DRG H 17 206
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The H17-206 was not repeated.
- Hochdruck: German High-Pressure Locomotives Loco Locomotives
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The H17-206 was not repeated.
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives by wheel arrangement, 4-6-0 represents the configuration of four leading wheels on two axles in a leading bogie, six powered and coupled driving wheels on three axles and no trailing wheels. In the mid 19th century, this wheel arrangement became the second most popular configuration for new steam locomotives in the United States of America, where this type is referred to as a Ten-wheeler; as a locomotive pulling trains of lightweight all wood passenger cars in the 1890-1920s, it was exceptionally stable at near 100 mph speeds on the New York Central's New York to Chicago Water Level Route and on the Reading Railroad's Camden to Atlantic City, NJ, line. As passenger equipment grew heavier with all steel construction, heavier locomotives replaced the Ten Wheeler. During the second half of the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries, the 4-6-0 was constructed in large numbers for passenger and mixed traffic service.
A natural extension of the 4-4-0 American wheel arrangement, the four-wheel leading bogie gave good stability at speed and allowed a longer boiler to be supported, while the lack of trailing wheels gave a high adhesive weight. The primary limitation of the type was the small size of the firebox. In passenger service, it was superseded by the 4-6-2 Pacific type whose trailing truck allowed it to carry a enlarged firebox. Prussia and Saxonia however went directly to the 2-8-2 Mikado type. For freight service, the addition of a fourth driving axle created the 4-8-0 Mastodon type, rare in North America, but became popular on Cape gauge in Southern Africa; the 4-6-0T locomotive version was a far less common type. It was used for passenger duties during the first decade of the twentieth century, but was soon superseded by the 4-6-2T Pacific, 4-6-4T Baltic and 2-6-4T Adriatic types, on which larger fire grates were possible. During the First World War, the type was used on narrow gauge military railways.
In 1907, five 6th Class locomotives of the Cape Government Railways were sold to the 3 ft 6 in Benguela Railway. These included one of the Dübs-built locomotives of 1897 and two each of the Neilson and Company and Neilson and Company-built locomotives of 1897 and 1898. In the mid-1930s, in order to ease maintenance, modifications were made to the running boards and brake gear of the CFB locomotives; the former involved mounting the running boards higher, thereby getting rid of the driving wheel fairings. This gave the locomotives a much more American rather than British appearance. In April 1951, three Class NG9 locomotives were purchased from the South African Railways for the Caminhos de Ferro de Moçâmedes, they were placed in service on the Ramal da Chibía, a 600 mm gauge branch line across 116 kilometres from Sá da Bandeira to Chiange. The locomotives were observed dumped at the Sá da Bandeira shops by 1969 and the branch line itself was closed in 1970. In 1897, three Class 6 4-6-0 locomotives were ordered by the Cape Government Railways from Neilson and Company for use on the new Vryburg to Bulawayo line of the fledgling Bechuanaland Railway Company.
The line through Bechuanaland Protectorate was still under construction and was operated by the CGR on behalf of the BR at the time. The locomotives were returned to the CGR; the Finnish State Railways operated the Classes Hk1, Hk2, Hk3, Hk5, Hv1, Hv2, Hv3, Hv4, Hr2 and Hr3 locomotives with a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement. The Class Hk1, numbers 232 to 241, was built by Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1898; the ten Baldwin locomotives were designated H1 class. Numbers 291 to 300 and 322 to 333 were built by the Richmond Locomotive Works in 1900 and 1901; the 22 Richmond locomotives were designated H2 class and were nicknamed Big-Wheel Kaanari. One of them, no. 293, the locomotive that brought Lenin from exile in August–September 1917 prior to the Russian Revolution, was presented by Finland to the Soviet Union on 13 June 1957 and is preserved at the Finland Station in St. Petersburg, Russia. Another 100 of these locomotives were manufactured in Finland from 1903 to 1916, numbered in the range from 437 to 574 and designated H3 to H8 classes.
