Ultra high frequency
Ultra high frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz and 3 gigahertz known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one tenth of a meter. Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the super-high frequency or microwave frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate by line of sight, they are used for television broadcasting, cell phones, satellite communication including GPS, personal radio services including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, walkie-talkies, cordless phones, numerous other applications. The IEEE defines the UHF radar band as frequencies between 1 GHz. Two other IEEE radar bands overlap the ITU UHF band: the L band between 1 and 2 GHz and the S band between 2 and 4 GHz. Radio waves in the UHF band travel entirely by line-of-sight propagation and ground reflection. UHF radio waves are blocked by hills and cannot travel far beyond the horizon, but can penetrate foliage and buildings for indoor reception.
Since the wavelengths of UHF waves are comparable to the size of buildings, trees and other common objects and diffraction from these objects can cause fading due to multipath propagation in built-up urban areas. Atmospheric moisture reduces, or attenuates, the strength of UHF signals over long distances, the attenuation increases with frequency. UHF TV signals are more degraded by moisture than lower bands, such as VHF TV signals. Since UHF transmission is limited by the visual horizon to 30–40 miles and to shorter distances by local terrain, it allows the same frequency channels to be reused by other users in neighboring geographic areas. Public safety, business communications and personal radio services such as GMRS, PMR446, UHF CB are found on UHF frequencies as well as IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. The adopted GSM and UMTS cellular networks use UHF cellular frequencies. Radio repeaters are used to retransmit UHF signals when a distance greater than the line of sight is required; when conditions are right, UHF radio waves can travel long distances by tropospheric ducting as the atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day.
The length of an antenna is related to the length of the radio waves used. Due to the short wavelengths, UHF antennas are conveniently short. UHF wavelengths are short enough that efficient transmitting antennas are small enough to mount on handheld and mobile devices, so these frequencies are used for two way land mobile radio systems, such as walkie-talkies, two way radios in vehicles, for portable wireless devices. Omnidirectional UHF antennas used on mobile devices are short whips, sleeve dipoles, rubber ducky antennas or the planar inverted F antenna used in cellphones. Higher gain omnidirectional UHF antennas can be made of collinear arrays of dipoles and are used for mobile base stations and cellular base station antennas; the short wavelengths allow high gain antennas to be conveniently small. High gain antennas for point-to-point communication links and UHF television reception are Yagi, log periodic, corner reflectors, or reflective array antennas. At the top end of the band slot antennas and parabolic dishes become practical.
For satellite communication and turnstile antennas are used since satellites employ circular polarization, not sensitive to the relative orientation of the transmitting and receiving antennas. For television broadcasting specialized vertical radiators that are modifications of the slot antenna or reflective array antenna are used: the slotted cylinder, zig-zag, panel antennas. UHF television broadcasting fulfilled the demand for additional over-the-air television channels in urban areas. Today, much of the bandwidth has been reallocated to land mobile, trunked radio and mobile telephone use. UHF channels are still used for digital television. UHF spectrum is used worldwide for land mobile radio systems for commercial, public safety, military purposes. Many personal radio services use frequencies allocated in the UHF band, although exact frequencies in use differ between countries. Major telecommunications providers have deployed voice and data cellular networks in UHF/VHF range; this allows mobile phones and mobile computing devices to be connected to the public switched telephone network and public Internet.
