The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
The Non-Aligned Movement is a forum of 120 developing world states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states world-wide. Drawing on the principles agreed at the Bandung Conference in 1955, the NAM was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia through an initiative of the Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and the Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito; this led to the first Conference of Governments of Non-Aligned Countries. The term non-aligned movement first appears in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as "members of the movement"; the purpose of the organization was enumerated by Fidel Castro in his Havana Declaration of 1979 as to ensure "the national independence, territorial integrity and security of non-aligned countries" in their "struggle against imperialism, neo-colonialism and all forms of foreign aggression, domination, interference or hegemony as well as against great power and bloc politics."
The countries of the Non-Aligned Movement represent nearly two-thirds of the United Nations' members and contain 55% of the world population. Membership is concentrated in countries considered to be developing or part of the Third World, though the Non-Aligned Movement has a number of developed nations. Although many of the Non-Aligned Movement's members were quite aligned with one or another of the superpowers, the movement still maintained cohesion throughout the Cold War despite several conflicts between members which threatened the movement. In the years since the Cold War's end, it has focused on developing multilateral ties and connections as well as unity among the developing nations of the world those within the Global South; the Non-Aligned Movement as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia in 1956, was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on 19 July 1956. The Declaration was signed by Yugoslavia's president, Josip Broz Tito, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser.
One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but with the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another". According to Rejaul Karim Laskar, an ideologue of the Congress party which ruled India for most part of the Cold War years, the Non-Aligned Movement arose from the desire of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders of the newly independent countries of the third world to guard their independence "in face of complex international situation demanding allegiance to either two warring superpowers"; the Movement advocates a middle course for states in the developing world between the Western and Eastern Blocs during the Cold War. The phrase itself was first used to represent the doctrine by Indian diplomat V. K. Krishna Menon in 1953, at the United Nations, but it soon after became the name to refer to the participants of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries first held in 1961.
The term "non-alignment" was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Sri Lanka. In this speech, Zhou Enlai and Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel; the five principles were: Mutual respect for each other's territorial sovereignty. Mutual non-aggression. Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs. Equality and mutual benefit. Peaceful co-existence. A significant milestone in the development of the Non-Aligned Movement was the 1955 Bandung Conference, a conference of Asian and African states hosted by Indonesian president Sukarno, who gave a significant contribution to promote this movement. Bringing together Sukarno, U Nu, Nehru, Tito and Menon with the likes of Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai, Norodom Sihanouk, as well as U Thant and a young Indira Gandhi, the conference adopted a "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation", which included Zhou Enlai and Nehru's five principles, a collective pledge to remain neutral in the Cold War.
Six years after Bandung, an initiative of Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito led to the first Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries, held in September 1961 in Belgrade. The term non-aligned movement appears first in the fifth conference in 1976, where participating countries are denoted as members of the movement. At the Lusaka Conference in September 1970, the member nations added as aims of the movement the peaceful resolution of disputes and the abstention from the big power military alliances and pacts. Another added aim was opposition to stationing of military bases in foreign countries; some members were involved in serious conflicts with other members. In the 1970s, Cuba made a major effort to assume a leadership role in the world's nonalignment movement, which represented over 90 Third World nations. Cuban combat troops in Angola impressed fellow non-aligned nations. Cuba established military advisory missions, economic and social reform programs; the 1976 world conference of the Nonaligned Movement applauded Cuban internationalism, "which assisted the people of Angola in frustrating the expansionist and colonialist strategy of South Africa's racist regime and its allies."
The next nonaligned conference was scheduled for Havana in 1979, to be chaired by Fidel Castro, with his becoming the de facto spokesman for the Movement. The confere
Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
Soejoedi Wirjoatmodjo was an architect in Indonesia, active during the late 1960s and mid 1970s. In 1964, he was asked by President Sukarno to be in charge as chief architect for national architectural projects in the Jakarta. Soejoedi is considered to be the first native architect of the Post-Colonial period, considered as a proponent of modernist architects and designers. Soejoedi was born in Surakarta in 1928; as a young man, he supported nationalist ideals. During the period of National Revolution, Soejodi joined the Student Fighters of Brigade 17 in Surakarta to counter military offensive from the Dutch between 1945 and 1949; when the Dutch leave Indonesia in 1949, one year Soejoedi applied as an architect in the Building Department of the Technical College in Bandung, which still had a professional Dutch lecturer. From the quality of his works, Soejoedi was nominated and won a scholarship from the French government for a study in L’Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris in 1955, he pursued his study in Paris, but he did not feel comfortable because of personal reason of homesick.