The Class Hk5 was numbered from 439 to 515. One, no. 497, is preserved at Haapamäki. The Class Hv1 was built from 1915 by Lokomo, they were nicknamed Heikki and were numbered 545 to 578 and 648 to 655. The class remained in service until 1967. One, no. 555 named Princess, is preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum. The Class Hv2 was built by Berliner Maschinenbau and Lokomo in the years between 1919 and 1926, they were numbered 579 to 593, 671 to 684 and 777 to 780. One, no. 680, is preserved at Haapamäki. The Class Hv3 was built by Berliner and Lokomo in the years from 1921 to 1941, they were numbered 638 to 647, 781 to 785 and 991 to 999. Three Class Hv3 locomotives were preserved, no. 781 at Kerava, no. 995 at Suolahti and no. 998 at Haapamäki. The Class Hv4 was built by Tampella and Lokomo in the years from 1912 to 1933 and were numbered 516 to 529, 742 to 751 and 757 to 760. Two, numbers 742 and 751, are preserved at Haapamäki; the Swedish State Railways sold its Class Ta and Tb locomotives to Finland in 1942.
At the time, they were not in traffic in Sweden and, since they were purchased by Finland, they were not considered as war assistance. The Class Ta was designat
The Prussian Class S 10 included all express train locomotives in the Prussian state railways that had a 4-6-0 wheel arrangement. There were four sub-classes: the S 10, S 10.1 and S 10.2. As a result of the lack of powerful express locomotives in the first decade of the 20th century, the Prussian state railways ordered the Class S 10 locomotives from Schwartzkopff; this engine was an evolutionary development of the passenger train locomotive, the Prussian P 8, which can be seen from the similarity in their locomotive frames. Unlike the P 8, the S 10—inspired by the Saxon XII H—had a four-cylinder engine with simple expansion. Between 1910 and 1914 a total of 202 locomotives were built; the two prototypes were designated as S 8 class and only reclassified in 1912 to S 10. The Lübeck-Büchen Railway took delivery of five similar, albeit somewhat less powerful, machines that they designated as the S 10. Over the course of time several modifications were made. In the end the S 10 proved to be worse than the S 101, a four-cylinder compound locomotive in terms of both steam and coal consumption and was one of the most uneconomical Prussian locomotives.
The Deutsche Reichsbahn took over 135 locomotives into its Class 17.0-1 and gave them the running numbers 17 001–135. They were retired by 1935, due to their high fuel consumption. Only three examples survived the Second World War, as braking locomotives; the last S 10 was retired in 1954. Number 17 008 is on display in the German Museum of Technology in Berlin; the S 10s were coupled with tenders of classes pr 2'2' T 21.5 and pr 2'2' T 31.5. As production started on the S 10, Henschel were given an order for the manufacture of a compound locomotive, which promised to deliver lower coal consumption; this locomotive, classified as the S 10.1, was a new design. The four-cylinder compound engine was of the de Glehn type, which meant that the outside cylinders, set well to the rear, drove the second coupled axle and the inside cylinder drove the first; the engines were larger and more powerful than the S 10 and, thanks to their compound engines more economical. Between 1911 and 1914, no less than 135 examples were built for 17 for Alsace-Lorraine.
Following initial dissatisfaction with the vehicles, several modifications to the locomotives led to the desired success. For example, no feedwater preheater was fitted to start with for weight-saving reasons, but one was installed; the remaining disadvantages, such as the poor accessibility of the inside drive, led to the development of a new version in the shape of the 1914 variant. After three locomotives were sent abroad as reparations, the Deutsche Reichsbahn took over the remaining 132 vehicles as Class 17.10–11 with numbers 17 1001–1123 and 17 1145–1153. The three locomotives left in 1945 with the Austrian Federal Railway were renumbered to 617.1004, 617.1089 and 617.1099 and retired in 1957. The Deutsche Bundesbahn withdrew their last S 10.1 engines in 1952. The Deutsche Reichsbahn in East Germany held onto these locomotives for longer and converted 13 examples to coal-dust firing. Locomotive number 17 1119 was given a condensing tender. In 1963 the last machines were taken out of service by the DR.
