Fredericia is a town located in Fredericia municipality in the eastern part of the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, in a sub-region known locally as Trekanten, or The Triangle. It was founded in 1650 by Frederick III, after whom it was named, the city itself has a population of 39,922 January 2014) and the Fredericia municipality has a population of 50,324. However, the fortifications were not perfect, and when Swedish Field Marshal Lennart Torstenson invaded Jutland and it was Frederick III who was finally able to complete the plans for the fortification, adding a flank fortification on nearby Bers Odde as suggested by Danish Imperial Marshal Anders Bille. On 15 December 1650, the King signed the document giving the town its first privileges, in 1651, the town was named Frederiksodde after the king, and on 22 April 1664, it was given the new Latinized name of Fredericia. Fredericias landmark, was unveiled on 6 July 1858, the municipality today is part of the East Jutland metropolitan area with 1.
2M inhabitants, and is the site of Fredericia municipalitys municipal council. The town is one of Denmarks largest traffic hubs, the town is a major barracks, home to the Royal Danish Armys armys Signals Regiment, which is located at Ryes Barracks and Bülows Barracks
Odense is the third-largest city in Denmark. It has a population of 175,245 as of January 2016, by road, Odense is located 45 kilometres north of Svendborg,144 kilometres to the south of Aarhus and 167 kilometres to the southwest of Copenhagen. Odense has close associations with Hans Christian Andersen who is remembered above all for his fairy tales and he was born in the city in 1805 and spent his childhood years there. There has been settlement in the Odense area for over 4,000 years, although the name was not mentioned in writing until 988. Canute IV of Denmark, generally considered to be the last Viking king, was murdered by peasants in Odenses St Albans Priory on 10 July 1086. Although the city was burned in 1249 following a royal rivalry, in 1865, one of the largest railway terminals in Denmark was built, further increasing the population and commerce, and by 1900, Odense had reached a population of 35,000. Odenses Odinstårnet was one of the tallest towers in Europe when built in 1935 but was destroyed by the Nazis during World War II, the University of Southern Denmark was established in 1966.
In the present day, Odense remains the hub of Funen. Several major industries are located in the city including the Albani Brewery and GASA, Denmarks major dealer in vegetables and flowers. In sports, Odense has a number of clubs including OB, BM, B1909, and B1913, the Odense Bulldogs professional ice hockey team. Odense is served by Hans Christian Andersen Airport and Odense station, Odense is one of Denmarks oldest cities. Archaeological excavations in the vicinity show proof of settlement for over 4,000 years since at least the Stone Age, the earliest community was centred on the higher ground between the Odense River to the south and Naesbyhoved Lake to the north. Nonnebakken, one of Denmarks former Viking ring fortresses, lay to the south of the river, Odenses Møntergården Museum has many artefacts related to the early Viking history in the Odense area. The Vikings built numerous fortifications along the banks to defend it against invaders coming in from the coast. The first church in Odense appears to have been St Marys, the territory, previously part of the vast Archbishopric of Hamburg, was created a Catholic diocese in 988.
The first recorded bishops of Odense were Odinkar Hvide and Reginbert, recent excavations have shown that from the early 11th century, the town developed in the area around Albani Torv, Fisketorvet and Vestergade. By 1070, Odense had already grown into a city of stature in Denmark, the priory no longer exists, although a church has been situated on the site since about 900. At the beginning of the 12th century, Benedictine monks from England founded St Canutes Abbey and it was here the English monk Ælnoth wrote Denmarks first literary work, Vita et Passio S. Canuti
Vejle is a town in Denmark, in the southeast of the Jutland Peninsula at the head of Vejle Fjord, where the Vejle River and Grejs River and their valleys converge. It is the site of the councils of Vejle Municipality and the Region of Southern Denmark, the city itself has a population of 54,862, making it the ninth largest city in Denmark. Vejle Municipality has a population of 111,743, the city is part of the Triangle Region, which includes the neighbouring cities of Kolding and Fredericia. Vejle is most known for its hills, harbour, pedestrian mall. The word Vejle derives from the Old Danish word wæthel, meaning ford or wading place due to its location at a crossing over Vejle River. During Viking times, the wetlands around Vejle had to be crossed at the Ravning Bridge, the first recorded mention of the town is from 1256, and the first known merchant town privileges were issued by King Valdemar III in 1327. Archaeological digs near St. Nicolai Church in downtown Vejle have shown there were residences in the area as far back as 1100.
