People's Television Network
Peoples Television Network, Inc. is the flagship government television network owned by the Philippine Government under the helm of the Presidential Communications Office. Its head office and transmitter are located at Broadcast Complex, Visayas Avenue, Barangay Vasra, the countrys government television network began operations in April 1974 as Government Television through the National Media Production Center. The government channel was first headed by Lito Gorospe and by the then-Press Secretary during the Marcos administration, by then, it began expanding with the opening of provincial stations nationwide, including 2 stations in Cebu and Bacolod who once owned by pre-martial law ABS-CBN. It became the network for the broadcasts of the 1988 Summer Olympics along with RPN. On March 26,1992, President Cory Aquino signed Republic Act 7306 turning PTV Network into a government corporation known formally as Peoples Television Network, Inc. Shortly after he took over the mantle of government in June 1992, the Network was given a one-time equity funding for capital outlay.
Since 1992, PTV has been operating on revenues it generates on its own, Republic Act 7306 stipulates that the government shall not appropriate funds for the operations of the Network. PTNI is on full satellite transmission nationwide since 1992 using PALAPA C2 and its flagship station PTV-4, which is based in Quezon City, boasts of a 40-kilowatt brand-new transmitter sitting on a 500 ft tower. With its 32 provincial stations across the country, the network has extended its reach and it has, to its name, several pioneering and award-winning educational and public service programs for their relevance and production excellence. In 1996, PTV won the award for Best TV Station ID in the PMPC Star Awards for Television, PTNI has pioneered educational and cultural programming. Some of its programs were Tele-aralan ng Kakayahan, Ating Alamin, Small World Kidsongs, For Arts Sake, Coast to Coast. PTNI has been the broadcaster of major international sports competitions. It has covered the Olympic Games, starting with the 1988 Olympic Games in Seoul, except Barcelona Olympics in 1992, the Beijing Olympics in 2008, London Olympics in 2012, during these coverage, PTNI has received commendations from various sports organizations.
In 1996, it received a citation from President Fidel V. Ramos for the successful coverage of the Atlanta Olympic Games. On July 16,2001, under the new management appointed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, PTNI adopted the new image, One Vision. for a new image in line with its new programming thrusts, they continued the new name until the Aquino administration in 2010. NBN expanded its broadcast reach with the launching of NBN World on February 19,2003 in cooperation with the Television and this global expansion signals new directions for NBN as it becomes accessible to the rest of the world, particularly the millions of Filipinos overseas. NBN can be seen in Australia, North America and the Asia-Pacific, NBN is previously transmitting via satellite nationwide using Agila 2 moved to ABS1 last September 2011. Also, a new Harris Transmitter has been installed, nBNs transmitter power shall be increased from 40 kW to 60 kW
Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation
Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation is a Philippine-based media company and VHF television network of the Government Communications Group under the Presidential Communications Operations Office. Its studios are located at Broadcast City, Capitol Hills, Diliman and it is one of two government-owned and controlled television stations in the country. The owner of San Miguel Corporation, the station had relay transmitters to bring its programs to viewers in Cebu and Davao. American Dick Baldwin was the stations first owner, and programming first consisted of foreign programs from CBS. Andres would only acquire the channel in 1962, after the declaration of Martial Law, ABS-CBN veteran Ben Aniceto took over the station manager post of Channel 13 from 1973–1976. Benedicto, who purchased the network consisting of the Manila station and other stations in Cebu. IBC opened its FM station DWKB-FM the same year, marking the relaunch, the network debuted its vinta logo, which would be used until 1978 in two iterations.
In 1976, IBC metamorphosed into one of the countrys most viewed TV network with its lineup and full length local. This catapulted IBC in the number one slot among 4 rival networks, the complex was a 55,000 square metre tract located at Capitol Hills, Quezon City. After the EDSA Revolution, IBC, with 20 television stations that time, was sequestered by the government, a board of administrators was created to run the station. All of the stocks and assets of IBC, and its sister networks RPN-9, President Corazon Aquino turned over IBC and RPN to the Government Communications Group and awarded BBC through an executive order to ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation. When BBC closed down, IBC absorbed majority of its displaced employees, cost of programs went up three-fold. Line-produced shows and co-production ventures with some big companies like Viva, Regal. The top rated shows of IBC were pirated by rival networks, cost of programs, talent fees and TV rights increased tremendously. IBC could no longer afford to produce its own shows, in 1987, IBC was renamed as E13 and its slogan Life Begins at 13 noted for the butterfly logo in the form of the letter E and the number 13.
