Digital subscriber line
Digital subscriber line is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is understood to mean asymmetric digital subscriber line, the most installed DSL technology, for Internet access. DSL service can be delivered with wired telephone service on the same telephone line since DSL uses higher frequency bands for data. On the customer premises, a DSL filter on each non-DSL outlet blocks any high-frequency interference to enable simultaneous use of the voice and DSL services; the bit rate of consumer DSL services ranges from 256 kbit/s to over 100 Mbit/s in the direction to the customer, depending on DSL technology, line conditions, service-level implementation. Bit rates of 1 Gbit/s have been reached. In ADSL, the data throughput in the upstream direction is lower, hence the designation of asymmetric service. In symmetric digital subscriber line services, the downstream and upstream data rates are equal. Researchers at Bell Labs have reached speeds over 1 Gbit/s for symmetrical broadband access services using traditional copper telephone lines, though such speeds have not yet been deployed elsewhere.
It was thought that it was not possible to operate a conventional phone line beyond low-speed limits. In the 1950s, ordinary twisted-pair telephone cable carried four megahertz television signals between studios, suggesting that such lines would allow transmitting many megabits per second. One such circuit in the United Kingdom ran some 10 miles between the BBC studios in Newcastle-upon-Tyne and the Pontop Pike transmitting station, it was able to give the studios a low quality cue feed but not one suitable for transmission. However, these cables had other impairments besides Gaussian noise, preventing such rates from becoming practical in the field; the 1980s saw the development of techniques for broadband communications that allowed the limit to be extended. A patent was filed in 1979 for the use of existing telephone wires for both telephones and data terminals that were connected to a remote computer via a digital data carrier system; the motivation for digital subscriber line technology was the Integrated Services Digital Network specification proposed in 1984 by the CCITT as part of Recommendation I.120 reused as ISDN digital subscriber line.
Employees at Bellcore developed asymmetric digital subscriber line by placing wide-band digital signals at frequencies above the existing baseband analog voice signal carried on conventional twisted pair cabling between telephone exchanges and customers. A patent was filed in 1988. Joseph W. Lechleider's contribution to DSL was his insight that an asymmetric arrangement offered more than double the bandwidth capacity of symmetric DSL; this allowed Internet service providers to offer efficient service to consumers, who benefited from the ability to download large amounts of data but needed to upload comparable amounts. ADSL supports two modes of transport -- interleaved channel. Fast channel is preferred for streaming multimedia, where an occasional dropped bit is acceptable, but lags are less so. Interleaved channel works better for file transfers, where the delivered data must be error-free but latency incurred by the retransmission of error-containing packets is acceptable. Consumer-oriented ADSL was designed to operate on existing lines conditioned for Basic Rate Interface ISDN services, which itself is a digital circuit switching service, though most incumbent local exchange carriers provision rate-adaptive digital subscriber line to work on any available copper pair facility, whether conditioned for BRI or not.
Engineers developed high speed DSL facilities such as high bit rate digital subscriber line and symmetric digital subscriber line to provision traditional Digital Signal 1 services over standard copper pair facilities. Older ADSL standards delivered 8 Mbit/s to the customer over about 2 km of unshielded twisted-pair copper wire. Newer variants improved these rates. Distances greater than 2 km reduce the bandwidth usable on the wires, thus reducing the data rate, but ADSL loop extenders increase these distances by repeating the signal, allowing the LEC to deliver DSL speeds to any distance. Until the late 1990s, the cost of digital signal processors for DSL was prohibitive. All types of DSL employ complex digital signal processing algorithms to overcome the inherent limitations of the existing twisted pair wires. Due to the advancements of very-large-scale integration technology, the cost of the equipment associated with a DSL deployment lowered significantly; the two main pieces of equipment are a digital subscriber line access multiplexer at one end and a DSL modem at the other end.
A DSL connection can be deployed over existing cable. Such deployment including equipment, is much cheaper than installing a new, high-bandwidth fiber-optic cable over the same route and distance; this is true both for SDSL variations. The commercial success of DSL and similar technologies reflects the advances made in electronics over the decades that have increased performance and reduced costs while digging trenches in the ground for new cables remains expensive. In the case of ADSL, competition in Internet access caused subscription fees to drop over the years, thus making ADSL more economical than dial up access. Telephone companies were pressured into moving to A
Beckman Coulter Inc. is a Danaher Corporation company that develops and markets products that simplify and innovate complex biomedical testing. It is operating in two industries: Life Sciences. With a rich history of more than 80 years the company helps healthcare and laboratory professionals and biotechnology companies, medical schools, research institutions worldwide. Founded by Caltech professor Arnold O. Beckman in 1935 as National Technical Laboratories to commercialize a pH meter that he had invented, the company grew to employ over 12,000 people, with $5.8 billion in annual sales by 2017. Its current headquarters are in California. Beckman Coulter was acquired by Danaher Corporation in 2011. In the 1940s, Beckman changed the name to Arnold O. Beckman, Inc. to sell oxygen analyzers, the Helipot precision potentiometer, spectrophotometers. In the 1950s, the company name changed to Inc.. In 1954, Beckman Instruments acquired ultracentrifuge maker Spinco; the Spinco division went on to manufacture a broad range of laboratory centrifuges.