UHF radars are said to be effective at tracking stealth fighters, if not stealth bombers. UHF citizens band: 476–477 MHz Television broadcasting uses UHF channels between 503 and 694 MHz Fixed point-to-point Link 450.4875 - 451.5125 MHz Land mobile service 457.50625 - 459.9875 MHz Mobile satellite service: 406.0000 - 406.1000 MHz Segment and Service examples: Land mobile for private, Australian and Territory Government, Rail industry and Mobile-Satellite 430–450 MHz: Amateur radio 470–806 MHz: Terrestrial television 1452–1492 MHz: Digital Audio Broadcasting Many other frequency assignments for Canada and Mexico are similar to their US counterparts 380–399.9 MHz: Terrestrial Trunked Radio service for emergency use 430–440 MHz: Amateur ra
Aspect ratio (image)
The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height. It is expressed as two numbers separated by a colon, as in 16:9. For an x:y aspect ratio, no matter how big or small the image is, if the width is divided into x units of equal length and the height is measured using this same length unit, the height will be measured to be y units. For example, in a group of images that all have an aspect ratio of 16:9, one image might be 16 inches wide and 9 inches high, another 16 centimeters wide and 9 centimeters high, a third might be 8 yards wide and 4.5 yards high. Thus, aspect ratio concerns the relationship of the width to the height, not an image's actual size; the most common aspect ratios used today in the presentation of films in cinemas are 1.85:1 and 2.39:1. Two common videographic aspect ratios are 4:3, the universal video format of the 20th century, 16:9, universal for high-definition television and European digital television. Other cinema and video aspect ratios are used infrequently.
In still camera photography, the most common aspect ratios are 4:3, 3:2, more found in consumer cameras, 16:9. Other aspect ratios, such as 5:3, 5:4, 1:1, are used in photography as well in medium format and large format. With television, DVD and Blu-ray Disc, converting formats of unequal ratios is achieved by enlarging the original image to fill the receiving format's display area and cutting off any excess picture information, by adding horizontal mattes or vertical mattes to retain the original format's aspect ratio, by stretching the image to fill the receiving format's ratio, or by scaling by different factors in both directions scaling by a different factor in the center and at the edges. In motion picture formats, the physical size of the film area between the sprocket perforations determines the image's size; the universal standard is a frame, four perforations high. The film itself is 35 mm wide, but the area between the perforations is 24.89 mm × 18.67 mm, leaving the de facto ratio of 4:3, or 1.3:1.
With a space designated for the standard optical soundtrack, the frame size reduced to maintain an image, wider than tall, this resulted in the Academy aperture of 22 mm × 16 mm or 1.375:1 aspect ratio. The motion picture industry convention assigns a value of 1.0 to the image's height. After 1952, a number of aspect ratios were experimented with for anamorphic productions, including 2.66:1 and 2.55:1. A SMPTE specification for anamorphic projection from 1957 standardized the aperture to 2.35:1. An update in 1970 changed the aspect ratio to 2.39:1. This aspect ratio of 2.39:1 was confirmed by the most recent revision from August 1993. In American cinemas, the common projection ratios are 1.85:1 and 2.39:1. Some European countries have 1.6:1 as the wide screen standard. The "Academy ratio" of 1.375:1 was used for all cinema films in the sound era until 1953. During that time, which had a similar aspect ratio of 1.3:1, became a perceived threat to movie studios. Hollywood responded by creating a large number of wide-screen formats: CinemaScope, Todd-AO, VistaVision to name just a few.
The "flat" 1.85:1 aspect ratio was introduced in May 1953, became one of the most common cinema projection standards in the U. S. and elsewhere. The goal of these various lenses and aspect ratios was to capture as much of the frame as possible, onto as large an area of the film as possible, in order to utilize the film being used; some of the aspect ratios were chosen to utilize smaller film sizes in order to save film costs while other aspect ratios were chosen to use larger film sizes in order to produce a wider higher resolution image. In either case the image was squeezed horizontally to fit the film's frame size and avoid any unused film area. Development of various film camera systems must cater to the placement of the frame in relation to the lateral constraints of the perforations and the optical soundtrack area. One clever wide screen alternative, VistaVision, used standard 35 mm film running sideways through the camera gate, so that the sprocket holes were above and below frame, allowing a larger horizontal negative size per frame as only the vertical size was now restricted by the perforations.
