MiniDVD is a DVD disc, 8 centimetres in diameter. It refers two separated formats as well. One is a pseudo-format that uses 80mm CD-R to store contents with the same structure as the standard DVD-Video so that standalone DVD players can play it like standard DVD; the other format is a real DVD format. But there are variants that hold up to 5.2 GB. The 8 cm optical disc format was used for music CD singles, hence the used names CD single and miniCD; the manufactured 8 cm DVDs were used for music videos and as such became known as DVD single. MiniDVD is known as "3 inch DVD", referring to its approximate diameter in inches. Recordable 8 cm discs are used in DVD-based camcorders; the most common MiniDVDs hold 1.4 GB of data, but there are variants that can offer up to 5.2 GB of storage space. Nintendo used a disc-based format for their GameCube system, a variant of an 8 cm DVD; this format is supported by the Wii for backward compatibility with the GameCube. Blu-ray Disc CD Video DVD DVD card HD DVD LaserDisc Nintendo optical discs Universal Media Disc Video CD VideoNow miniDVD definition on AfterDawn.com
Pioneer Corporation referred to as Pioneer, is a Japanese multinational corporation based in Tokyo, that specializes in digital entertainment products. The company was founded by Nozomu Matsumoto in 1938 in Tokyo as a radio and speaker repair shop, its current president is Susumu Kotani. Pioneer played a role in the development of interactive cable TV, the Laser Disc player, the first automotive Compact Disc player, the first detachable face car stereo, Supertuner technology, DVD and DVD recording, plasma display, Organic LED display; the company works with optical disc and display technology and software products and is a manufacturer. Sharp Corporation took a 14% stake in Pioneer in 2007, reduced to 9%, but Sharp still remains the largest shareholder of Pioneer Corporation, followed by Honda Motor Co. Ltd. who owns 4% of Pioneer shares following a memorandum between the two companies in 2010 to strengthen business ties. In March 2010, Pioneer stopped producing televisions as announced on 12 February 2009.
On June 25, 2009, Sharp Corporation agreed to form a joint venture on their optical business to be called Pioneer Digital Design and Manufacturing Corporation. In September 2014, Pioneer agreed to sell Pioneer Home Electronics to Onkyo, in March 2015, Pioneer sold its DJ equipment business division to KKR, which resulted in the establishment of Pioneer DJ as a separate entity, independent of Pioneer. 1937: Pioneer’s founder, Nozomu Matsumoto develops the A-8 dynamic speaker. January 1938: Fukuin Shokai Denki Seisakusho is founded in Tokyo. May 1947: Fukuin Denki is incorporated. December 1953: Hi-Fi Speaker PE-8 introduced. June 1961: Company name changed to Pioneer Electronic Corporation. October 1961: Shares are listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange Second Section. June 1962: Introduces the world’s first separate stereo system. March 1966: Establishes sales companies in Europe and the U. S. February 1968: Shares are listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange First Section. April 1968: Shares are listed on the Osaka Securities Exchange.
February 1969: Shares are listed on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange. U. S. GAAP consolidated financial reporting starts August 1971: Introduces the HiPac cartridge format 1973: Introduces de reel to reel recorder RT-1020L November 1975: Introduces the world’s first component car stereo. 1976: Hi-Fi Speaker HPM-100 introduced. December 1976: Shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange. December 1977: Introduces the world’s first two-way addressable CATV system in the U. S.. 1978: Introduces SX-1980 receiver, Pioneer's most powerful receiver manufactured to date. February 1979: Introduces the industry-use Laserdisc player. June 1980: Introduces VP-1000 LD player for home use in the U. S. October 1981: Introduces LD player for home use and 70 LD software titles in Japan. October 1982: Introduces the LD Karaoke system for business use. November 1982: Introduces CD player. September 1984: Introduces the world’s first LD combination player compatible with CDs and LDs. October 1984: Releases the world’s first car CD player.