Soejoedi's mentor in Prof. Ir. Vincent Rogers van Romondt, arranged his further study at the Technical College of Delft, the Netherlands so that he did not need to start from scratch. During his study, Soejoedi had the opportunities to see the works of Dutch modern architects e.g. Jacob Bakema and Aldo van Eyck. However, he did not work his design thesis at the college. Instead, he worked part-time as drafter at Kraijvanger Architekten, at that time a small firm. For the bureau, he worked for Rotterdam city reconstruction. Political circumstances over West New Guinea increased tension between Indonesia and the Netherlands; these forced several Indonesian students to leave the Netherlands in 1957, including Soejoedi, who had to leave before being able to receive a degree in architecture. Soejoedi had to find somewhere else for the completion of his academic qualification in architectural engineering. In the same year, Soejoedi moved to Berlin to pursue his architectural degree in the Technical University of Berlin.
He graduated in 1959 with a design thesis on pesantren, the Islamic boarding school and training center, with the best marks. Meanwhile, the increasing tension between the Dutch and the Republic of Indonesia as a consequence of President Sukarno's policy for taking over all foreign companies by the state corporations, caused harm on the higher education institutions because most of the teaching staff were Dutch nationals; the country needed qualified locals like Soejoedi to work in other institutions. In 1960, Soejoedi worked in Bandung as lecturer. After few months, Soejoedi was promoted to be head of the department of architecture at his institution, now renamed the Institut Teknologi Bandung. During his tenure as head of department, he emphasised the use and exploration of modern technology for building construction and material concrete and steel structure. Between 1960 and 1964, he built several buildings and family houses in Bandung; as a lecturer, he taught about artistic approaches. Form and material are to be integrated as a geometrical and sculptural composition that works for specific purpose and context, a strong embodiment to site.
In 1964, Soejoedi was called by President Sukarno to be in charge as chief architect for national architectural projects in Jakarta. As a nationalist, he took this request seriously, he brought some colleagues and students from the institute and established his own firm in Jakarta, PT. Gubahlaras, in 1969; the vision of his firm is to unveil modern Indonesia through architectural endeavor. Soejoedi believed in architectural modernity as a vehicle of liberation from the traces of colonialism, he introduced Indonesian locality not as an imitation of traditional icons and styles. He placed the Javanese concept of spatial category into his design: the balance of the realm of outside and inside, the gradation of values from preliminary and inner sanctum. Soejoedi's design is characterized with pure geometrical composition, he put emphasis on the site of his building, making sure that the building is harmonious with said site and its conditions. Unlike Silaban's grand design e.g. the Istiqlal Mosque, Soejoedi tried not design something that seems too grandiose or megalomaniac.
Soejoedi realized that architecture is not a pure work of art, but a public and utilitarian endeavor with respect to aesthetic and human experience such as: safety and health. In this regard, Soejoedi always tried to open the dialogue between intuition. Among Soejoedi's work is the Conference of the New Emerging Forces, the Conefo. For this work, Soejoedi interpreted President Sukarno's intention for an image of a total independence from the East communist block and the West democratic capitalist block by designing a modern complex with no recognizable traces of precedent buildings. Another of Soejoedi's project the most infamous, is Duta Merlin Hotel project; the project was designed to replace the colonial hotel of Hotel des Indes, a masterpiece of Indies architect F. J. L. Ghijsels, designed as an extraordinary adaptation of Art Deco in the tropical climate of Java known as the New Indies Style. For Soejoedi, establishing a new architecture for a national pride was more important than maintaining an old building with traces of colonialism of the past.
