Aspect ratio (image)
The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height. It is commonly expressed as two separated by a colon, as in 16,9.5 yards high. The most common ratios used today in the presentation of films in cinemas are 1.85,1 and 2.39,1. Two common videographic aspect ratios are 4,3, the video format of the 20th century. Other cinema and video aspect ratios exist, but are used infrequently, in still camera photography, the most common aspect ratios are 4,3,3,2, and more recently being found in consumer cameras 16,9. Other aspect ratios, such as 5,3,5,4, in motion picture formats, the physical size of the film area between the sprocket perforations determines the images size. The universal standard is a frame that is four perforations high, the film itself is 35 mm wide, but the area between the perforations is 24.89 mm×18.67 mm, leaving the de facto ratio of 4,3, or 1.33,1. A4,3 ratio mimics human eyesight visual angle of 155°h x 120°v, the motion picture industry convention assigns a value of 1.0 to the image’s height, an anamorphic frame is often incorrectly described as 2.40,1 or 2.40.
After 1952, a number of aspect ratios were experimented with for anamorphic productions, a SMPTE specification for anamorphic projection from 1957 finally standardized the aperture to 2.35,1. An update in 1970 changed the ratio to 2.39,1 in order to make splices less noticeable. This aspect ratio of 2.39,1 was confirmed by the most recent revision from August 1993, in American cinemas, the common projection ratios are 1.85,1 and 2.39,1. Some European countries have 1.66,1 as the wide screen standard, the Academy ratio of 1.375,1 was used for all cinema films in the sound era until 1953. During that time, which had a aspect ratio of 1.33,1. Hollywood responded by creating a number of wide-screen formats, CinemaScope, Todd-AO. The flat 1.85,1 aspect ratio was introduced in May 1953, and became one of the most common cinema projection standards in the U. S. and elsewhere. The goal of these lenses and aspect ratios was to capture as much of the frame as possible, onto as large an area of the film as possible.
In either case the image was squeezed horizontally to fit the frame size. Development of various film camera systems must ultimately cater to the placement of the frame in relation to the constraints of the perforations
The Killing (Danish TV series)
The Killing is a Danish police procedural three-series-long television drama created by Søren Sveistrup and produced by DR in co-production with ZDF Enterprises. It was first broadcast on the Danish national television channel DR1 on 7 January 2007, the series is set in Copenhagen and revolves around Detective Inspector Sarah Lund. Each series follows a murder case day-by-day, each fifty-minute episode covers twenty-four hours of the investigation. It has singled out for the photography of its Danish setting. The Killing has proved to be an international hit—garnering significant critical acclaim—particularly in the United Kingdom, novelizations of each series have been published by Macmillan. Søren Sveistrup, series creator and head writer, worked closely with lead actress Sofie Gråbøl throughout the process to successfully develop the character of Detective Inspector Sarah Lund. Gråbøl, in particular, became eager to defend her character, as a result she began acting like a man until the character took shape.
During filming of the first series Sveistrup refused to reveal the identity of the murderer or even specific plot points to members of the cast, the actors would receive the scripts only on an episode-by-episode basis just moments before shooting was scheduled to begin. Gråbøl was told only that she was not the killer, the first series consists of 20 fifty-minutes episodes, which follow the police investigation into the murder of a young woman from its commencement on 3 November to its conclusion on 22 November. Detective Chief Inspector Sarah Lund is in her last day with the Copenhagen police force, about to move to Sweden to join her fiancé, everything changes when 19-year-old Nanna Birk Larsen is found raped and brutally murdered. Sarah heads the investigation and is teamed up with her replacement, troels Hartmann, politician, is in the midst of a hard-fought mayoral campaign when evidence links him to the murder. The girls family and friends struggle to cope with their loss, over a span of 20 days suspect upon suspect is sought out as violence and political pressures cast their shadows over the hunt for the killer.