The kings castle, Castrum Wæthel, was located where Vejle Transit Centre is today. During the Middle Ages, Vejle was important as a market town, in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Vejles population was diminished as a consequence of plague and war. Downtown Vejle was built on an island of glacial till in Vejle River remaining from a hill formed during the last ice age. For a country where the highest natural elevation is only about 170 m above sea level, Vejle is known for the hills that rise to the north and south of the town. The two valleys converge at Vejle are both unique in Denmark, Vejle River Valley is the longest tunnel valley in Denmark. Both empty into Vejle Fjord, which connects Vejle by water through the Little Belt strait to the Baltic Sea, many of Vejles neighbourhoods began as separate towns or villages that merged with the city as it grew. Søndermarken, Nørremarken, and Grejsdalen, were all founded as extensions of the city onto the surrounding hillsides, historically speaking, industry has been very important for the citys development, while today more weight is placed on business and service, as well as high-tech firms.
During the Industrial Revolution, Vejle was known as the Manchester of Denmark due to its textile mills. The local rivers provided water power to mills, including the facilities of De Danske Bomuldsspinderier. In the first half of the 20th century, Vejle was something of a behemoth within the Danish textile industry, despite the decline in the industry in Denmark, the last cotton mill in Vejle remained open until 1993. Today, many of the old buildings are used for art studios, office space
Public broadcasting includes radio and other electronic media outlets whose primary mission is public service. In much of the world, funding comes from the government, the great majority are operated as private not-for-profit corporations. Public broadcasting may be nationally or locally operated, depending on the country, in some countries, public broadcasting is run by a single organization. Other countries have multiple public broadcasting organizations operating regionally or in different languages, public broadcasting was once the dominant or only form of broadcasting in many countries. Commercial broadcasting now exists in most of countries, the number of countries with only public broadcasting declined substantially during the latter part of the 20th century. The primary mission of public broadcasting that of service, speaking to. The British model has been accepted as a universal definition. In the context of a national identity, the role of public broadcasting may be unclear. Likewise, the nature of good programming may raise the question of individual or public taste.
Within public broadcasting there are two different views regarding commercial activity, one is that public broadcasting is incompatible with commercial objectives. The other is that public broadcasting can and should compete in the marketplace with commercial broadcasters and this dichotomy is highlighted by the public service aspects of traditional commercial broadcasters. Public broadcasters in each jurisdiction may or may not be synonymous with government controlled broadcasters, in some countries like the UK public broadcasters are not sanctioned by government departments and have independent means of funding, and thus enjoy editorial independence. Public broadcasters may receive their funding from a television licence fee, individual contributions. One of the principles of broadcasting is to provide coverage of interests for which there are missing or small markets. Public broadcasting attempts to supply topics of social benefit that are not provided by commercial broadcasters. Typically, such underprovision is argued to exist when the benefits to viewers are relatively high in comparison to the benefits to advertisers from contacting viewers and this frequently is the case in undeveloped countries that normally have low benefits to advertising.