December 1985: Introduces the 40-inch projection monitor. June 1990: Introduces the world’s first CD-based GPS automotive navigation system. June 1992: Pioneer Corporation established its regional subsidiary in Southeast Asia, Pioneer Electronics AsiaCentre Pte. Ltd. October 1992: Introduces the world’s first 4x CD-ROM changer. June 1996: Tokorozawa Plant earns ISO 14001 certification. Pioneer inaugurates and launches Pioneer Karaoke Channel, an Astro satellite television channel for music video and karaoke programming consists for nightclubs. December 1996: Introduces DVD/CD player and the world’s first DVD/LD/CD compatible player for home use. May 1997: Starts supplying digital satellite broadcast set-top boxes in Europe. June 1997: Introduces the world’s first DVD-based GPS automotive navigation system. October 1997: Introduces the world’s first DVD-R drive. November 1997: Introduces the world’s first OEL-equipped car audio product. December 1997: Introduces the world’s first high definition 50-inch plasma display for consumer use.
June 1998: Introduces the world’s first DVD-based GPS automotive navigation system featuring 8.5GB dual-layered DVD. January 1999: Introduces new corporate logo. April 1999: Starts supplying digital CATV set-top boxes in the U. S. June 1999: English company name changed to Pioneer Corporation. December 1999: Introduces the world’s first DVD recorder compatible with the DVD-RW format. March 2000: Shares of Tohoku Pioneer are listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange Second Section. June 2001: Introduces hard disk-based GPS automotive navigation system. July 2001: Introduces the global brand slogan "sound.vision.soul". November 2002: Introduces GPS automotive navigation system with a wireless communication module. November 2002: Introduces a DVD recorder with hard disk. March 2003: Introduces in the U. S. digital CATV settop boxes with high definition TV signal reception capability. September 2003: Total shipment worldwide of PC-use recordable DVD drives surpasses 5 million units. July 2004: Introduces the Pioneer DVJ-X1, the world's first DVD player for professional DJs and VJs.
October 1, 2004: Pioneer Plasma Display Corporation starts operation. January 2006: President Kaneo Ito and Chairman Kanya Matsumoto, son of the company's founder, leave their posts to take responsibility for the recent poor performance of the maker of DVD recorders and plasma TVs. Vice President Tamihiko Sudo is appointed the new president, effective from January 1 by the board of directors. December 2006: Pioneer closes its car audio division in Singapore. January 2007: Pioneer displays their 9 mm thick co
Warner Media, LLC, doing business as WarnerMedia, is an American multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate owned by AT&T and headquartered in New York City. It was formed in 1990 as Time Warner Inc. from the merger of Time Inc. and Warner Communications. The company has film, television and publishing operations, consists of the assets of the former Warner Communications, HBO, Turner Broadcasting System, its assets include Warner Bros. WarnerMedia Entertainment and WarnerMedia News & Sports, as well as a 10% ownership stake in Hulu. On October 22, 2016, AT&T announced an offer to acquire Time Warner for $108.7 billion. The proposed merger was confirmed on June 12, 2018, after AT&T won an antitrust lawsuit that the U. S. Justice Department filed in 2017 to attempt to block the acquisition; the merger closed two days with the company becoming a subsidiary of AT&T. Despite spinning off Time Inc. in 2014, the company retained the Time Warner name until AT&T's acquisition in 2018. The company's previous assets included Time Inc.
AOL, Time Warner Cable, Warner Books, Warner Music Group. The company ranked No. 98 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Time magazine, the first weekly news magazine in the United States, debuted in 1923. Four years in 1927, Warner Bros. released the world's first feature-length talking picture, The Jazz Singer. In 1963, recommendations from Time Inc. based on how it delivered magazines led to the introduction of ZIP codes by the United States Post Office. In 1972, Kinney National Company spun off its non-entertainment assets due to a financial scandal over its parking operations, renamed itself Warner Communications Inc, it was the holding company for Warner Bros. Pictures and Warner Music Group during the 1970s and 1980s, it owned DC Comics and Mad, as well as a majority stake in Garden State National Bank. Warner's initial divestiture efforts led by Garden State CEO Charles A. Agemian were blocked by Garden State board member William A. Conway in 1978.