In 1955, Beckman established the seminal Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory as a division of Beckman Instruments to begin commercializing the semiconductor transistor technology invented by Caltech alumnus William Shockley. Because Shockley's aging mother lived in Palo Alto, the Shockley Laboratory was established in nearby Mountain View and thus, "Silicon Valley" was born. In 1961, Beckman acquired a company founded by inventor Franklin F. Offner. In 1982, the company merged into SmithKline to form SmithKline Beckman, with Arnold Beckman as vice chairman, but regained its independence in 1989 after SmithKline merged with Beecham Group to form SmithKline Beecham. In 1995, the company acquired Inc. from Eli Lilly. In 1996, the company acquired the Sanofi portion of Sanofi Pasteur Diagnostics. In 1998, the company acquired Coulter Corporation, a company founded by Wallace H. Coulter, the inventor of the Coulter counter. Beckman, changed its name to Beckman Coulter. In 2005, the company acquired Diagnostic Systems Laboratories based in Texas.
In 2006, the company acquired Agencourt Bioscience. In 2007, the company acquired the Flow Cytometry Business Group of Inc.. In 2009, the company acquired Lab-based Diagnostics business of Olympus Corporation Japan. In 2009, the company moved its world headquarters from Fullerton, California to the newly renovated facility in Brea, California. In February 2011, Danaher announced that it has entered into a definitive merger agreement with Beckman Coulter. On June 30, 2011, Danaher finalized the acquisition of Beckman Coulter. On February 1, 2015, the company finalized the acquisition of MicroScan from Siemens Healthcare Though each location specializes in distinct areas of the company, many projects are worked on by teams in multiple locations working together remotely. Besides their headquarters in Brea, Beckman Coulter serves worldwide & some of the major locations include - USA: Atlanta Carlsbad, California Chaska, Minnesota Danvers, Massachusetts Florence, Kentucky Indianapolis, Indiana Irving, Texas Loveland, Colorado Miami, Florida Schaumburg, Illinois Southfield, Michigan West Sacramento, California Porterville, CaliforniaUnited Kingdom: High WycombeCanada: OntarioGermany Krefeld Munich, GermanyItaly Cassina de' PecchiIreland Clare GalwaySwitzerland NyonJapan Mishima, Shizuoka Ariake, TokyoBrazil Alphaville, São PauloChina Suzhou, JiangSu Province Dalian, LiaoNing Province ShanghaiIndia Bangalore, KarnatakaRussia MoscowTurkey IstanbulSouth Africa MidrandAustralia SydneyUnited Arab Emirates DubaiEgypt Cairo GizaFrance: Villepinte MarseilleNew Zealand AucklandRussia MoscowSingapore Sri Lanka Colombo Beckman Coulter Diagnostics Beckman Coulter Life Sciences Yahoo!
- Beckman Coulter, Inc. Company Profile Beckman Historical Collection Science History Institute Digital Collections
Ed Banger Records
Ed Banger Records is a French electronic music record label founded by Pedro Winter in 2003 as a division of Headbangers Entertainment. It focuses on house music French house, as well as alternative dance, hip hop, nu disco, synthpop, among other styles; the label is home to French acts Justice, Cassius, Krazy Baldhead, DJ Mehdi, Mr. Oizo, Mr. Flash, So Me, Breakbot, DSL, Boston Bun, Winter himself under the alias Busy P. Most videos and album art for Ed Banger releases are coordinated by So Me; the label enjoyed a dramatic rise in fame in early 2007 when a number of the artists signed to its roster found mainstream success, most notably French electronic group Justice, whose rework of "Never Be Alone" by now defunct electro-rock band Simian, was a success in clubs worldwide, entering the UK charts at No. 20. The music video for the single won the award for best video at the MTV Europe Music Awards in 2006. Labelmate Uffie enjoyed a rise in fame in late 2006 when her single, "Pop the Glock", gained international radio play.
Ed Banger Records collaborated with the cosmetics brand Uslu Airlines to create a glow-in-the-dark nail polish, sold with a special mini-mix by Busy P. To commemorate the label's tenth anniversary and the 20th anniversary of Girl Distribution Company, an Ed Banger series of skateboard decks was released in July 2013, in addition to a remixed video part for Girl's team rider Sean Malto; the artwork on the skateboard decks was inspired by artists Mr. Oizo, Justice and Busy P, while Malto's part was edited to music by Justice and Mr. Oizo. 10LEC6 Borussia Boston Bun Breakbot Busy P Cassius DJ Pone DSL Feadz Fulgeance Justice Krazy Baldhead Mickey Moonlight Mr. Oizo Mr. Flash Myd Para One Riton Sabrina & Samantha Sebastian So MeGuest artists: Cashmere Cat Kito Laurent Garnier Molécule Squarepusher ZongaminCollaborations: Carte Blanche Ed Banger House Party Handbraekes Past members: DJ Mehdi Uffie Vicarious Bliss Vladimir Cauchemar List of record labels Girl Distribution Company Official website Ed Bangers Records Soundcloud Ed Bangers Records Discogs