Additionally, public broadcasting may facilitate the implementation of a cultural policy, examples include, The Canadian government is committed to official bilingualism. As a result, the broadcaster, the CBC employs translators
Vejen with a population of 9,518 is the main town in Vejen Municipality, Denmark. The town is situated in the Danish region of Syddanmark and is a town at the railway between the cities of Kolding and Esbjerg. The Vejen Art Museum specializes in works from the end of the 19th century in styles including Symbolism, the food industry is a major employer. Major companies include Eurofins Steins Laboratorium, with 425 employees, Danish Crown and Aquapris, media related to Vejen at Wikimedia Commons
Kolding is a Danish seaport located at the head of Kolding Fjord in the Region of Southern Denmark. It is the seat of Kolding Municipality and it is a transportation and manufacturing centre, and has numerous industrial companies, principally geared towards shipbuilding. The manufacturing of machinery and textiles and livestock export are other economically significant activities, with a population of 90,066, the Kolding municipality is the seventh largest in Denmark. The city itself has a population of 58,021 and is the seventh largest city in Denmark, the municipality is a part of the East Jutland metropolitan area with 1.2 million inhabitants. In the Battle of Kolding, fought on 25 December 1658, a battle between German and Danish forces took place near the town on 23 April 1849 during the First War of Schleswig. On 3 November 2004, the N. P. Johnsens Fireworks Factory in the suburb of Seest exploded, one firefighter died,85 people were injured, and around 2000 people were evacuated and some of them lost their home during this disaster in this suburb of Kolding.
Located in Kolding is the royal castle of Koldinghus. This was built in the 13th century by King Eric Klipping and is now a museum with certain parts of the castle, including its chapel and hall and it was the last royal residence in Jutland. Another notable site is the 13th century stone Church of Saint Nicholas, popular tourist attractions include the Trapholt art museum and the gardens Geografisk Have. Trapholt holds collections of Danish arts from 1900 onwards and a number of non-Danish exhibits. Kolding is the site of Designskolen Kolding, a university design school, the municipal museum, the Museet på Koldinghus, is located in the castle and former royal palace. It has a collection of Danish art from the late Middle Ages to the 1940s, miscellaneous artefacts of local interest, the Trapholt art museum features many pieces from mainly Danish artists, along with a large collection of chairs. Also Kolding houses the Danish Museum of Nurses which is situated in the reception building of the former tuberculosis sanatorium for children.
The exhibition include this past of the buildings, the main part of the sanatorium is now a hotel, situated in a minor forest and overlooking the water. The building itself is beautiful and built to resemble a palace. A branch of University College South can be found in Kolding, a branch campus of University of Southern Denmark is located in the former hospital which was closed in 1975. Due to lack of space at this location, a new University is being built in downtown Kolding, the city is home to Design School Kolding, established in 1967 and teaching undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in the areas of fashion, graphic design and textiles. The new building of University of Southern Denmark will be further to the east at Grønborggrunden in central Kolding
The city of Aabenraa or Åbenrå, with a population of 15,814, is at the head of the Aabenraa Fjord, an arm of the Little Belt, in Denmark,61 kilometres north of the town of Schleswig. It was the seat of Sønderjyllands Amt until 1 January 2007, the name Aabenraa originally meant open beach. Aabenraa was first mentioned in accounts in the 12th century. Aabenraa started growing in the early Middle Ages around Opnør Hus, the castle, and received status as a merchant town in 1240. During the Middle Ages the town was known for its fishing industry, between 1560 and 1721 the town was under the rule of the Dukes of Holstein-Gottorp. The towns glory days were during the period of the 1750s to c,1864, when ship traffic was at a high growth rate with trade to the Mediterranean Sea, South America, and Australia. It possessed a harbour, which afforded shelter for a large carrying trade, Aabenraa having the Danish monarchys third-largest trade fleet, after Copenhagen. The city had a number of well-known shipbuilding yards, which were known for their fine ships, the most famous of these was the clipper Cimber, which in 1857 sailed from Liverpool to San Francisco in 106 days.