In 1989, E13 was renamed back as IBC, IBC took on a new image at the same year, Pusong Pinoy, Pusong Trese, to recapture the glory days it once had. But because of the sequestration, periodic change of management and the internal problems, the network started to lose the support from its advertisers. Islands Broadcast Corporation under Mr. Alfonso Denoga and Mr. Gil Balaguer took over the management and the marketing of IBC in October 1990 and it was in the part of its operations that ratings and income suffered due to mismanagement which caused labor unrest
1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan, Brazil, Uruguay and the Philippines. Service began experimentally during 2005 and commercially on April 1,2006 and its use in Brazil was established in late 2007, with a slight difference from the Japanese counterpart, it is broadcast under a 30 frame/s transmission setting. The ISDB-T system uses the UHF band at frequencies between 470 and 770 MHz, giving a total bandwidth 300 MHz, the bandwidth is divided into fifty name channels 13 through 62. Each channel is 6 MHz wide consisting of a 5.57 MHz wide signalling band, each of these channels is further divided into 13 segments, each with 428 kHz of bandwidth. 1 seg uses a single of these segments to carry the 1seg transport stream, 1seg, like ISDB-T uses QPSK for modulation, with 2/3 forward error correction and 1/4 guard ratio. The total datarate is 416 kbit/s, the television system uses a H. 264/MPEG-4 AVC video stream and a HE-AAC audio stream multiplexed into a MPEG transport stream.
The maximum video resolution is 320x240 pixels, with a bitrate of between 220 and 320 kbit/s. Audio conforms to HE-AAC profile, with a bitrate of 48 to 64 kbit/s, additional data is transmitted using BML and occupies the remaining 10 to 100 kbit/s of bandwidth. Conditional access and copy control are implemented in 1seg broadcasting by the use of Broadcast Flag-like structure contained in the Copy Control Descriptor within the broadcast. The broadcast contents themselves are not encrypted, but the Copy Control information forces the device to encrypt stored recordings, Broadcast Markup Language, is a data-transmission service allowing text to be displayed on a 1seg TV screen. The text contains news, weather forecasts, Earthquake Early Warning, further information can be found through links to content on websites, frequently those belonging to the television station itself. EPG is not included, but transmitted in separate stream, on June 23,2008, broadcaster Tokyo MX officially began using multiple-program arrangement technology to simultaneously broadcast two programs on a single divided segment.
Most 1seg receivers manufactured after September 2008 are compatible with this technology, multiple-program arrangement in 1seg is named as 1seg2 or Oneseg2. NHK Educational TV and Nara Television are started for several number of programs, until the end of March 2008, Japanese regulation required that the programs on 1seg were fundamentally the same as those broadcast on the equivalent HDTV channel. On April 1 the regulation was revised, and experimental programs by 1seg or third parties have begun airing on several stations, on January 16,2008, JEITA released their monthly shipping survey showing approx. 4.806 million mobile phones were sold in Japan in November 2007,3.054 million phones,63. 5% of the total, can receive 1seg broadcasts. In the fiscal year of 2007, on average 45% of mobile phones had 1seg reception capability out of the 22.284 million units sold, the percent increased from 26. 8% in April 2007 to 64. 2% at end of fiscal year March 2008. Car navigation system Sanyo One-seg & car navigation system and more, handheld game console 1seg PSP-2000 Tuner Nintendo DS Portable devices Set top box Others Sony Walkman NW-A919 Kodak 3-inch OLED TV and more
The display resolution or display modes of a digital television, computer monitor or display device is the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. It is usually quoted as width × height, with the units in pixels, for example,1024 ×768 means the width is 1024 pixels and this example would normally be spoken as ten twenty-four by seven sixty-eight or ten twenty-four by seven six eight. A consequence of having a display is that, for multi-format video inputs. Note that for broadcast television standards the use of the word here is a misnomer. In digital measurement, the resolution would be given in pixels per inch. In analog measurement, if the screen is 10 inches high, in the case of television inputs, many manufacturers will take the input and zoom it out to overscan the display by as much as 5% so input resolution is not necessarily display resolution. The eyes perception of display resolution can be affected by a number of factors – see image resolution, one factor is the display screens rectangular shape, which is expressed as the ratio of the physical picture width to the physical picture height.