There were a limited number of projectors constructed to run the print-film horizontally. However, the 1.50:1 ratio of the initial VistaVision image was optically converted to a vertical print to show with the standard projectors available at theaters, was masked in the projector to the US standard of 1.85:1. The format was revived by Lucasfilm in the late 1970s for special effects work that required larger negative size, it went into obsolescence due to better cameras and film stocks available to standard four-perforation formats, in addition to increased lab costs of making prints in comparison to more standard vertical processes. Super 16 mm film was used for televisi
BEAM Channel 31 is the flagship television station of Broadcast Enterprises and Affiliated Media, Inc. in the Philippines. Its transmitter is located at Palos Verdes Subdivision, Brgy Sta. Cruz, Sumulong Highway, Antipolo City, province of Rizal. On October 31, 1993, Radio Mindanao Network became the second radio-based network to launch a TV station called Cinema Television 31 through its flagship station, DWKC-TV. An all-movie channel, its programming included a presentation of Filipino and Hollywood movies and programs from E!, an American cable channel. It is the first UHF station to be inspired by the format of a cable movie channel; the station once clinched a top spot for its TV ratings in all UHF stations. However, because of the broadcasting rules assigned by National Telecommunications Commission and the matter that they acquired the broadcast rights from E!, CTV-31 stopped its broadcast in September 2000. In October 2000, E! and RMN announced its partnership to relaunch CTV into E! Philippines 31, with its broadcasting extended into 24 hours.
But in 2003, it reduced its broadcasts into 6 primetime-hours, from 6:00 PM to 12:00 MN. Some of E!'s programs were brought to the Philippines and remade in a local version, one of, Wild On! Philippines; however on June 1, 2003, RMN decided to cease their operations on TV due to financial constraints and poor television ratings, somehow to focus only on their 2 radio networks. There were several religious groups who had wished to acquire block programming of E! Philippines, but RMN refused to accept their offers; some programs of E! were broadcast to QTV via E! on Q, ETC, Solar News Channel, Velvet. Since July 2011, E! has been available on most major cable/satellite systems in the Philippines distributed by Universal Networks International. After eight years of inactivity on television service, on July 3, 2011, UHF 31 returned its operations as a test broadcast; the station was occupied by Broadcast Enterprises and Affiliated Media, after the latter bought up the acquisition by Bethlehem Holdings, Inc. from RMN.
Under new ownership, BEAM began its affiliation partnership with Solar Entertainment Corporation. The network was branded on July 13 as BEAM Channel 31. On August 15, 2011, it started its initial broadcast carrying The Game Channel. On December 24, 2011, The Game Channel limited its broadcast on daytime sharing with a new programming service called CHASE which takes over the evening block. In February 2012, both services aired a promotion, announcing the split of CHASE and TGC to form themselves as separate channels, which entitled "CHASE goes 24"; the changes took effect on February 15, 2012, when The Game Channel bade goodbye to the viewers after its 7-month run on free TV and became a cable-only channel. On September 7, 2012, Jack TV plugged their announcement thru CHASE programs bearing the title "Another Jack TV is rising, coming soon on this channel"; this indicated. Jack City still does carry some of CHASE's programs however; the full broadcast was initiated on November 11, 2012. On June 28, 2013, Jack City was forced to reduce its Free TV broadcast to 18 hours a day on BEAM in compliance with the National Telecommunications Commission's guidelines.
However, it still continues to air as a cable channel 24 hours a day. On July 16, 2014, the day that Metro Manila was crippled by "Typhoon Glenda", the station became inactive, it was found out that the transmitter located in Palos Verdes in Antipolo City, Rizal received a total damage to some of its facilities done by the said typhoon. As a result, the station shuts down temporarily for another maintenance, continued its telecast on cable networks. Somehow it resumed telecast on August 2014 at 9:00 PM, but still under observation. On September 1, 2014, Jack City ceased its affiliation status on BEAM Channel 31 and its provincial affiliates, as BEAM prepares its ISDB-T digital television. However, Jack City continues to broadcast on pay TV networks until March 21, 2015, when the channel was rebranded as CT a day on March 22, 2015. At the same day, it began using blocktime programs from O Shopping and several programs from TBN Asia along with religious programming produced by the Essential Broadcasting Network under the leadership of Bro.