Fishing and various small factories provided occupations for the population, from 1864 as a result of the Second War of Schleswig it was part of Prussia, and as such part of the North German Confederation, and from 1871 onwards, part of the German Empire. In the 1920 Schleswig Plebiscite that brought Northern Schleswig to Denmark,55. 1% of Aabenraas inhabitants voted for remaining part of Germany and 44. 9% voted for the cession to Denmark. However, since a plurality of votes in the surrounding Aabenraa municipality voted to join Denmark, after the 1948 Danish spelling reform, which abolished the digraph Aa in favor of Å, there was fervent resistance in Aabenraa. The town feared, among other things, to lose its status as first in alphabetical listings. A revision of the rules allowed for retaining the Aa spelling as an option. While the municipality of Aabenraa and most local citizens use the Aa spelling, the town has a 7.5 meter deep harbour, with a significant shipping trade. There is varied industry in the city, including Marcussens Organ Building, the city is the administrative center for the county.
Danmarks Radio has an office in the city, a significant German minority live in Aabenraa and they publish Der Nordschleswiger newspaper in German. Some significant buildings in the town are St. Nikolai Church from the time of King Valdemar with construction beginning ca,1250, and restored from 1949 to 1956. Brundlund Castle, erected by Queen Margaret I1411, and rebuilt in 1807, the town is a bathing resort, as is Elisenlund close by
DR, officially rendered into English as the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, is the Danish government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company. Founded in 1925 as an organization, it is Denmarks oldest and largest electronic media enterprise. DR is a member of the European Broadcasting Union. DR is funded by a licence which is charged to all Danish households with television sets, smartphones. Today, DR operates six television channels, all of which are distributed free-to-air via a nationwide DVB-T network, DR operates eight radio channels, of which all are available nationally on DAB radio and online. On FM radio only the original 4 stations are available, DR was founded on April 1,1925 under the name of Radioordningen, changed to Statsradiofonien in 1926, and Danmarks Radio in 1959. Which was changed to DR in 1996, statsradiofoniens second FM radio station, Program 2, was added in 1951, followed by P3 in 1963. Experimental television broadcasts started in 1949, with regular programming beginning on October 2,1951 with the launch of Denmarks first television channel, colour television test broadcasts were started in March 1967, with the first large-scale colour broadcasting occurring for the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France.
Danmarks Radio officially ended test transmissions of television on April 1,1970. On exactly 16 May 1983 at 14,00 CEST, DR launched its first teletext information service, Danmarks Radios monopoly on national television lasted until 1988, when TV2 started broadcasting. 8 years DR launched their second channel, DR2 on August 30,1996. It was sometimes called den hemmelige kanal in its early years because it could not be seen nationwide at its launch, the first trials of DAB were carried out in 1995, with eight channels officially launching in October 2002. On June 7,2007, DR launched a news channel DR Update. It was added as a traditional channel, at the Danish changeover to over-the-air digital signals on November 1,2009, DR added three new channels to their lineup DR K - an intercultural and odd-film channel. DR HD – Denmarks first free-to-air high-definition channel intended to air shows from the other DR channels in true HD only. In 2013 the line-up of television channels was changed once again, a new channel targeting young people, DR3 replaced DR HD.
Another channel for children, DR Ultra replaced DR Update, the closure of DR Update was the start of a revamping of DR2 as a channel for news and society. Also in 2013, DR introduced a new logo in which the words DR featured in a white sans-serif font on a black background
Billund is a small town in Jutland, most notable as the home of the Lego Group head office. A typical company town, it is known for its theme park, Legoland. The airport opened in 1964 and was built by the Lego Group, with a population of 6,194, Billund is the second largest town in Billund Municipality, Region of Southern Denmark, following the municipal seat of Grindsted. On the outskirts of the town there is a Lego factory, adjacent to the companys headquarters is the first Legoland theme park, which opened in 1968 and is called Legoland Billund. In addition to the Lego Group, Sun Air of Scandinavia has its office in Billund. Billund has long been part of the parish of Grene Kirke whose original Romanesque building was first mentioned in 1291, the towns name was first mentioned as Byllundt in 1454 and as Billund in 1510. In 1880, the towns first windmill was built on the road between Vejle and Varde, in 1895, the mill burned to the ground but was rebuilt in 1897, this time in the style of Dutch windmills.