This is known as the aspect ratio, a screens physical aspect ratio and the individual pixels aspect ratio may not necessarily be the same. An array of 1280 ×720 on a 16,9 display has square pixels, an example of pixel shape affecting resolution or perceived sharpness, displaying more information in a smaller area using a higher resolution makes the image much clearer or sharper. Most television display manufacturers overscan the pictures on their displays, so that the effective on-screen picture may be reduced from 720 ×576 to 680 ×550, the size of the invisible area somewhat depends on the display device. HD televisions do this as well, to a similar extent, Computer displays including projectors generally do not overscan although many models allow it. CRT displays tend to be underscanned in stock configurations, to compensate for the distortions at the corners. As of July 2002,1024 ×768 eXtended Graphics Array was the most common display resolution, many web sites and multimedia products were re-designed from the previous 800 ×600 format to the layouts optimized for 1024 ×768.
The availability of inexpensive LCD monitors has made the 5,4 aspect ratio resolution of 1280 ×1024 more popular for desktop usage during the first decade of the 21st century. Many computer users including CAD users, graphic artists and video game players ran their computers at 1600 ×1200 resolution or higher such as 2048 ×1536 QXGA if they had the necessary equipment. A new more-than-HD resolution of 2560 ×1600 WQXGA was released in 30-inch LCD monitors in 2007, as of March 2012,1366 ×768 was the most common display resolution. In 2010, 27-inch LCD monitors with the 2560 × 1440-pixel resolution were released by manufacturers including Apple. Panels for professional environments, such as use and air traffic control
Presidential Communications Group (Philippines)
The Groups other role is to help Filipinos understand government policies and programs, and to shore up support for them. The Presidential Spokesperson speaks in behalf of the President on matters of public interest, the Presidential Spokesperson is not subject to confirmation by the Commission on Appointments, and does not have any specific item or plantilla in government. The Presidential Communications Office is in charge of disseminating the message to private media entities. It exercises supervision and control over state-owned media entities, to ensure the proper, during the administration of Benigno Aquino III, the PCO was named as the Presidential Communications Operations Office. The PCO is headed by the PCO Head with Cabinet rank and it gathers and disseminates information, such as press and photograph releases, and official statements from the Palace, on a daily basis. The PND operates from Sundays to Saturdays,5,00 AM to 7,00 PM and it is headed by a chief editor and is composed of a managing editor and reporters.
Other units, which support the PND are Electronic Data Processing and Monitoring, the PND was conceived by Francisco Tatad, who was the Press Secretary to President Ferdinand Marcos. It was called the Central Desk and was located in the Mabini Building, during the administration of President Corazon C. Aquino, Press Secretary Benigno Teodoro relegated the Central Desk, which became the News and Reportorial Section, under the Ramos administration, Press Secretary Rodolfo Reyes strengthened presidential coverage and set up the PND. The Philippine Information Agency, established through Executive Order No,100, is the main development communication arm of the government. It is under the Presidential Communications Operations Office and it is currently headed by Harold E. Clavite and Gregorio Angelo C. Villar assisted by Staff Directors in the Central Office, Regional Directors in the Regional Offices, the Bureau of Communication Services is the attached agency of the PCOO that is tasked to provide materials and services related to various functions of the Presidency, PCOO and the general public.
It produces materials for state events such as the anniversary of the People Power Revolution, Araw ng Kalayaan celebrations. Director IV John S. Manalili is the Bureaus current director, IBC-13 and RPN-9 were sequestered by the government after the fall of the Marcos dictatorship. However, plans are being made to privatize IBC-13 and RPN-9 within two years to raise money, according to the 2009 report of the Presidential Commission on Good Government, IBC-13 is valued at PHP3.074 billion while RPN-9 is valued at PHP1.3 billion. The National Printing Office was established by Executive Order, Executive Order 285 abolished the General Services Administration and transferred its functions to other agencies. Its Government Printing Offices were merged with the units of the PIA. The NPO is mandated by Executive Order 285 to print forms, official ballots, public documents and it is partly responsible for the feedback mechanism of the President wherein it receives the comments and suggestions through the Contact Us section of the Presidents website
Nine Media Corporation
Nine Media Corporation is a Filipino-based media company. It owns and operates television network CNN Philippines, as well as the 34% minority share of former state-owned media giant Radio Philippines Network, Solar Entertainment launched Solar TV in the early 2000s, which was renamed to Solar USA and to USA. USA was split into two channels, Jack TV and Crime/Suspense, in 2005, Solar TV launched last November 28,2009 on RPN at 11, 00am with a slogan Its A Bright New World. In October 31,2010, it changed some of its content to English/Tagalog with a new slogan Kung Saan Lahat Panalo. The new company launched an all talk/news channel Talk TV in March 2,2011, co-owned by Solar TV itself, Talk TV would change its name to Solar News Channel on October 30,2012. In the last quarter of 2011, Solar TV launched its own news division Solar News, the programs produced by the new division were manned by former ANC personalities including Jing Magsaysay, Pia Hontiveros, Nancy Irlanda, Claire Celdran and Mai Rodriguez.