Greg Durante of Greg Durante Ministries. On November 15, 2014, the channel is carried over SkyCable, Destiny Cable and other Pay TV subscribers, displacing Jack City to a different cable channel assignment, only available for subscribers residing in Metro Manila and neighboring provinces; this makes BEAM available to cable viewers 24 hours a day once again when it took effect four months on March 12, 2015. On March 1, 2015, TV Shop Philippines began airing on this channel in the afternoon, followed by selected Tagalog-dubbed telenovelas carried from the Telenovela Channel on nighttime. On March 9, 2015, the channel added Shop Japan to its programming during morning hours. By March 1, 2016, all of BEAM's programs were split into di
Rizal known as the Province of Rizal, is a province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region, 16 kilometres east of Manila. The province is named after one of the main national heroes of the Philippines. Rizal is bordered by Metro Manila to the west, Bulacan to the north, Quezon to the east and Laguna to the southeast; the province lies on the northern shores of Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. Rizal is a mountainous province perched on the western slopes of the southern portion of the Sierra Madre mountain range; the provincial capital of Rizal is situated in Antipolo while Pasig, Metro Manila, outside the jurisdiction of the province, is the official capital. Tagalog settlement arrived some time in the pre-Spanish period; the provincial territory began with the organization of the Tondo province and Laguna province during the Spanish administration. Some of the towns like Pasig, Parañaque and Cainta were thriving. From the reports of the Encomiendas in 1582-1583, the Encomiendas of Moron was under the jurisdiction of La Laguna and, the Encomiendas of Passi and Tagui belonged to the Province of Tondo.
It was recorded that in 1591, the Encomiendas of Moron and Taitay were under the jurisdiction of the Franciscan Order in the Province of La Laguna. In 1853 a new political subdivision was formed; this consisted of the towns of Antipolo, Bosoboso and Taytay from the Province of Tondo. This district was changed to Distrito Politico-Militar de Morong after four years. In 1860, by virtue of Circular No. 83, dated September 1859, the Province of Tondo became the Province of Manila. All its towns were placed under the administration, fiscal supervision and control of the Governor of the new province; the town of Mariquina became the capital of the Province of Manila during the tenure of the revolutionary government of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo; the Province of Morong had for its capital the town of Antipolo for the period 1898-1899, the town of Tanay for 1899-1900. On February 6, 1901, the First Philippine Commission sought to establish civil government in the country through a provincial organization act after the Filipino-Spanish and Filipino-American conflicts.
Therefore, on June 5, 1901, a historic meeting was held at the Pasig Catholic Church for the organization of a civil government in the Provinces of Manila and Morong, with 221 delegates in attendance. The first Philippine Commission, headed by William Howard Taft and composed of Commissioners Luke E. Wright, Henry C. Ide, Bernard Moses and Dean C. Worcester, discussed with the Assembly the issue of whether or not to write the Province of Manila with Morong Province, was not self-sufficient to operate as a separate province. Although the delegates from Morong, Hilarion Raymundo and José Tupas, objected to the proposal, Juan Sumulong of Antipolo advocated the move. After much acrimonious debate and upon the suggestion of Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera the body agreed on the creation of a new province independent of the Province of Manila; the new province was aptly named after the country's national hero. On June 11, 1901, the province of Rizal was and created by virtue of an Act No. 137 by the First Philippine Commission which during the time was acting as the unicameral legislative body in the island of Luzon.
The new province was composed of 17 from the old Province of Manila. The City of Manila from the old Province of Manila was treated as a separate entity; the seat of the provincial government was Pasig. In year 1939, Quezon City was established, which included parts of Caloocan, on, Novaliches and parts of Marikina and San Juan towns. During World War II, Japanese fighter and bomber planes rained explosives on the province in December 1941. Japanese Imperial troops invaded Rizal in 1942 at the onset of the Japanese Occupation; the establishment of the General Headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary went the military stationed in Rizal from January 3, 1942 to June 30, 1946 against the Japanese Occupation. Many Rizaleños organised themselves into a resistance movement, grouped in some places as the Hunters ROTC and the Marking's Filipino-American Troops in guerrilla camps in the province's mountains; the guerrilla forces aided Filipino soldiers in the Philippine Commonwealth Army and American troops in fighting the Japanese troops.