Forbrydelsen II is set two years and consists of ten episodes and it aired in Denmark between 27 September and 29 November 2009. Episodes were screened eleven days on Thursdays on Norwegian NRK1 and it was shown on German TV channel ZDF and on Swedish SVT in the autumn of 2010. The Region 2 DVD with English subtitles was released on 19 December 2011, following the resolution of the Larsen case, Lund was demoted. She is a police officer in the southern town of Gedser. Lund joins the investigation and suspects that the murder is not as straightforward as it seems, Lund is about to be discharged from the case when a second murder, that of a Danish military veteran, leads to the conclusion that Islamic extremists are behind the killings. Raben escapes, and two members of the unit are murdered
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Rejseholdet is a Danish television crime series starring Charlotte Fich, Mads Mikkelsen and Lars Brygmann. Produced by Danmarks Radio, the program aired 32 episodes spanning four seasons from 2000 to 2004, each episode revolved around an elite mobile police task force called Unit One that travels around Denmark helping local police solve crimes. Cases portrayed in the show were based upon actual incidents of sensational crimes such as murders, cross-border sex traffic. Rejseholdet won the 2002 International Emmy Award for best drama series, the central character, Ingrid Dahl, is an ambitious detective who has been promoted into command of the unit at the beginning of the first season. Rejseholdet was filmed at the TV-Dramas film studio at TV-byen in Søborg, action has ranged among international locations such as Sweden, Germany and other regional areas. In 2002, Unit One received the Emmy Award for Best Drama Series from the International Academy of Television Arts, the program won the Best Drama Award at the annual Danish Television Awards in both 2001 and 2002.
For his leading role, Mads Mikkelsen received the 2002 Best Actor award at TvFestival. dk, the series has been televised in Denmark, Iceland, Australia and the U. S. Each episode is titled with a reference to an assistancemelding which roughly translates to English as Request for Assistance, in Region 1, MHz Networks released the 32 episodes in 2014, repackaged as just three sets with English subtitles. Region 4, English-subtitled DVDs of Unit One are currently available for all seasons, the series includes adult content with occasional nudity, graphic violence, sexual situations, strong language and adult themes. The first series was released to DVD for the first time in the United Kingdom in January 2013 and is part of Arrow Films Nordic Noir strand of releases, the second series was released on 27 May 2013. Rejseholdet at DR1 Unit 1 at the Internet Movie Database
Since 2003, Canal Digital is fully owned by Telenor. More than 2.9 million Nordic households and activities are subscribed to their services, FTTH services have slowly started in selected areas in Norway. Internet access through the network is based on the EuroDOCSIS standard. Canal Digitals cable system in the newer network areas which includes most of Canal Digitals cable networks in Norway is based on hybrid fibre-coaxial technology, some other network areas are copper only, but are subjected to upgrading in order to support new TV set-top boxs. Unlike its DTH rival, Canal Digital does not own a TV-network – they have however secured several multi-year exclusive deals with different TV broadcasters. As of 2011, Canal Digital has exclusive satellite rights with C More Entertainment, ProSiebenSat.1 in Denmark, Eurosport, BBC Worldwide, satellite exclusivity was more common in the past, but many channels that were once exclusive to Canal Digital have eventually signed agreements with Viasat.
Broadcasters that were exclusive to Canal Digital but joined Viasat include Sveriges Television, TV4 AB, National Geographic Channel, ProSiebenSat.1 in Norway and Sweden, TV2. Their satellite broadcasts can be received from the Thor 5 and Thor 6 satellites at 1°W with any DVB-S Receiver Equipped with a Conax Descrambling Module, Canal Digital was the first major distributor in the region to launch high-definition television. The first channel, C More HD, was launched in September 2005 using MPEG-2 compression, in June 2006, Canal Digital started broadcasting HD-kanalen from Sveriges Television and TV4 AB in Sweden, which did broadcast the 2006 FIFA World Cup in HD using MPEG-4 compression. HD-kanalen became SVT HD in October when SVT expanded their HD broadcasts, the major launch of HDTV occurred in Sweden in November 2006 when a special high-definition package with Discovery HD and Voom HD launched and C More HD was rebranded as Canal+ HD. The high-definition package is to be released in the other Nordic countries during 2007, high-definition channels launching in 2007 include Canal+ Sport HD in February, National Geographic Channel HD in April, TV4 HD in May, Silver HD in September and History HD in December.
