. Shraadh is a ritual for expressing one's respectful feelings for the ancestors. According to Nepali and Indian texts, a soul has to wander about in the various worlds after death and has to suffer a lot due to past karmas. Shraadh is a means of alleviating this suffering. Shraddhyaa Kriyate Yaa Saa: Shraadh is the ritual accomplished to satiate one's ancestors. Shraadh is a private ceremony performed by the family members of the departed soul. Though not mandated spiritually, it is performed by the eldest son and other siblings join in offering prayers together. In Japan, a death anniversary is called kishin, or kijitsu/kinichi. Monthly observances of a death are known as tsuki meinichi, while annual anniversaries are known as shōtsuki meinichi. Observant Jews commemorate the yahrtzeit of the death of parents, spouses, or children according to the Hebrew calendar.
The main observance involves recitation of kaddish prayer, a practiced custom is to light a special candle that burns for 24 hours, called a yahrtzeit candle. In Korea, ancestor worship ceremonies are referred to by the generic term jerye. Notable examples of jerye include Munmyo jerye and Jongmyo jerye, which are performed periodically each year for venerated Confucian scholars and kings of ancient times, respectively; the ceremony held on the anniversary of a family member's death is called gije, is celebrated by families as a private ceremony. For such occasions, the women of the family traditionally prepare an elaborate set of dishes, including tteok, jeok, so forth. In the Philippines, the funeral is only one part of an elaborate mourning tradition. For nine days after the funeral has taken place, novena prayers are offered in a practice called pasiyam, it is customary for another service to be given on the fortieth day after the death, as it is traditionally believed that the souls of the dead wander the Earth for forty days.
One year after the death, the first year death anniversary is commemorated with the final service. After the babang luksa, the spouse of the deceased can remarry, the family can once again hold birthday celebrations and attend parties; the miscellaneous non-valuable belongings of the deceased will be symbolically burned to represent the mourners being able to move on with their lives. Babang luksa is commemorated with a meal and prayers for the deceased. For one year after a death, mourners dress all in black or wear a black pin as a remembrance during their daily lives. After babang luksa, the mourners may once again return to their normal dress, although depending on circumstances, some may opt to wear their mourning attire for longer periods. Although only the first anniversary of the death is commemorated, Filipinos further commemorate the deaths of all of their ancestors at their grave sites on All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day. In Vietnam, a death anniversary is called giỗ, ngày giỗ, đám giỗ, or bữa giỗ.
It is a festive occasion. Female family members traditionally spend the entire day cooking an elaborate banquet in honor of the deceased individual, which will be enjoyed by all the family members. In addition, sticks of incense are burned in commemoration of the deceased person, it is not unusual for a family to celebrate several giỗ per year, so the ceremony serves as a time for families to reunite, much like the Vietnamese new year, Tết. The rituals are the responsibility of whoever inherits the ancestral estates the deceased's most senior patrilineal descendant. Although a giỗ is a private ceremony attended only by family members, some are commemorated by large segments of the population; the commemoration of the Hung Kings, the legendary founders of the first Vietnamese kingdom in Vietnam's remote past, of the Trung Sisters are participated. In March 2007 Giỗ tổ Hùng Vương became a public holiday in Vietnam; as in all trad
Hide Your Face
Hide Your Face is the debut album by Japanese musician hide, released on February 23, 1994. It reached number 9 on the Oricon chart and was certified Platinum by the RIAJ for sales over 400,000 copies, it was named one of the top albums from 1989-1998 in a 2004 issue of the music magazine Band Yarouze. Hide embarked on a solo career in 1993 due to the downtime in X Japan. Wanting to hire several different vocalists because he was unsure of his own voice, he began taking vocal lessons from Toshi's coach and sang the material himself; the song "Frozen Bug'93" is a remixed version of "Frozen Bug", a song that hide wrote and performed with Luna Sea members J and Inoran, under the band name M*A*S*S, for the 1993 compilation Dance 2 Noise 004. Wanting to contrast something unusual with a pop background, hide hired Yukinojo Mori to pen the lyrics to his first two A-side singles; as a kid, hide was fond of Bow Wow's 1982 album Warning from Stardust, where the A-side songs had lyrics in English and the B-side in Japanese.
Liking the Japanese lyrics better, hide only realized. Together with the music for "Frozen Bug", "Eyes Love You" and "50% & 50%" are the only songs hide released for his solo career that he did not write himself; the album's cover art features a reproduction of a mask created by H. R. Giger, by Screaming Mad George and Joanne Bloomfield. Hide Your Face was re-released on the Japan only format SHM-CD on December 3, 2008. Hide Your Face reached number 9 on the Oricon chart; the 2008 re-release reached number 223. The album was named one of the top albums from 1989-1998 in a 2004 issue of the music magazine Band Yarouze. All tracks written by hide, except tracks 4 and 15 lyrics by Yukinojo Mori, track 9 music by M*A*S*S. hide – vocals, guitar Kazuhiko Inada – co-producer, synthesizer programming Terry Bozzio – drums on tracks 2, 4, 10, 11, 14 Mitsuko Akai – drums on tracks 8, 13 Junji Ikehata – drums on track 15 T. M. Stevens – bass on tracks 2, 4, 10, 11, 14 Michiaki Suzuki – bass on track 12 Toshihiro Nara – bass on track 15 Rich Breen – Rhodes on track 6, recording engineer, mixing engineer Neil Larson – organ on track 11 Jerry Hey, Gary E. Grant, William F. Reichenbach – horn on track 11 Maxine Waters, Julia Waters, Carmen Twillie – chorus on track 11 Byron Berline – fiddle on track 15 Tsuneo Tomono – recording engineer, mixing engineer on tracks 6, 10, 15, 16Personnel per the album's liner notes.
Yoshiki composed a piece based on "Psychommunity Exit" as the intro for the 1999 hide tribute album Tribute Spirits. American bassist T. M. Stevens, who plays on the album, recorded a cover of "Blue Sky Complex" for his 1999 album Radioactive. Nightmare guitarist Hitsuji covered "D. O. D." for Tribute II -Visual Spirits-, while Dezert covered it for Tribute III -Visual Spirits-. Both albums were released on July 3, 2013; the Cherry Coke$ recorded a version of the same song for Tribute VII -Rock Spirits-, released on December 18, 2013. "D. O. D." was covered by Flow for the June 6, 2018 Tribute Impulse album