The local military unit of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active from January 3, 1942 to June 30, 1946, while the local unit of the Philippine Constabulary was active from October 28, 1944 to June 30, 1946. United States forces had liberated parts of Luzon by January 1945. During the Allied Liberation that lasted until August that year, the combined U. S. and Philippine Commonwealth military ground troops aided the local Rizaleño Hunters ROTC and MFAT. Through Presidential Decree № 824, Rizal was partitioned on 7 Nov
Southern Broadcasting Network
Southern Broadcasting Network, Inc. is a Filipino-owned media company based radio and television network based in Metro Manila. SBN is a subsidiary of Solar Entertainment Corporation, a Filipino-owned television company managed by the Tieng family, its main broadcast facilities are located at the Third Floor, Worldwide Corporate Center, EDSA corner Shaw Boulevard, Mandaluyong City with office located at 22/F Strata 2000 Building, F. Ortigas Jr. Road, Ortigas Center, Pasig City. SBN was founded by Gem Communications Holdings Corporation majority owned by Filipino-Chinese tycoon Lucio Co, founder of supermarket chain Puregold Price Club Inc. with 97% share. Leonardo B. Dayao and Teofilo A. Henson served as President of SBN, respectively; the Davao-based broadcast company launched DWCP-TV channel 21, becoming the first local UHF TV station in Metro Manila starting May 30, 1992. It was known as World TV 21, operated by the Kampana Television Corporation, providing programming content from ABC, ESPN and CNN on this channel.
On September 7, 1995, in accordance to current constitutional rules, SBN's franchise was approved as Republic Act No. 8147 by the Philippine Congress, yet without the president's approval. In 2000, SBN started airing Ang Dating Daan after transferring from PTV, as well as informative and educational programs and the most notable program during the network's popularity, SBN Music Videos, which it evolved into a videoke oriented program SBN 21 Live. In 2001, the Iglesia ni Cristo launched its own program, Ang Tamang Daan, as a direct response to Ang Dating Daan, featuring video footages and recordings of ADD hosts as issues were tackled. Over time the animosity between the two groups has intensified, their relationship has been strained; the Quezon City Regional Trial Court on Wednesday ordered televangelist Bro. Eliseo Soriano of Ang Dating Daan to pay the Iglesia ni Cristo, P100,000 in moral damages for libel committed 10 years ago. Branch 92 Judge Eleuterio Bathan directed him to pay a fine of P6,000 each for two counts of libel.
He ruled the elements of libel have been established in the case filed by INC over Soriano’s pronouncement on a television program on April 25, 2003 and the replay on April 27 on the same timeslot during the live program of Ang Dating Daan on SBN. The case stemmed from a complaint filed by members of the Iglesia ni Cristo, including its minister Michael Sandoval, due to statements of Soriano aired on August 10 referring to the minister. By 2004, Ang Dating Daan transferred to UNTV, while Ang Tamang Daan moved to the INC's secular television station Net 25. On January 1, 2008, Solar Entertainment Corporation began to lease airtime on SBN, choosing to broadcast programming from its entertainment channel ETC. Months prior to the deal, SkyCable stated that they would offer less "redundant" programming and feature more series that had never been aired in the country before, but reports surfaced that channels operated by Solar were pulled due to a dispute; the new blocktime deal between SBN, Radio Philippines Network, Rajah Broadcasting Network, Solar is said to be a part of the latter's retaliation to Sky.
In mid-2010, GemCom sold all of its 97% equity share in SBN to Solar Entertainment for Php 368.8 million. Since SBN became a owned subsidiary of Solar; when Solar Entertainment's former channel Solar TV expanded as a broadcast television company, after Solar acquired a 34% majority stake of RPN, ETC was transferred to RPN. Meanwhile, SBN and Solar created news and talk channel Talk TV, with both parties enjoying a 50% share of the channel; the newly created channel conducted its test broadcast until March 31, 2011, with full operation commenced on April 1, 2011. By January 16, 2012, Talk TV became the first home of Solar News; the first local news event covered was the Renato Corona impeachment trial. On October 30, Talk TV was relaunched as the Solar News Channel. Though it was claimed as "the first 24-hour English news channel on free-to-air TV", SBN never materialized SNC's slogan. On December 1, 2013, Solar News Channel moved to RPN to allow SNC's wider coverage, while ETC returned to SBN a day before.