2008 brought Kanal 5 HD in January, Eurosport HD in May, Nelonen HD, TVNorge HD in October, channels launched in 2009 include TV2 Film HD in January and Animal Planet HD in February. The HD channels were offered for as a separate package, but starting on 1 April 2008 this package was dropped in Sweden. DR1 an DR2 are available with a subscription in Norway, Sweden. Although TV2 is broadcast on one of Canal Digitals transponders and its only available to the Norwegian cable market, and is not a subscription channel. Canal Digital in Sweden expanded into television in September 2003 when the cable companies Telenor Vision. Canal Digital sells decryption cards for digital television in Finland, prior to the close down of the analogue channels, the package consisted of Disney Channel and four C More Entertainment TV channels. When the analogue transmitters were closed down, a new multiplex launched bringing Kino TV, Discovery Channel, Kino TV is exclusive was exclusive to Canal Digital, while the others were sold by its competitor, PlusTV
The Protectors (Danish TV series)
The Protectors is a Danish crime TV series from 2009 that follows the police bodyguard squad P. E. T. which is in charge of protecting VIPs, including Danish royalty and politicians. The series follows three recruits, Jasmina El-Murad, Jonas Goldschmidt, and Rasmus Poulsen, who go swiftly from training camp to full-fledged police bodyguards, Jasmina is the only woman, and an Egyptian Muslim, on the team. A first season aired in 2009, a second and final season was released in 2010, each season had 10 episodes. In the second episode he tells his wife he had an affair Thomas W, the show was the third in a trilogy of shows created by Thorsboe, Unit 1 and The Eagle. The series screened in Australia in 2011 and 2012 on SBS and is available on DVD and it won an International Emmy Award from the International Academy of Television Arts & Sciences for best non-American television drama series in 2009. The series was filmed on location in Copenhagen, livvagterne at DR1 The Protectors at the Internet Movie Database
Zattoo is a TV streaming service with offices located in Ann Arbor, Michigan and in Zürich, Switzerland. Live TV and on-demand content from Zattoo can be watched on computers, Zattoo offers TV applications for Internet-connected TVs, Xbox One, Amazon Fire TV, Apple TV, Android TV, and supports streaming via Apple AirPlay and Chromecast. Zattoo was created to stream the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, on 20 April 2007, Zattoo launched in Denmark with ten channels and started piloting in the United Kingdom. On 4 October 2007, Zattoo reached one million registered users in Europe, Zattoo has been available in Spain since 10 June 2007. On 5 August 2008, Zattoo asked its Spanish users for a €2.40 charge by SMS in order to continue with the service during August, in March 2009, Zattoo removed its services from Belgium in an attempt to keep its costs down. Despite this removal of services from Belgium, Zattoo would return if it found a marketing partner. Zattoo is now available in Germany, Spain and Switzerland, in May 2009, lawyers for Universal and Warner Bros.
On 23 April 2010, Zattoo dropped all the BBC channels from their UK channel list, on 15 June 2010, Zattoo dropped ITV1, Channel 4 and Five from their UK channel list, leaving none of the main UK channels, however, ITVs Northern Ireland franchise remain. Since June 2015, Zattoo Germany integrates an on-demand TV function, the UEFA Euro 2016 provided Zattoo with a new user record, a total of 1.8 million viewers watched the games on the OTT platform, more than 800,000 of them in Germany. A quarter of the TV consumption during the Euro 2016 through Zattoo took place using TV sets connected to the internet, further narrowing the gap to smartphone/tablet usage, in December 2016, Zattoo reached two million monthly active users. Zattoo has introduced restart functionality for 50 TV channels for its German customers including channels offered by RTL, if a user missed the beginning of a show, they can start the show from the beginning. Zattoo is the platform in Germany that offers this function. Zattoo services are available from a web browser or dedicated applications, the web product functions with any browser that supports Flash.