Number 17 1055 was returned to its original configuration and belongs today to the Dresden Transport Museum. The S 10.1s were equipped with tenders of Prussian classes pr 2'2' T 21.5 and pr 2'2' T 31.5. Various disadvantages of the 1911 variant of the S 10.1, such as the difficulty of accessing the inside driving gear and the long steam lines between high and low-pressure cylinders, caused the Prussian state railways to have the design reworked. The four cylinders were now located -- -- on a slant; the boiler was modified. Due to the altered location of the cylinders the running plate could be raised, which gave the locomotives a higher and more modern appearance, although in fact the height of the boiler axis above the rails remained unchanged. In spite of these considerable differences, the 1914 variant was designated as the S 10.1. These locomotives were the most powerful expresses in Prussia, the Prussian state railways continued to live without Pacific locomotives. In 1914, one locomotive reached a speed of 152 km/h on a trial run with three coaches.
The Deutsche Reichsbahn took over 77 locomotives as Class 17.11-12 with the numbers 17 1124–1144 and 1154–1209. In the DR in the GDR two 1914 variant locomotives were given Wendler coal-dust firing; the last engine was retired in 1964. Unlike the 1911 variant, no 1914 variant of this locomotive class remains preserved; the Stettiner Maschinenbau AG Vulcan built the Class S 10.2 based on the S 10. In contrast to the S 10 it only had three cylinders, but was otherwise identical; the Prussian state railways bought a total of 124 locomotives from 1914. These variants were superior to the S 10, but not the S 10.1. 28 engines had to be handed to foreign railway administrations after the First World War. The Deutsche Reichsbahn took over the remaining 96 vehicles, incorporating them into Class 17.2 with running numbers 17 201–296. The remaining engines were gathered together into the northern and central German Reichsbahn railway divisions. Here they were replaced from 1930 by the Class 03. 88 engines survived the Second World War and ended up with the Deutsche Bundesbahn, where they were retired by 1948.
The S 10.2s were equipped with pr 2'2' T 31.5 tenders. Three S 10
Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. Various units are used to express pressure; some of these derive from a unit of force divided by a unit of area. Pressure may be expressed in terms of standard atmospheric pressure. Manometric units such as the centimetre of water, millimetre of mercury, inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer. Pressure is the amount of force applied at right angles to the surface of an object per unit area; the symbol for it is p or P. The IUPAC recommendation for pressure is a lower-case p. However, upper-case P is used; the usage of P vs p depends upon the field in which one is working, on the nearby presence of other symbols for quantities such as power and momentum, on writing style. Mathematically: p = F A, where: p is the pressure, F is the magnitude of the normal force, A is the area of the surface on contact.
Pressure is a scalar quantity. It relates the vector surface element with the normal force acting on it; the pressure is the scalar proportionality constant that relates the two normal vectors: d F n = − p d A = − p n d A. The minus sign comes from the fact that the force is considered towards the surface element, while the normal vector points outward; the equation has meaning in that, for any surface S in contact with the fluid, the total force exerted by the fluid on that surface is the surface integral over S of the right-hand side of the above equation. It is incorrect to say "the pressure is directed in such or such direction"; the pressure, as a scalar, has no direction. The force given by the previous relationship to the quantity has a direction, but the pressure does not. If we change the orientation of the surface element, the direction of the normal force changes accordingly, but the pressure remains the same. Pressure is distributed to solid boundaries or across arbitrary sections of fluid normal to these boundaries or sections at every point.