In October 2015, SBN through Estima Inc. revived the Mom's Radio network. ^ - DXSS is considered to be the pioneer FM radio station in Davao City and the Mindanao region, where its first broadcast happened in 1977. ETC official website Asean Media: SBN
Digital terrestrial television
Digital terrestrial television is a technology for broadcast television in which land-based television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format. DTTV is a major technological advance over the previous analog television, has replaced analog, in common use since the middle of the 20th century. Test broadcasts began in 1998 with the changeover to DTTV beginning in 2006 and is now complete in many countries; the advantages of digital terrestrial television are similar to those obtained by digitising platforms such as cable TV, telecommunications: more efficient use of limited radio spectrum bandwidth, provision of more television channels than analog, better quality images, lower operating costs for broadcasters. Different countries have adopted different digital broadcasting standards; the amount of data that can be transmitted is directly affected by channel capacity and the modulation method of the transmission. North America uses the ATSC standard with 8VSB modulation, which has similar characteristics to the vestigial sideband modulation used for analog television.
This provides more immunity to interference, but is not immune to multipath distortion and does not provide for single-frequency network operation. The modulation method in DVB-T is COFDM with either 16-state Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. In general, 64QAM is capable of transmitting a greater bit rate, but is more susceptible to interference. 16 and 64QAM constellations can be combined in a single multiplex, providing a controllable degradation for more important program streams. This is called hierarchical modulation. DVB-T are designed to work in single frequency networks. Developments in video compression have resulted in improvements on the original H.262 MPEG 2 codec, surpassed by H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and more H.265 HEVC. H.264 enables three high-definition television services to be coded into a 24 Mbit/s DVB-T European terrestrial transmission channel. DVB-T2 increases this channel capacity to 40 Mbit/s, allowing more services. DTTV is received either via a digital set-top box, TV gateway or more now an integrated tuner included with television sets, that decodes the signal received via a standard television antenna.
These devices now include digital video recorder functionality. However, due to frequency planning issues, an aerial capable of receiving a different channel group may be required if the DTTV multiplexes lie outside the reception capabilities of the installed aerial; this is quite common in the UK. Indoor aerials are more to be affected by these issues and need replacing. Main articles: List of digital television deployments by country, Digital television transition Afghanistan launched digital transmissions in Kabul using DVB-T2/MPEG-4 on Sunday, 31 August 2014. Test transmissions had commenced on 4 UHF channels at the start of June 2014. Transmitters were provided by GatesAir. Bangladesh had its first DTT service DVB-T2 / MPEG-4 on April 2016 launched by the GS Group; the service is called RealVU. It is done with partnership with Beximco. GS Group acts as a supplier and integrator of its in-house hardware and software solutions for the operator's functioning in accordance with the modern standards of digital television.
RealVu provides more than 100 TV channels in HD quality. The digital TV set-top boxes developed by GS Group offer such functions as PVR and time-shift, along with an EPG. India adopted DVB-T system for digital television in July 1999; the first DVB-T transmission was started on 26 January 2003 in the four major metropolitan cities by Doordarshan. The terrestrial transmission is available in both digital and analog formats. 4 high power DVB-T transmitters were set up in the top 4 cities, which were upgraded to DVB-T2 + MPEG4 and DVB-H standards. An additional 190 high power, 400 low power DVB-T2 transmitters have been approved for Tier I, II and III cities of the country by 2017; the Indian telecom regulator, TRAI, had recommended the I&B to allow private broadcast companies to use the DTT technology, in 2005. So far, the Indian I&B ministry only permits private broadcast companies to use satellite, cable and IPTV based systems; the government's broadcasting organisation Doordarshan had started the free TV service over DVB - T2 to the mobile phone users from February 25 onwards and extended to cover 16 cities including the four metros from April 5, 2016.