Smartphone applications are available for iOS, Android and Windows Phone, a Windows 10 application can be downloaded from the Windows Store. Applications exist for set-top boxes, video game consoles and connected TVs, some applications are restricted to specific countries. It is designed to allow specific audiences to watch specific channels. On 19 December 2009, the Audiovisual Media Services Directive regarding watching TV online from other EU countries came into force, IPTV Internet television Official site Interview, Zattoo co-founders Presentation at SwiNOG, May 30th 2007 European Audiovisual Media Services Directive
Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV
Products and services using the HbbTV standard can operate over different broadcasting technologies, such as satellite, cable, or terrestrial networks. HbbTV is the association of two born in February 2009, with the French H4TV project and the German HTML profil project. HbbTV can show digital television content from a number of different sources including traditional broadcast TV, and connected devices in the home. To watch hybrid digital TV, consumers will need a hybrid IPTV set-top box with a range of input connectors, the tuner in a hybrid set-top box can be digital terrestrial television, digital cable and digital satellite. 2° east during the IFA and IBC exhibitions. The two initiatives were combined under the HbbTV Association’s banner because the markets for IPTV, OTT and hybrid broadcast, the merger is expected to be finalised within a year. HbbTV devices enables consumers to view all of these services on their flat screen TV. Operators like n, a division of ITI Neovision in Poland, in May 2011, in an email sent on behalf of the HbbTV Consortium steering group, supporters of the consortium were invited to become full members.
The cost of membership is around €7,000 for the first year, the establishment of a unified European HbbTV standard means content owners and application developers can write once and deploy to many countries. The HbbTV specification was developed by members of the consortium and is based on elements of existing standards and web technologies including the Open IPTV Forum, CEA, DVB. The European Broadcasting Union General Assembly has given its support to the HbbTV initiative, the standard specification has been submitted by the end of November 2009 to ETSI, who published it under reference ETSI TS102796 in June 2010. In November 2012 Eurofins Digital Testing became the first Registered Test Centre, several countries worldwide, and in Europe in particular, have adopted the HbbTV standard and/or operated HbbTV services and trials. As of October 2015,27 countries have launched HbbTV servises with the most recent being the UK, New Zealand, Senegal, in October 2014, the HbbTV Association announced that over 20 countries had launched HbbTV services with Italy and Saudi being the most recent to launch.
International French news channel France 24 has announced that it will launch an HbbTV interactive news service in 2012 via the Astra 19. 2°E satellites, with support from Orange and SES. In November 2011 Spain’s Ministry of Industry approved a document signed by 54 companies adopting the HbbTV standard and broadcasters, Mediaset España, Canal+, the first tests of HbbTV services in Poland were started by TVN in March 2012. In the UK, the Freeview Play platform has been launched implementing an HbbTV2.0 catch-up service on DVB-T/T2, while the Digital TV Group approved D-book 7, a detailed interoperability specification between digital terrestrial television and HbbTV-based products and services. In Nordic region the NorDig standardization forum has adopted the HbbTV specification which replaces DVB-MHP as the common API for hybrid digital receivers, in Finland the national HDTV Forum has adopted the NorDig Unified Specification for Hybrid Services. The members of HDTV Forum see the HbbTV specification having a wide market acceptance supporting wide range of TV applications, HbbTV services have been on air in Finland since March 2013 in the nationwide terrestrial TV network.
Current services include red button services and a programme guide application