World Bank Group
The World Bank Group is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries. It is the largest and most famous development bank in the world and is an observer at the United Nations Development Group. The bank is based in Washington, D. C. and provided around $61 billion in loans and assistance to developing, the banks stated mission is to achieve the twin goals of ending extreme poverty and building shared prosperity. Total lending as of 2015 for the last 10 years through Development Policy Financing was approximately $117 billion, the IBRD and IDA provide loans at preferential rates to member countries, as well as grants to the poorest countries. Loans or grants for projects are often linked to wider policy changes in the sector or the countrys economy as a whole. The World Bank has received various criticisms over the years and was tarnished by a scandal with the banks President Paul Wolfowitz and his aide, Shaha Riza, in 2007. The WBG came into existence on 27 December 1945 following international ratification of the Bretton Woods agreements.
It provided the foundation of the Osiander Committee in 1951, commencing operations on 25 June 1946, it approved its first loan on 9 May 1947. All of the 193 UN members and Kosovo that are WBG members participate at a minimum in the IBRD, as of May 2016, all of them participate in some of the other 4 organizations, IDA, IFC, MIGA, ICSID. Together with four affiliated agencies created between 1957 and 1988, the IBRD is part of the World Bank Group, the Groups headquarters are in Washington, D. C. It is an organization owned by member governments, although it makes profits. Membership gives certain voting rights that are the same for all countries, the President of the World Bank is nominated by the President of the United States and elected by the Banks Board of Governors. As of 15 November 2009 the United States held 16. 4% of total votes, Japan 7. 9%, Germany 4. 5%, the United Kingdom 4. 3%, and France 4. 3%. As changes to the Banks Charter require an 85% super-majority, the US can block any change in the Banks governing structure.
The term World Bank generally refers to just the IBRD and IDA, the World Bank Institute is the capacity development branch of the World Bank, providing learning and other capacity-building programs to member countries. The IBRD has 189 member governments, and the institutions have between 153 and 184 members. The institutions of the World Bank Group are all run by a Board of Governors meeting once a year, each member country appoints a governor, generally its Minister of Finance. On a daily basis the World Bank Group is run by a Board of 25 Executive Directors to whom the governors have delegated certain powers, each Director represents either one country, or a group of countries
Eucratides I, sometimes called Eucratides the Great, was one of the most important Greco-Bactrian kings, descendants of dignitaries of Alexander the Great. He uprooted the Euthydemid dynasty of Greco-Bactrian kings and replaced it with his own lineage, Eucratides had a vast and prestigious coinage, suggesting a rule of considerable importance. Eucratides came to the throne by overthrowing the dynasty of Euthydemus I in Bactria, the king whom Eucratides dethroned in Bactria was probably Antimachus I. Laodice may have been a member of the Seleucid imperial house, having become master of Bactria, Eucratides conquered the western parts of the Indo-Greek kingdom. According to the remaining source, Roman historian Justin, Eucratides defeated Demetrius of India. Eucratides led many wars with great courage, while weakened by them, was put under siege by Demetrius, in any case, Eucratides advances into India are proved by his abundant bilingual coinage. Eucratides I is most likely the founder of Eucratideia, the seal of Da Afghanistan Bank features a Eucratides I-era coin.
The successors to Eucratides were Eucratides II and Heliocles I, who was the last Greek king to reign in Bactria, once the Yuezhi tribes overpowered Heliocles, the Greco-Bactrians lost control of the provinces north of the Hindu Kush. Two other members of the dynasty were Plato of Bactria and probably Demetrius II, full account of Justin on Eucratides, Almost at the same time that Mithridates ascended the throne among the Parthians, Eucratides began to reign among the Bactrians, both of them being great men. Having accordingly escaped, after a five months’ siege, he reduced India under his power, Heliocles I The Shape of Ancient Thought. Coins of Eucratides More coins of Eucratides Catalogue of the Coins of Eucratides I
National Library of Australia
In 2012–2013, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, and an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia, from its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a truly national collection. The present library building was opened in 1968, the building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden. The foyer is decorated in marble, with windows by Leonard French. In 2012–2013 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, the Librarys collections of Australiana have developed into the nations single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are actively sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas, approximately 92. 1% of the Librarys collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue.
The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, and maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson, the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Librarys considerable collections of general overseas and rare materials, as well as world-class Asian. The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings, the Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection. The Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers, williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Librarys catalogue. The National Library holds a collection of pictures and manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space, the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific.