Below are some of
Sukarno was the first President of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967. Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for Independence from the Netherlands, he was a prominent leader of Indonesia's nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period, spent over a decade under Dutch detention until released by the invading Japanese forces. Sukarno and his fellow nationalists collaborated to garner support for the Japanese war effort from the population, in exchange for Japanese aid in spreading nationalist ideas. Upon Japanese surrender and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, Sukarno was appointed as first president, he led Indonesians in resisting Dutch re-colonization efforts via diplomatic and military means until the Dutch acknowledgement of Indonesian independence in 1949. Author Pramoedya Ananta Toer once wrote "Sukarno was the only Asian leader of the modern era able to unify people of such differing ethnic and religious backgrounds without shedding a drop of blood."After a chaotic period of parliamentary democracy, Sukarno established an autocratic system called "Guided Democracy" in 1957 that ended the instability and rebellions which were threatening the survival of the diverse and fractious country.
The early 1960s saw Sukarno veering Indonesia to the left by providing support and protection to the Communist Party of Indonesia to the irritation of the military and Islamists. He embarked on a series of aggressive foreign policies under the rubric of anti-imperialism, with aid from the Soviet Union and China; the failure of the 30 September Movement led to the destruction of the PKI and his replacement in 1967 by one of his generals, he remained under house arrest until his death. The spelling Soekarno, based on Dutch orthography, is still used because he signed his name in the old spelling. Sukarno himself insisted on a "u", not "oe", but said that he had been told in school to use the Dutch style, he said that it was too difficult to change his signature, so still wrote it with an "oe". Official Indonesian presidential decrees from the period 1947–1968, printed his name using the 1947 spelling; the Soekarno–Hatta International Airport which serves near Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, still uses the Dutch spelling.
Indonesians remember him as Bung Karno or Pak Karno. Like many Javanese people, he had only one name. According to author Pramoedya Ananta Toer in several interviews, "bung" is an affectionate title meaning "friend" creatively used to be an alternative way of addressing person in equal manner, as an opposite word of old-form "tuan", "mas" or "bang", he is sometimes referred to in some variation thereof. The fictitious first name may have been added by western journalists confused over someone with just a single name, or by Indonesian supporters of independence to attract support from Muslim countries; the son of a Javanese primary school teacher, an aristocrat named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo, his Hindu Balinese wife from the Brahmin varna named Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai from Buleleng regency, Sukarno was born at Jalan Pandean IV/40, East Java, in the Dutch East Indies. He was named Kusno Sosrodihardjo. Following Javanese custom, he was renamed after surviving a childhood illness. After graduating from a native primary school in 1912, he was sent to the Europeesche Lagere School in Mojokerto.
Subsequently, in 1916, Sukarno went to a Hogere Burgerschool in Surabaya, where he met Tjokroaminoto, a nationalist and founder of Sarekat Islam. In 1920, Sukarno married Tjokroaminoto's daughter Siti Oetari. In 1921, he began to study civil engineering at the Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng, where he obtained an Ingenieur degree in 1926. During his study in Bandung, Sukarno became romantically involved with Inggit Garnasih, the wife of Sanoesi, the owner of the boarding house where he lived as a student. Inggit was 13 years older than Sukarno. In March 1923, Sukarno divorced Siti Oetari to marry Inggit. Sukarno divorced Inggit and married Fatmawati. After graduation in 1926, Sukarno and his university friend Anwari established the architectural firm Sukarno & Anwari in Bandung, which provided planning and contractor services. Among Sukarno's architectural works are the renovated building of the Preanger Hotel, where he acted as assistant to famous Dutch architect Charles Prosper Wolff Schoemaker.
Sukarno designed many private houses on today's Jalan Gatot Subroto, Jalan Palasari, Jalan Dewi Sartika in Bandung. On, as president, Sukarno remained engaged in architecture, designing the Proclamation Monument and adjacent Gedung Pola in Jakarta. Atypically among the country's small educated elite, Sukarno was fluent in several languages. In addition to the Javanese language of his childhood, he was a master of Sundanese, Balinese and of Indonesian, was strong in Dutch, he was quite comfortable in German, French and Japanese, all of which were taught at his HBS. He was helped by precocious mind. In his studies, Sukarno was "intensely modern", both in politics, he despised both the tr
Suharto was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years, from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998. He was regarded by foreign commentators as a dictator. However, his legacy is still debated at home and abroad. Suharto was born in a small village, Kemusuk, in the Godean area near the city of Yogyakarta, during the Dutch colonial era, he grew up in humble circumstances. His Javanese Muslim parents divorced not long after his birth, he lived with foster parents for much of his childhood. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, Suharto served in Japanese-organised Indonesian security forces. Indonesia's independence struggle saw his joining the newly formed Indonesian Army. Suharto rose to the rank of major general following Indonesian independence. An attempted coup on 30 September 1965 backed by the Communist Party of Indonesia was countered by Suharto-led troops; the army subsequently led an anti-communist purge, which the U.