That same year, a railway was built from Vejle to Billund, in 1916, Ole Kirk Christiansen, who founded Lego, bought a Billund furniture company that was founded in 1895. He invested in the town, creating a new dairy and the Skjoldbjerg church a few south of town. In 1930, Kirk Christiansen began producing utility items such as ironing boards and his first toys were created from scraps from the production of his other goods but his true toy production started in 1932. In 1934, the toy factory was named Lego, in the late 1930s Billund experienced growth due to the factories and began to build waterworks, a gymnasium, and the town hall, though the local power station was closed and relocated. During the Nazi occupation in World War II, the old Lego Factory was destroyed by fire in 1942, in 1946, the railway track from Grindsted was extended to the Lego factory. Plastic Lego Bricks were first released from the factory in 1949, the 1950s brought a recession to Billund with the closing of the railroad.
In response to the poverty, the Billund Housing Association was founded and created affordable housing as well as a retirement home. Lego created a park north of town with a playground, outdoor scene, toboggan hill. In 1962 the Billund Airport was inaugurated, first as the Lego Groups private airport, Legoland opened in 1968, and Billund again began to experience growth. Billund is located approximately 13 kilometers from Grindsted,56 kilometers from Esbjerg, as of 2012 the town had 6,146 residents. In the beginning of the 1930s Billund was still a village with only 300 residents
Digital audio broadcasting
Digital audio broadcasting is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services, used in several countries across Europe and Asia Pacific. The DAB standard was initiated as a European research project in the 1980s, the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation launched the first DAB channel in the world on 1 June 1995, and the BBC and Swedish Radio launched their first DAB digital radio broadcasts in September 1995. DAB receivers have been available in many countries since the end of the 1990s, DAB may offer more radio programmes over a specific spectrum than analogue FM radio. Audio quality varies depending on the used and audio material. Most stations use a bit rate of 128 kbit/s or less with the MP2 audio codec, which requires 160 kbit/s to achieve perceived FM quality. 128 kbit/s gives better dynamic range or signal-to-noise ratio than FM radio, but a more smeared stereo image, however, CD quality sound with MP2 is possible with 256…192 kbps. An upgraded version of the system was released in February 2007, DAB is not forward compatible with DAB+, which means that DAB-only receivers are not able to receive DAB+ broadcasts.
However, broadcasters can mix DAB and DAB+ programs inside the same transmission, DAB+ is approximately twice as efficient as DAB, and more robust. In spectrum management, the bands that are allocated for public DAB services, are abbreviated with T-DAB, where the T stands for terrestrial. More than 30 countries provide DAB transmissions, and several countries, such as Norway, UK, Italy, Switzerland, The Netherlands, in many countries it is expected that DAB will gradually replace FM radio. Norway was the first country to announce national FM radio analog switchoff starting from 2017, DAB has been under development since 1981 at the Institut für Rundfunktechnik. In 1985 the first DAB demonstrations were held at the WARC-ORB in Geneva, DAB was developed as a research project for the European Union, which started in 1987 on initiative by a consortium formed in 1986. The MPEG-1 Audio Layer II codec was created as part of the EU147 project, a choice of audio codec and error-correction coding schemes and first trial broadcasts were made in 1990.
Public demonstrations were made in 1993 in the United Kingdom, the protocol specification was finalized in 1993 and adopted by the ITU-R standardization body in 1994, the European community in 1995 and by ETSI in 1997. Pilot broadcasts were launched in countries in 1995. The UK was the first country to receive a range of radio stations via DAB. Commercial DAB receivers began to be sold in 1999 and over 50 commercial, the standard was coordinated by the European DAB forum, formed in 1995 and reconstituted to the World DAB Forum in 1997, which represents more than 30 countries. In 2006 the World DAB Forum became the World DMB Forum which now presides over both the DAB and DMB standard, in October 2005, the World DMB Forum instructed its Technical Committee to carry out the work needed to adopt the AAC+ audio codec and stronger error correction coding