In 1975, Home Box Office became the first TV network to broadcast nationally via satellite, debuting with the "Thrilla in Manila" boxing match between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier. In 1975, Warner expanded under the guidance of CEO Steve Ross, formed a joint venture with American Express, named Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment, which held cable channels including MTV, The Movie Channel. Warner Bros. bought out American Express's half in 1984, sold the venture a year to Viacom, which renamed it MTV Networks. In 1976, the Turner–owned WTCG originated the "superstation" concept, transmitting via satellite to cable systems nationwide and pioneering the basic cable business model. WTCG was renamed WTBS in 1979. In 1976, Nolan Bushnell sold Inc. to Warner Communications for an estimated $2 -- 12 million. Warner made considerable profits with Atari, which it owned from 1976 to 1984. While part of Warner, Atari achieved its greatest success, selling millions of Atari 2600s and computers. At its peak, Atari accounted for a third of Warner's annual income, was the fastest-growing company in the history of the United States at the time.
In 1980, Warner purchased The Franklin Mint for about $225 million. The combination was short lived: Warner sold The Franklin Mint in 1985 to American Protection Industries Inc. for $167.5 million. However, Warner retained Franklin Mint's Eastern Mountain Sports as well as The Franklin Mint Center, which it leased back to API. In 1980, Turner launched CNN, the first 24-hour all-news network, redefining the way the world received breaking news. In January 1983, Warner expanded their interests to baseball. Under the direction of Caesar P. Kimmel, executive vice-president, bought 48 percent of the Pittsburgh Pirates for $10 million; the company put up its share for sale in November 1984 following losses of $6 million due to its failed attempt to launch a cable sports package. The team's majority owner, John W. Galbreath, soon followed suit after learning of Warner's actions. Both Galbreath and Warner sold the Pirates to local investors in March 1986. In 1984, due to major losses spurred by subsidiary Atari Inc.'s losses, Warner sold Atari Inc.'s Consumer Division assets to Jack Tramiel.
It kept the rest of the company and named it Atari Games reducing it to just the Coin Division. They sold Atari Games to Namco in 1985, repurchased it in 1992, renaming it Time Warner Interactive, until it was sold to Midway Games in 1996. In a long-expected deal, Warner Communications acquired Lorimar-Telepictures. Plans to merge Time Inc. and Warner Communications were made public on March 4, 1989. During the summer of that same year, Paramount Communications launched a $12.2 billion hostile bid to acquire Time, Inc. in an attempt to end a stock-swap merge
Sony Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming and financial services; the company owns the largest music entertainment business in the world, the largest video game console business and one of the largest video game publishing businesses, is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products for the consumer and professional markets, a leading player in the film and television entertainment industry. Sony was ranked 97th on the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list. Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, engaged in business through its four operating components: electronics, motion pictures and financial services; these make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. The group consists of Sony Corporation, Sony Pictures, Sony Mobile, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Music, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, Sony Financial Holdings, others.
Sony is among the semiconductor sales leaders and since 2015, the fifth-largest television manufacturer in the world after Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, TCL and Hisense. The company's current slogan is Be Moved, their former slogans were The One and Only, It's like.no.other and make.believe. Sony has a weak tie to the Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group corporate group, the successor to the Mitsui group. Sony began in the wake of World War II. In 1946, Masaru Ibuka started an electronics shop in a department store building in Tokyo; the company started with a total of eight employees. In May 1946, Ibuka was joined by Akio Morita to establish a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo; the company built Japan's first tape recorder, called the Type-G. In 1958, the company changed its name to "Sony"; when Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for a romanized name to use to market themselves, they considered using their initials, TTK. The primary reason they did not is that the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TTK.
The company used the acronym "Totsuko" in Japan, but during his visit to the United States, Morita discovered that Americans had trouble pronouncing that name. Another early name, tried out for a while was "Tokyo Teletech" until Akio Morita discovered that there was an American company using Teletech as a brand name; the name "Sony" was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words: one was the Latin word "sonus", the root of sonic and sound, the other was "sonny", a common slang term used in 1950s America to call a young boy. In 1950s Japan, "sonny boys" was a loan word in Japanese, which connoted smart and presentable young men, which Sony founders Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka considered themselves to be; the first Sony-branded product, the TR-55 transistor radio, appeared in 1955 but the company name did not change to Sony until January 1958. At the time of the change, it was unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell its name instead of writing it in kanji; the move was not without opposition: TTK's principal bank at the time, had strong feelings about the name.