S. Central Intelligence Agency described as "one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century" and Suharto wrested power from Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, he was appointed acting president in 1967, elected President the following year. He mounted a social campaign known as De-Sukarnoization to reduce the former President's influence. Support for Suharto's presidency was strong throughout the 1980s. By the 1990s, the New Order's authoritarianism and widespread corruption were a source of discontent and, following the Asian financial crisis in 1997-98 which led to widespread unrest, he resigned in May 1998. Suharto was given a state funeral; the legacy of Suharto's 31-year rule is debated both in Indonesia and abroad. Under his "New Order" administration, Suharto constructed a strong and military-dominated government. An ability to maintain stability over a sprawling and diverse Indonesia and an avowedly anti-Communist stance won him the economic and diplomatic support of the West during the Cold War.
For most of his presidency, Indonesia experienced significant economic growth and industrialisation improving health and living standards. Plans to award National Hero status to Suharto are being considered by the Indonesian government and have been debated vigorously in Indonesia. According to Transparency International, Suharto is the most corrupt leader in modern history, having embezzled an alleged $15–35 billion during his rule. Suharto was born on 8 June 1921 during the Dutch East Indies era, in a plaited-bamboo-walled house in the hamlet of Kemusuk, a part of the larger village of Godean; the village is 15 kilometres west of Yogyakarta, the cultural heartland of the Javanese. Born to ethnic Javanese parents, he was the only child of his father's second marriage, his father, had two children from his previous marriage, was a village irrigation official. His mother, Sukirah, a local woman, was distantly related to Hamengkubuwana V by his first concubine. Five weeks after Suharto's birth, his mother suffered a nervous breakdown and he was placed in the care of his paternal great-aunt, Kromodirjo.
Kertosudiro and Sukirah divorced early in Suharto's life and both remarried. At the age of three, Suharto was returned to his mother, who had married a local farmer whom Suharto helped in the rice paddies. In 1929, Suharto's father took him to live with his sister, married to an agricultural supervisor, Prawirowihardjo, in the town of Wuryantoro in a poor and low-yielding farming area near Wonogiri. Over the following two years, he was taken back to his mother in Kemusuk by his stepfather and back again to Wuryantoro by his father. Prawirowihardjo took to raising the boy as his own, which provided Suharto a father-figure and a stable home in Wuryantoro. In 1931, he moved to the town of Wonogiri to attend the primary school, living first with Prawirohardjo's son Sulardi, with his father's relative Hardjowijono. While living with Hardjowijono, Suharto became acquinted with Darjatmo, a dukun of Javanese mystical arts and faith healing; the experience affected him and as president, Suharto surrounded himself with powerful symbolic language.
Difficulties in paying the fees for his education in Wonogiri resulted in another move back to his father in Kemusuk, where he continued studying at a lower-fee Muhammadiyah middle school in the city of Yogyakarta until 1939. Like many Javanese, Suharto had only one name. In religious contexts in recent years he has sometimes been called "Haji" or "el-Haj Mohammed Suharto" but these names were not part of his formal name or used; the spelling "Suharto" reflects modern Indonesian spelling, although the general approach in Indonesia is to rely on the spelling preferred by the person concerned. At the time of his birth, the standard transcription was "Soeharto" but he preferred the original spelling; the international English-language press uses the spelling'Suharto' while the Indonesian government and media use'Soeharto'. Suharto's upbringing contrasts with that of leading Indonesian nationalists such as Sukarno in that he is believed to have had little interest in anti-colonialism, or political concerns beyond his immediate surroundings.