Several of its hired reporters include some from RPNs NewsWatch, Quiogue suddenly died on May 31, a few days prior to assuming his position. In November 2013, San Miguel Corp, President and COO Ramon S. Ang personally tried to acquire the majority stake of STVNI from the Tiengs. Despite the new development, he would settle instead for a minority share of STVNI in September 2014, tieng resigned as the chairman of the network due to health reasons. The selloff of STVNI was caused by Solar Entertainments loss of revenue after investing RPN, Solar TV reflected the change of ownership by reverting all non-SNC channels and assets back to Solar Entertainment, followed by shedding off the Solar branding in all SNCs programs. The transfer was completed when SNC was finally rebranded into 9TV on August 23,2014, CNN Philippines was launched on March 16,2015. In September 2015, Nine Media Corporation President and CEO Reggie Galura was stepped down from his position
Program and System Information Protocol
PSIP defines virtual channels and content ratings, as well as electronic program guides with titles and descriptions to be decoded and displayed by the ATSC tuner. PSIP can send, the exact time referenced to UTC and GPS time, the short name, a maximum of seven characters can be used in a short name. PSIP is defined in ATSC standard A/65, the most recent revision of which is A/65,2013, a/69 is a recommended practice for implementing PSIP in a television station. PSIP supersedes the A/55 and A/56 protocol methods of delivering program guide information, PSIP information may be passed through the airchain using proprietary protocols or through use of the XML-based Programming Metadata Communication Protocol facility metadata scheme. S
Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio. In an analog television broadcast, the brightness and sound are represented by variations of either the amplitude. Analog signals vary over a range of possible values which means that electronic noise. So with analog, a weak signal becomes snowy and subject to interference. In contrast, a moderately weak signal and a very strong digital signal transmit equal picture quality. Analog television may be wireless or can be distributed over a network using cable converters. All broadcast television systems preceding digital transmission of digital television used analog signals, analog television around the world has been in the process of shutting down since the late 2000s. The earliest systems were mechanical systems which used spinning disks with patterns of holes punched into the disc to scan an image. A similar disk reconstructed the image at the receiver, synchronization of the receiver disc rotation was handled through sync pulses broadcast with the image information.
However these mechanical systems were slow, the images were dim and flickered severely, camera systems used similar spinning discs and required intensely bright illumination of the subject for the light detector to work. Analog television did not really begin as an industry until the development of the cathode-ray tube, the electron beam could be swept across the screen much faster than any mechanical disc system, allowing for more closely spaced scan lines and much higher image resolution. Also far less maintenance was required of an all-electronic system compared to a spinning disc system, all-electronic systems became popular with households after the Second World War. Broadcasters using analog television systems encode their signal using different systems, the official systems of transmission are named, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, K1, L, M and N. These systems determine the number of lines, channel width, vision bandwidth, vision-sound separation, each frame of a television image is composed of lines drawn on the screen.
The lines are of varying brightness, the set of lines is drawn quickly enough that the human eye perceives it as one image. The next sequential frame is displayed, allowing the depiction of motion, the analog television signal contains timing and synchronization information, so that the receiver can reconstruct a two-dimensional moving image from a one-dimensional time-varying signal. The first commercial systems were black-and-white, the beginning of color television was in the 1950s. A practical television system needs to take luminance, chrominance and audio signals, the transmission system must include a means of television channel selection
Ultra high frequency
Ultra high frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 MHz and 3 GHz, known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimetre. Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the SHF or microwave frequency range, lower frequency signals fall into the VHF or lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate mainly by line of sight, they are blocked by hills, the IEEE defines the UHF radar band as frequencies between 300 MHz and 1 GHz. Two other IEEE radar bands overlap the ITU UHF band, the L band between 1 and 2 GHz and the S band between 2 and 4 GHz. Radio waves in the UHF band travel almost entirely by propagation and ground reflection, there is very little reflection from the ionosphere. They are blocked by hills and cannot travel far beyond the horizon, atmospheric moisture reduces, or attenuates, the strength of UHF signals over long distances, and the attenuation increases with frequency. UHF TV signals are generally more degraded by moisture than lower bands, occasionally when conditions are right, UHF radio waves can travel long distances by tropospheric ducting as the atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day.