They pushed for a name such as Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however. Both Ibuka and Mitsui Bank's chairman gave their approval. According to Schiffer, Sony's TR-63 radio "cracked open the U. S. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics." By the mid-1950s, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the fledgling industry from an estimated 100,000 units in 1955 to 5 million units by the end of 1968. Sony co-founder Akio Morita founded Sony Corporation of America in 1960. In the process, he was struck by the mobility of employees between American companies, unheard of in Japan at that time; when he returned to Japan, he encouraged experienced, middle-aged employees of other companies to reevaluate their careers and consider joining Sony. The company filled many positions in this manner, inspired other Japanese companies to do the same. Moreover, Sony played a major role in the development of Japan as a powerful exporter during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.
It helped to improve American perceptions of "made in Japan" products. Known for its production quality, Sony was able to charge above-market prices for its consumer electronics and resisted lowering prices. In 1971, Masaru Ibuka handed the position of president over to his co-founder Akio Morita. Sony began a life insurance company in one of its many peripheral businesses. Amid a global recession in the early 1980s, electronics sales dropped and the company was forced to cut prices. Sony's profits fell sharply. "It's over for Sony," one analyst concluded. "The company's best days are behind it." Around that time, Norio Ohga took up the role of president. He encouraged the development of the Compact Disc in the 1970s and 1980s, of the PlayStation in the early 1990s. Ohga went on to purchase CBS Records in 1988 and Columbia Pictures in 1989 expanding Sony's media presence. Ohga would succeed Morita as chief executive officer in 1989. Under the vision of co-founder Akio Morita and his successors, the company had aggressively expanded in
LaserDisc is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium licensed and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in the United States in 1978. Although the format was capable of offering higher-quality video and audio than its consumer rivals, VHS and Betamax videotape, LaserDisc never managed to gain widespread use in North America due to high costs for the players and video titles themselves and the inability to record TV programs, though it did gain some traction in that region to become somewhat popular in the 1990s, it was not a popular format in Australasia. By contrast, the format was much more popular in Japan and in the more affluent regions of Southeast Asia, such as Hong Kong and Malaysia, was the prevalent rental video medium in Hong Kong during the 1990s, its superior video and audio quality made it a popular choice among videophiles and film enthusiasts during its lifespan. The technologies and concepts behind LaserDisc were the foundation for optical disc formats including Compact Disc, DVD and Blu-ray.
Optical video recording technology, using a transparent disc, was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958. The Gregg patents were purchased by MCA in 1968. By 1969, Philips had developed a videodisc in reflective mode, which has advantages over the transparent mode. MCA and Philips decided to combine their efforts and first publicly demonstrated the video disc in 1972. LaserDisc was first available on the market, in Atlanta, Georgia, on December 11, 1978, two years after the introduction of the VHS VCR, four years before the introduction of the CD. Licensed and marketed as MCA DiscoVision in 1978, the technology was referred to internally as Optical Videodisc System, Reflective Optical Videodisc, Laser Optical Videodisc, Disco-Vision, with the first players referring to the format as "Video Long Play". Pioneer Electronics purchased the majority stake in the format and marketed it as both LaserVision and LaserDisc in 1980, with some releases unofficially referring to the medium as "Laser Videodisc".
Philips produced the players. The Philips-MCA cooperation was not successful, discontinued after a few years. Several of the scientists responsible for the early research founded Optical Disc Corporation. In 1979, the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago opened its "Newspaper" exhibit which used interactive LaserDiscs to allow visitors to search for the front page of any Chicago Tribune newspaper; this was a early example of public access to electronically stored information in a museum. In 1984, Sony introduced a LaserDisc format that could store any form of digital data, as a data storage device similar to CD-ROM, with a large capacity 3.28 GiB, comparable to the DVD-ROM format. The first LaserDisc title marketed in North America was the MCA DiscoVision release of Jaws on December 15, 1978; the last title released in North America was Paramount's Bringing Out the Dead on October 3, 2000. A dozen or so more titles continued to be released in Japan until September 21, 2001, with the last Japanese released movie was the Hong Kong film Tokyo Raiders from Golden Harvest.