Israel started digital transmissions in MPEG-4 on Sunday, August 2, 2009, anal
1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan, Brazil, Uruguay and the Philippines. Service began experimentally during 2005 and commercially on April 1, 2006, it is designed as a component of ISDB-T, the terrestrial digital broadcast system used in those countries, as each channel is divided into 13 segments, with a further segment separating it from the next channel. Its use in Brazil was established in late 2007, with a slight difference from the Japanese counterpart: it is broadcast under a 30 frame/s transmission setting; the ISDB-T system uses the UHF band at frequencies between 470 and 770 MHz, giving a total bandwidth 300 MHz. The bandwidth is divided into fifty name channels 13 through 62; each channel is 6 MHz wide consisting of a 5.57 MHz wide signalling band and a 430 kHz guard band to limit cross channel interference. Each of these channels is further divided each with 428 kHz of bandwidth. 1 seg uses a single of these segments to carry the 1seg transport stream.
1seg, like ISDB-T uses QPSK for modulation, with 2/3 forward 1/4 guard ratio. The total datarate is 416 kbit/s; the television system uses an H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video stream and an HE-AAC audio stream multiplexed into an MPEG transport stream. The maximum video resolution is 320x240 pixels, with a video bitrate of between 320 kbit/s. Audio conforms with a bitrate of 48 to 64 kbit/s. Additional data occupies the remaining 10 to 100 kbit/s of bandwidth. Conditional access and copy control are implemented in 1seg broadcasting by the use of Broadcast Flag-like structure contained in the "Copy Control Descriptor" within the broadcast; the broadcast contents themselves are not encrypted, but the Copy Control information forces the device to encrypt stored recordings and disallows making a copy of the recording. Broadcast Markup Language, is a data-transmission service allowing text to be displayed on a 1seg TV screen; the text contains news, weather forecasts, emergency warnings such as Earthquake Early Warning, etc. free of charge.
Further information can be found through links to content on websites those belonging to the television station itself. EPG transmitted in separate stream. On June 23, 2008, broadcaster Tokyo MX began using multiple-program arrangement technology to broadcast two programs on a single divided segment. Most 1seg receivers manufactured. Multiple-program arrangement in 1seg is named as 1seg2 or Oneseg2. NHK Educational TV and Nara Television are started for several number of programs; until the end of March 2008, Japanese regulation required that the programs on 1seg were fundamentally the same as those broadcast on the equivalent HDTV channel. On April 1 the regulation was revised, experimental programs by 1seg or third parties have begun airing on several stations. On January 16, 2008, JEITA released their monthly shipping survey showing approx. 4.806 million mobile phones were sold in Japan in November 2007. Of these, approx. 3.054 million phones, 63.5% of the total, can receive 1seg broadcasts. In the fiscal year of 2007, on average 45% of mobile phones had 1seg reception capability out of the 22.284 million units sold.
The percent increased from 26.8% in April 2007 to 64.2% at end of fiscal year March 2008. Electronic dictionary Sharp Papyrus PW-TC900 Sharp Papyrus PW-TC920 Sharp Papyrus PW-TC930 Sharp Papyrus PW-TC980 PC connect type Pixela PC Monster TV 1D PC card Type II 1seg receiver by SKNET Cowon D2TV and more. Car navigation system Sanyo One-seg & car navigation system and more. Handheld game console 1seg PSP-2000 Tuner Nintendo DS Portable devices Set top box Others Sony Walkman NW-A919 Kodak 3-inch OLED TV and more. Mobile Phones The first mobile phone handsets able to support 1seg were sold by au by KDDI to consumers in autumn 2005. Today all mobile phones sold in Japan feature a 1seg antenna. Digital terrestrial television DMB - South Korea DVB-H ISDB-T ISDB-T International "TV programs go mobile as One Seg services begin"; the Japan Times. 2006-04-01. Archived from the original on 2008-01-10. ISDB-T, Application and Future, PDF File 1seg official site ACCESS Ginga Edition for 1Seg in Brazil GPS fitted with ISDB-T OneSeg sales grow in Brazil