The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have received as part of formed book collections. Examples are the papers of Alfred Deakin, Sir John Latham, Sir Keith Murdoch, Sir Hans Heysen, Sir John Monash, Vance Palmer and Nettie Palmer, A. D. Hope, Manning Clark, David Williamson, W. M. The Library has acquired the records of many national non-governmental organisations and they include the records of the Federal Secretariats of the Liberal party, the A. L. P, the Democrats, the R. S. L. Finally, the Library holds about 37,000 reels of microfilm of manuscripts and archival records, mostly acquired overseas and predominantly of Australian, the National Librarys Pictures collection focuses on Australian people and events, from European exploration of the South Pacific to contemporary events. Art works and photographs are acquired primarily for their informational value, media represented in the collection include photographs, watercolours, lithographs, engravings and sculpture/busts
International Finance Corporation
The IFC is a member of the World Bank Group and is headquartered in Washington, D. C. Since 2009, the IFC has focused on a set of development goals that its projects are expected to target, the IFC is owned and governed by its member countries, but has its own executive leadership and staff that conduct its normal business operations. It is a corporation whose shareholders are member governments that provide paid-in capital and it offers an array of debt and equity financing services and helps companies face their risk exposures, while refraining from participating in a management capacity. The corporation offers advice to companies on making decisions, evaluating their impact on the environment and society and it advises governments on building infrastructure and partnerships to further support private sector development. The corporation is assessed by an independent evaluator each year, the corporations total investments in 2011 amounted to $18.66 billion. It committed $820 million to advisory services for 642 projects in 2011, the IFC is in good financial standing and received the highest ratings from two independent credit rating agencies in 2010 and 2011.
IFC comes under frequent criticism from NGOs that it is not able to track its money because of its use of financial intermediaries. Robert L. Garner joined the World Bank in 1947 as a senior executive, in 1950, Garner and his colleagues proposed establishing a new institution for the purpose of making private investments in the developing countries served by the Bank. In 1956 the International Finance Corporation became operational under the leadership of Garner and it initially had 12 staff members and $100 million in capital. The corporation made its investment in 1957 by making a $2 million loan to a Brazil-based affiliate of Siemens & Halske. In 2007, IFC bought 18% stake in the Indian Financial firm, in December 2015 IFC supported Greek banks with 150 million euros by buying shares in four of them, Alpha Bank, Piraeus Bank and National Bank of Greece. The IFC is governed by its Board of Governors which meets annually, each member typically appoints one governor and one alternate. The IFCs Board of Directors consists of 25 executive directors who meet regularly and work at the IFCs headquarters, the executive directors collectively represent all 184 member countries.
The IFCs Executive Vice President and CEO oversees its overall direction, as of October 2012, Jin-Yong Cai serves as the Executive Vice President and CEO of the IFC. President of the World Bank Group Jim Yong Kim appointed Jin-Yong Cai to serve as the new Executive Vice President, Cai is a Chinese citizen who formerly served as a managing director for Goldman Sachs and has over 20 years of financial sector experience. The corporation operates with a staff of over 3,400 employees, in its fiscal year 2010, the IFC invested $12.7 billion in 528 projects across 103 countries. Of that total investment commitment, approximately 39% was invested into 255 projects across 58 member nations of the World Banks International Development Association, the IFC makes loans to businesses and private projects generally with maturities of seven to twelve years. It determines a suitable repayment schedule and grace period for each individually to meet borrowers currency
The afghani is the currency of Afghanistan. It is nominally subdivided into 100 pul, although there are no pul coins currently in circulation, the first afghani was introduced in 1925. In addition to being subdivided into 100 pul,20 afghani were equal to one amani, the rate of conversion from the rupee is sometimes quoted as 1 afghani =1 rupee 6 paisa, based on the silver contents of the last rupee coins and the first Afghani coins. The Afghani initially contained 9 grams of silver, except during World War I Afghanistans foreign exchange rate has been freely determined by market forces. Bank-e Milli agreed to exchange afghanis at 4 Afs against 1 Indian rupee in 1935, after the establishment of Da Afghanistan Bank as the Central Bank of Afghanistan, such a preferential official fixed exchange rate continued to be practiced. Since 2002, Da Afghanistan Bank has adopted a floating exchange rate regime and has let the exchange rate to be determined freely by market forces, ehsan accused the firm of sending new shipments of Afghani notes to ousted president Burhanuddin Rabbani in northern Takhar province.