Production of LaserDisc players continued until January 2009, when Pioneer stopped making them. It was estimated that in 1998, LaserDisc players were in 2% of U. S. households. By comparison, in 1999, players were in 10% of Japanese households. LaserDisc was released on June 10, 1981 in Japan, a total of 3.6 million LaserDisc players were sold there. A total of 16.8 million LaserDisc players were sold worldwide, of which 9.5 million were sold by Pioneer. By 2001, LaserDisc was replaced by DVD in the North American retail marketplace, as software was no longer being produced. Players were still exported to North America from Japan until the end of 2001; the format has retained some popularity among American collectors, to a greater degree in Japan, where the format was better supported and more prevalent during its life. In Europe, LaserDisc always remained an obscure format, it was chosen by the British Broadcasting Corporation for the BBC Domesday Project in the mid-1980s, a school-based project to commemorate 900 years since the original Domesday Book in England.
From 1991 until the late 1990s, the BBC used LaserDisc technology to play out their channel idents. Pioneer ceased production of LaserDisc players on January 14, 2009; the standard home video LaserDisc was 30 cm in diameter and made up of two single-sided aluminum discs layered in plastic. Although appearing similar to compact discs or DVDs, LaserDiscs used analog video stored in the composite domain with analog FM stereo sound and PCM digital audio; the LaserDisc at its most fundamental level was still recorded as a series of pits and lands much like CDs, DVDs, Blu-ray Discs are today. However, while the encoding is of a binary nature, the information is encoded as analog pulse-width modulation with a 50% duty cycle, where the information is contained in the lengths and spacing of the pits. In true digital media the pits, or their edges, directly represent 1s and 0s of a binary digital information stream. Early LaserDiscs featured in 1978 were analog but the format evolved to incorporate digital stereo sound in CD format, multi-channel formats such as Dolby Digita
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition and ultra high-definition resolution; the main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox One. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs; the plastic disc is 120 millimetres in diameter and 1.2 millimetres thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional or pre-BD-XL Blu-ray discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual-layer discs being the industry standard for feature-length video discs. Triple-layer discs and quadruple-layer discs are available for BD-XL re-writer drives. High-definition video may be stored on Blu-ray discs with up to 2160p resolution and at up to 60 frames per second.
DVD-Video discs were limited to a maximum resolution of 576p. Besides these hardware specifications, Blu-ray is associated with a set of multimedia formats; the BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, motion pictures. Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray disc prototypes in October 2000, the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release on June 20, 2006, beginning the high-definition optical disc format war, where Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the main company supporting HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, released its own Blu-ray Disc player in late 2009. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the United States were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales. Blu-ray faces competition from the continued sale of DVDs. Notably, as of January 2016, 44% of U. S. broadband. The information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used.
Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating at 405 nanometers became available on a production basis, allowing for development of a more-dense storage format that could hold higher-definition media. Sony started two projects in collaboration with Panasonic, TDK, applying the new diodes: UDO, DVR Blue, a format of rewritable discs that would become Blu-ray Disc; the core technologies of the formats are similar. The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the "Blue Disc" logo was filed February 9, 2001. On February 19, 2002, the project was announced as Blu-ray Disc, Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members; the first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10, 2003: the Sony BDZ-S77, a US$3,800 BD-RE recorder, made available only in Japan. But there was no standard for prerecorded video, no movies were released for this player. Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with digital rights management before they would release movies for the new format, they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content Scramble System used on DVDs.
On October 4, 2004, the name "Blu-ray Disc Founders" was changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association, 20th Century Fox joined the BDA's Board of Directors. The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004. In January 2005, TDK announced that they had now developed an ultra-hard yet thin polymer coating for Blu-ray discs. Cartridges used for scratch protection, were no longer necessary and were scrapped; the BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006. AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004, had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed, delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers, including Toshiba and Samsung, an interim standard was published that did not include some features, such as managed copy; the first BD-ROM players were shipped in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them to market by a few months.