The length of an antenna is related to the length of the radio waves used, the UHF antenna is stubby and short, at UHF frequencies a quarter-wave monopole, the most common omnidirectional antenna is between 2.5 and 25 cm long for example. UHF is widely used in telephones, cell phones, walkie-talkies and other two-way radio systems from short range up to the visual horizon. Their transmissions do not travel far, allowing frequency reuse, public safety, business communications and personal radio services such as GMRS, PMR446, and UHF CB are often found on UHF frequencies as well as IEEE802.11 wireless LANs. The widely adapted GSM and UMTS cellular networks use UHF cellular frequencies, radio repeaters are used to retransmit UHF signals when a distance greater than the line of sight is required. Omnidirectional UHF antennas used on mobile devices are usually short whips, higher gain omnidirectional UHF antennas can be made of collinear arrays of dipoles and are used for mobile base stations and cellular base station antennas.
The short wavelengths allow high gain antennas to be conveniently small, high gain antennas for point-to-point communication links and UHF television reception are usually Yagi, log periodic, corner reflectors, or reflective array antennas. At the top end of the band slot antennas and parabolic dishes become practical, for television broadcasting specialized vertical radiators that are mostly modifications of the slot antenna or helical antenna are used, the slotted cylinder, zig-zag, and panel antennas. UHF television broadcasting fulfilled the demand for additional over-the-air television channels in urban areas, much of the bandwidth has been reallocated to land mobile, trunked radio and mobile telephone use. UHF channels are used for digital television. UHF spectrum is used worldwide for mobile radio systems for commercial, public safety. Many personal radio services use frequencies allocated in the UHF band, major telecommunications providers have deployed voice and data cellular networks in UHF/VHF range
Antipolo, or the City of Antipolo is a city in the province of Rizal, Philippines located 26 kilometres east of Manila. It is the capital of Rizal, the most-populous city in the CALABARZON region. Antipolo was converted from a municipality into a component city of Rizal Province on April 4,1998, with the transfer of the provincial government to Antipolo, it is highly favored to be officially designated as the new capital of the province. On March 14,2011, Antipolo was declared a city by President Benigno Aquino. The city is popular for being a pilgrimage site and it prides itself as the Pilgrimage Capital of the Philippines. A popular custom of pilgrims to the Virgin of Antipolo is the going to its shrine on the eves of Good Friday and May 1, from various locations in Rizal Province. The most notable of these pilgrims would begin the trek from the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene, in Quiapo, there is an existing custom to have new cars blessed at the church in the belief that this will ensure the safety of the car and its passengers.
Its higher elevation than that of Metro Manila affords it a view of the metropolis. Its locally grown mangoes and cashews are popular among tourists, as well as suman – a local delicacy made out of glutinous rice, the Hinulugang Taktak National Park, which was once a popular summer get-away is being restored to become again one of the citys primary attractions. Antipolo is in the half of Rizal Province, close to its meridional center. It is found on the slopes of the Sierra Madre Mountain Range, much of the city sits on a plateau averaging 200 meters. It has the second largest area in the province with an area of 156.68 km², the northern and southern sections of the city are in the dense forest areas of the Sierra Madre. Antipolo is landlocked, bounded to the north by San Mateo and Rodriguez, to the east by Tanay, to the south by Angono and Teresa, and to the west by Cainta and Marikina City in Metro Manila. The Bitukang Manok of Pasig, known as the Parian Creek, had linked the Marikina River with the Antipolo River.
Dela Paz, thus being the detached and long-abandoned Antipolo River, even the marian processions of the Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage passed this route back and forth eleven times. But ironically, the Sepoys backstabbed their abusive British lieutenants and sided with the forces of the Spanish Conquistadors, local rice farmers, fisherfolk. After the British Invasion, the Sepoys remained and intermarried with Filipina women, the city was named after the tipolo tree, which was in abundance in the area. Franciscan missionaries arrived in Antipolo in 1578, and built a church on what is now Boso-Boso Church