Unlike Sukarno and his circle, Suharto had no contact with European colonizers. He did not learn to speak Dutch or other European languages in his youth, he learned to speak Dutch after his induction into the Dutch military in 1940. Suharto took a clerical job at a bank in Wuryantaro, he was forced to resign. Following a s
People's Representative Council
The People's Representative Council, alternatively translatable as the House of Representatives or as the House of People's Representatives, is one of two elected national legislative assemblies in Indonesia. Together with the Regional Representative Council, a second chamber with limited powers, it makes up a legislative body, the People's Consultative Assembly. There are 560 members, following the 2014 elections, all elected; the house has been the subject of frequent public criticism due to perceived high levels of fraud and corruption. In 1915, members of the Indonesian nationalist organisation Budi Utomo and others toured the Netherlands to argue for the establishment of a legislature for the Dutch East Indies, in December 1916 a bill was passed to establish a Volksraad, it met for the first time in 1918. Ten of its nineteen members elected by local councils were Indonesians, as were five of the nineteen appointed members. However, it had only advisory powers, although the governor-general had to consult it on financial matters.
The body grew in size to 60 members. In 1925, the Volksraad gained some legislative powers, it had to agree to the budget and internal legislation, could sponsor laws of its own. However, it remained nothing more than a gesture. In 1940, after the German invasion of the Netherlands, the fleeing of the Dutch government to exile in London, there was a motion calling for an inquiry into turning it into a quasi-legislature, but this was withdrawn after a negative response from the government. In July 1941, the Volksraad passed a motion calling for the creation of a militia made up of up to 6,000 Indonesians In February 1942, the Japanese invasion began, in May 1942 the Dutch formally dissolved the Volksraad, it was replaced by a council made up of heads of departments. The Japanese invaded Indonesia in 1942. By 1943, the tide had turned against them, to encourage support for the war effort, the Japanese appointed Indonesian advisors to the administration and appointed Sukarno leader of a new Central Advisory Board in Jakarta.
In March 1945, the Japanese established the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence or BPUPK, chaired by Radjiman Wediodiningrat, with Sukarno and Thamrin among its members. This body drew up a constitution for an independent Indonesia over several weeks of meetings. At a session of the Committee on 1 June 1945, Sukarno laid down the principles of Pancasila by which an Indonesia would be governed. On 7 August, the day after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence or PPKI was established. Sukarno was chairman, Hatta vice-chairman; the two proclaimed the Independence of Indonesia on 17 August. On 18 August, the PPKI accepted the constitution drawn up by the BPUPK as the provisional Constitution of Indonesia and decided that during a six-month transition period, the new republic would be governed according to the constitution by a president, assisted by a National Committee, who would establish the two chamber legislature mandated by the constitution.
The upper chamber, the People's Consultative Assembly would have six months to draw up a new constitution, leaving open the possibility that this would be an new document free of the influence of the situation prevailing during World War II. The PPKI named Sukarno as president and Hatta vice-president; the Central Indonesian National Committee or KNIP was a body appointed to assist the president of the newly independent Indonesia, Sukarno, on 29 August 1945. It was planned to have a purely advisory function, but on 18 October, Vice-president Hatta issued Decree X transferring the powers the Constitution conferred on the People's Consultative Assembly and People's Representative Council from the president to the KNIP; the day-to-day tasks of the KNIP would be carried out by a Working Committee. During the War of Independence, the entire KNIP was unable to meet regularly. Therefore, the KNIP acted as the upper house, the People's Consultative Assembly in the constitution, meeting only infrequently to discuss fundamental and pressing national issues, while the Working Committee acted as the day-to-day parliament.
In January 1948, the Dutch authorities established the Provisional Federal Council for Indonesia comprising Lieutenant Governor Hubertus van Mook and eight Indonesians chosen by him to represent the views of Indonesia. Two months the council made up of heads of departments that the Dutch had set up to replace the pre-war Volksraad became the Provisional Federal Government; this body invited heads of the states making up the United States of Indonesia to send delegates to the Federal Conference in Bandung in May 1948. That month, leaders of states and other areas joined together to establish the Federal Consultative Assembly to represent the federal regions. Following the transfer of sovereignty to the United States of Indonesia, in December 1949, the state adopted a bicameral system, with a 150-member People's Representative Council and a senate with two representatives from each of the 16 component areas of the RIS. People's Representative Council had 50 representatives from the Republic of Indonesia and 100 from the 15 component parts of the RIS.
The plan was for elections within a year. The KNIP met