The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006: 50 First Dates, The Fifth Element, House of Flying Daggers, Underworld: Evolution, xXx, MGM's The Terminator. The earliest releases used the same method used on standard DVDs; the first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006. The first movies using 50 GB dual-layer discs were introduced in October 2006; the first audio-only albums were released in May 2008. The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006, it recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699. As of June 2008, more than 2,500 Blu-ray Disc titles were available in Australia
DVD recordable and DVD rewritable are optical disc recording technologies. Both terms describe DVD optical discs that can be written to by a DVD recorder, whereas only'rewritable' discs are able to erase and rewrite data. Data is written to the disc by a laser, rather than the data being'pressed' onto the disc during manufacture, like a DVD-ROM. Pressing is used in mass production for the distribution of home video. Like CD-Rs, DVD recordable uses dye to store the data. During the burning of a single bit, the laser's intensity affects the reflective properties of the burned dye. By varying the laser intensity high density data is written in precise tracks. Since written tracks are made of darkened dye, the data side of a recordable DVD has a distinct color. Burned DVDs have a higher failure-to-read chance than Pressed DVDs, due to differences in the reflective properties of dye compared to the aluminum substrate of pressed discs; the larger storage capacity of a DVD-R compared to a CD-R is achieved by focusing the laser to a smaller point, creating smaller'pits' as well as a finer track pitch of the groove spiral which guides the laser beam.
These two changes allow more pits to be written in the same physical disc area, giving higher data density. The smaller focus is possible with a shorter wavelength'red' laser of 640 nm, compared to CD-R's wavelength of 780 nm; this is used in conjunction with a higher numerical aperture lens. The dyes used in each case are different. "R" format DVDs can read arbitrarily many times. Thus, "R" format discs are only suited to non-volatile data storage, such as audio, or video; this can cause confusion because the'DVD+RW Alliance' logo is a stylized'RW'. Thus, many discs are not rewritable. According to Pioneer, DVD-RW discs may be written to about 1,000 times before needing replacement. RW discs are used to store volatile data, such as when creating backups or collections of files which are subject to change and re-writes, they are ideal for home DVD video recorders, where it is advantageous to have a rewritable format capable of digital video data speeds, while being removable and inexpensive. Another benefit to using a rewritable disc is, if the burning process produces errors or corrupted data, it can be written over again, corrected.
The DVD-R format was developed by Pioneer in 1997. It is approved by the DVD Forum, it has broader playback compatibility than the “+” with much older players. The dash format uses a “land pre-pit” method to provide ‘sector’ address information. DVD “minus” R is not correct, according to DVD-R consortium recommendations. DVD-R and DVD+R technologies are not directly compatible, which created a format war in the DVD technology industry. To reconcile the two competing formats, manufacturers created hybrid drives that could read both — most hybrid drives that handle both formats are labeled DVD±R and Super Multi and are popular. Developed by Philips and Sony with their DVD+RW Alliance; the "plus" format uses a more reliable bi-phase modulation technique to provide'sector' address information. It was introduced after the "-" format; the DVD+R format was developed by a coalition of corporations—now known as the DVD+RW Alliance—in mid-2002. The DVD Forum did not approve of the DVD+R format and claimed that the DVD+R format was not an official DVD format until January 25, 2008.
On 25 January 2008, DVD6C accepted DVD+R and DVD+RW by adding them to its list of licensable DVD products. DVD+RW supports a method of writing called "lossless linking", which makes it suitable for random access and improves compatibility with DVD players; the rewritable DVD+RW standard was formalized earlier than the non-rewritable DVD+R. Although credit for developing the standard is attributed to Philips, it was "finalized" in 1997 by the DVD+RW Alliance, it was abandoned until 2001, when it was revised. As of 2006, the market for recordable DVD technology shows little sign of settling down in favour of either the plus or dash formats, the result of the increasing numbers of dual-format devices that can record to both formats, it has become difficult to find new computer drives that can only record to one of the formats. By contrast, DVD Video recorders still favour one format over the other providing restrictions on what the unfavoured format will do. However, because the DVD-R format has been in use since 1997, it has had a five-year lead on DVD+R.
As such, older or cheaper DVD players are more to favour the DVD-R standard exclusively. DVD+R discs must be formatted before being recorded by a compatible DVD video recorder. DVD-R do not have to be formatted before being recorded by a compatible DVD video recorder, because the two variants of the discs are written in different formats. There are a number of significant technical differences between the “dash” and the “plus” format, although most users would not notice the difference. One example is that the DVD+R style address in pregroove system of tracking and speed control is less susceptible to interference and error, which makes the ADIP system more accurate at higher speeds than the land pre pit system used by DVD-R. In addition, DVD+R has a more robust error-management system than DVD-R, allowing for more accurate burning to media, independent of the quality of the media; the practical upshot is