It is a fundamental parameter in thermodynamics, it is conjugate to volume. The SI unit for pressure is the pascal, equal to one newton per square metre; this name for the unit was added in 1971. Other units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch and bar, are in common use; the CGS unit of pressure is 0.1 Pa.. Pressure is sometimes expressed in grams-force or kilograms-force per square centimetre and the like without properly identifying the force units, but using the names kilogram, kilogram-force, or gram-force as units of force is expressly forbidden in SI. The technical atmosphere is 1 kgf/cm2. Since a system under pressure has the potential to perform work on its surroundings, pressure is a measure of potential energy stored per unit volume, it is therefore related to energy density and may be expressed in units such as joules per cubic metre. Mathematically: p =; some meteorologists prefer the hectopascal for atmospheric air pressure, equivalent to the older unit millibar. Similar pressures are given in kilopascals in most other fields, where the hecto- prefix is used.
The inch of mercury is still used in the United States. Oceanographers measure underwater pressure in decibars because pressure in the ocean increases by one decibar per metre depth; the standard atmosphere is an established constant. It is equal to typical air pressure at Earth mean sea level and is defined as 101325 Pa; because pressure is measured by its ability to displace a column of liquid in a manometer, pressures are expressed as a depth of a particular fluid. The most common choices are water; the pressure exerted by a column of liquid of height h and density ρ is given by the hydrostatic pressure equation p = ρgh, where g is the gravitational acceleration. Fluid density and local gravity can vary from one reading to another depending on local factors, so the height of a fluid column
The pascal is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre, it is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal, equal to one millibar, the kilopascal, equal to one centibar; the unit of measurement called. Meteorological reports in the United States state atmospheric pressure in millibars. In Canada these reports are given in kilopascals; the unit is named after Blaise Pascal, noted for his contributions to hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, experiments with a barometer. The name pascal was adopted for the SI unit newton per square metre by the 14th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1971; the pascal can be expressed using SI derived units, or alternatively SI base units, as: 1 P a = 1 N m 2 = 1 k g m ⋅ s 2 = 1 J m 3 where N is the newton, m is the metre, kg is the kilogram, s is the second, J is the joule. One pascal is the pressure exerted by a force of magnitude one newton perpendicularly upon an area of one square metre.
The unit of measurement called a standard atmosphere is 101325 Pa.. This value is used as a reference pressure and specified as such in some national and international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization's ISO 2787, ISO 2533 and ISO 5024. In contrast, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry recommends the use of 100 kPa as a standard pressure when reporting the properties of substances. Unicode has dedicated code-points U+33A9 ㎩ SQUARE PA and U+33AA ㎪ SQUARE KPA in the CJK Compatibility block, but these exist only for backward-compatibility with some older ideographic character-sets and are therefore deprecated; the pascal or kilopascal as a unit of pressure measurement is used throughout the world and has replaced the pounds per square inch unit, except in some countries that still use the imperial measurement system or the US customary system, including the United States. Geophysicists use the gigapascal in measuring or calculating tectonic stresses and pressures within the Earth.
Medical elastography measures tissue stiffness non-invasively with ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging, displays the Young's modulus or shear modulus of tissue in kilopascals. In materials science and engineering, the pascal measures the stiffness, tensile strength and compressive strength of materials. In engineering use, because the pascal represents a small quantity, the megapascal is the preferred unit for these uses; the pascal is equivalent to the SI unit of energy density, J/m3. This applies not only to the thermodynamics of pressurised gases, but to the energy density of electric and gravitational fields. In measurements of sound pressure or loudness of sound, one pascal is equal to 94 decibels SPL; the quietest sound a human can hear, known as the threshold of hearing, is 20 µPa. The airtightness of buildings is measured at 50 Pa; the units of atmospheric pressure used in meteorology were the bar, close to the average air pressure on Earth, the millibar. Since the introduction of SI units, meteorologists measure pressures in hectopascals unit, equal to 100 pascals or 1 millibar.
Exceptions include Canada. In many other fields of science, the SI is preferred. Many countries use the millibars. In all other fields, the kilopascal is used instead. Atmospheric pressure which gives the usage of the hbar end the mbar Centimetre of water Meteorology Metric prefix Orders of magnitude Pascal's law Pressure measurement
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
A high-pressure steam locomotive is a steam locomotive with a boiler that operates at pressures well above what would be considered normal. In the years of steam, boiler pressures were 200 to 250 psi. High-pressure locomotives can be considered to start at 350 psi, when special construction techniques become necessary, but some had boilers that operated at over 1,500 psi. Maximising the efficiency of a heat engine depends fundamentally upon getting the temperature at which heat is accepted as far as possible from the temperature at which it is rejected; this was quantified by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot. There are two options: lower the rejection temperature. For a steam engine, the former means raising steam at higher pressure and temperature, in engineering terms straightforward; the latter means bigger cylinders to allow the exhaust steam to expand further - and going this direction is limited by the loading gauge - and condensing the exhaust to further lower the rejection temperature. This tends to be self-defeating because of frictional losses in the increased volumes of exhaust steam to be handled.
Thus it has been considered that high pressure is the way to go to improve locomotive fuel efficiency. However, experiments in this direction were always defeated by much increased purchase and maintenance costs. A simpler way to increase the acceptance temperature is to use a modest steam pressure and a superheater. High-pressure locomotives were much more complicated than conventional designs, it was not a matter of building a normal fire-tube boiler with suitably increased strength and stoking harder. Structural strength requirements in the boiler shell make this impractical. For high steam pressures the water-tube boiler is universally used; the steam drums and their interconnecting tubes are of small diameter with thick walls and therefore much stronger. The next difficulty is that of scale corrosion in the boiler tubes. Scale deposited inside the tubes is invisible inaccessible, a deadly danger, as it leads to local overheating and failure of the tube; this was a major drawback with the early water-tube boilers, such as the Du Temple design, tested on the French Nord network in 1907 and 1910.
Water tubes in Royal Navy boilers were checked for blockage by dropping numbered balls down the curved tubes. A sudden steam leak into the firebox is perilous enough with a conventional boiler – the fire is to be blasted out of the firebox door, with unhappy results for anyone in the way. With a high-pressure boiler the results are more dangerous because of the greater release of energy; this was demonstrated by the Fury tragedy, though the reason for the tube failure in that case was concluded to be overheating due to lack of steam flow rather than scaling. An early experimenter with high-pressure steam was Jacob Perkins. Perkins applied his "hermetic tube" system to steam locomotive boilers and a number of locomotives using this principle were made in 1836 for the London and South Western Railway. One way to avoid corrosion and scale problems at high pressure is to use distilled water, as is done in power stations. Dissolved gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide cause corrosion at high temperatures and pressures, must be kept out.
Most locomotives did not have condensers, so there was no source of pure feed water. One solution was the Schmidt system. If this latter was fed with ordinary water, scale could form on the outside of the heating coils, but it could not cause overheating because the ultra-HP tubes were quite capable of withstanding their internal steam temperature, though not the firebox flame temperature; the sealed ultra-high-pressure circuit ran at between 1,200 and 1,600 psi, depending on the rate of firing. The HP boiler worked at approx 850 psi, the low-pressure boiler at 200 to 250 psi; the UHP and HP boilers were of a water tube design, while the LP boiler was a fire tube boiler typical for steam locomotives. The LP cylinders were driven with a mixture of the LP boiler output. Both HP and LP boilers had superheaters; the French PL241P, the German H17-206 and the British LMS 6399 Fury all used the Schmidt system, were of similar design. The New York Central HS-1a and the Canadian 8000 used the Schmidt system but were a size larger altogether- the 8000 weighed more than twice the Fury.
Another way to avoid scaling in the HP boiler is to use steam alone to transfer the heat from the fire. Saturated steam from an HP steam generator was pumped through HP superheater tubes which lined the firebox. There it was superheated to about 900 °F and the pressure raised to 1,700 psi. Only a quarter of this was fed to the HP cylinders; the HP cylinder exhaust passed through an LP feed heater, the tubes of an LP boiler. Steam was raised in the LP boiler at 225 psi, fed to the LP superheater, the LP cylinder; the LP exhaust fed the blastpipe in the smokebox. The HP exhaust, it was a complex system. Th