In April,2000, the afghani traded at 6400 AFA per USD, by 2002, the afghani was valued at 43,000 AFA per USD. In 1930, bronze and brass 1 and 25 pul were added, along with bronze 3 pul, in 1952, aluminium 25 pul and nickel-clad steel 50 pul were introduced, followed by aluminium 2 and 5 afghani in 1958. In 1961 nickel-clad steel 1,2 and 5 afghani were minted, the 1 and 2 afghani coins show years of SH1340, in 1973, the Republic of Afghanistan issued brass-clad-steel 25 pul, copper-clad steel 50 pul and cupro-nickel-clad steel 5 afghani coins. These were followed, between 1978 and 1980, by issues of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan consisting of aluminium-bronze 25 and 50 pul, a number of commemorative coins were issued by the Islamic State of Afghanistan between 1995 and 2001. Between 1925 and 1928, Treasury notes were introduced in denominations of 5,10 and 50 afghanis, in 1936,2,20 and 100 afghani notes were added. The Bank of Afghanistan took over paper money production in 1939, the 2 and 5 afghani notes were replaced by coins in 1958.
In 1993,5000 and 10,000 afghani notes were introduced. A pothole cave or mouth of a shaft is said to be visible on the 10,000 afghanis banknote as a dark area in the hillside above the ancient pol or gateway at the ruins near Lashkar Gah. This is possibly the entrance to one of the man-made undergrounds at Qala-i-Bost, between October 7,2002, and January 2,2003, a new afghani was introduced with the ISO4217 code AFN. It replaced the previous afghani at two distinct rates. S. dollar, prior to the reissue, there were more than 15 trillion afghani in circulation after unrestrained printing under Taliban rule and during wars and occupation. This was in preparation for October 8 when all prices in the Afghan marketplace were to be specified in afghani. After depreciating during the last quarter of 2003/04, the afghani has been appreciating steadily and this appreciation, at a time of increasing inflation, appears to reflect a greater willingness by the population to use the afghani as a medium of exchange and as a store of value
Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 32 million, making it the 42nd most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan in the north and its territory covers 652,000 km2, making it the 41st largest country in the world. The land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khiljis, Hotaks, the political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a state in the Great Game between British India and the Russian Empire. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah unsuccessfully attempted to modernize the country and it remained peaceful during Zahir Shahs forty years of monarchy. A series of coups in the 1970s was followed by a series of wars that devastated much of Afghanistan.
The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, the root name Afghan was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix -stan means place of in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more specifically in a historical sense, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan. An important site of historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites. The country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and it has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the area of Afghanistan has been closely connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east, west. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic, urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan, in more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well, after 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan, among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians.
These tribes migrated further into South Asia, Western Asia, the region at the time was referred to as Ariana
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
International Monetary Fund
The International Monetary Fund is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D. C. It now plays a role in the management of balance of payments difficulties. Countries contribute funds to a pool through a system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had SDR477 billion, the rationale for this is that private international capital markets function imperfectly and many countries have limited access to financial markets. The IMF provides alternate sources of financing and this assistance was meant to prevent the spread of international economic crises. The IMF was intended to help mend the pieces of the economy after the Great Depression. As well, to provide investments for economic growth and projects such as infrastructure. The IMFs role was altered by the floating exchange rates post-1971. It shifted to examining the economic policies of countries with IMF loan agreements to determine if a shortage of capital was due to economic fluctuations or economic policy, the IMF researched what types of government policy would ensure economic recovery.
Rather than maintaining a position of oversight of only exchange rates and their role became a lot more active because the IMF now manages economic policy rather than just exchange rates. In addition, the IMF negotiates conditions on lending and loans under their policy of conditionality, nonconcessional loans, which include interest rates, are provided mainly through Stand-By Arrangements, the Flexible Credit Line, the Precautionary and Liquidity Line, and the Extended Fund Facility. The IMF provides emergency assistance via the Rapid Financing Instrument to members facing urgent balance-of-payments needs, the IMF is mandated to oversee the international monetary and financial system and monitor the economic and financial policies of its member countries. This activity is known as surveillance and facilitates international cooperation, the responsibilities changed from those of guardian to those of overseer of members’ policies. In 1995 the International Monetary Fund began work on data dissemination standards with the view of guiding IMF member countries to disseminate their economic and financial data to the public.
The executive board approved the SDDS and GDDS in 1996 and 1997 respectively, the system is aimed primarily at statisticians and aims to improve many aspects of statistical systems in a country. It is part of the World Bank Millennium Development Goals, some countries initially used the GDDS, but upgraded to SDDS. The IMF does require collateral from countries for loans but requires the government seeking assistance to correct its macroeconomic imbalances in the form of policy reform, if the conditions are not met, the funds are withheld. The concept of conditionality was introduced in a 1952 Executive Board decision, conditionality is associated with economic theory as well as an enforcement mechanism for repayment
Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan as well as its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2015 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,678,033 which includes all the ethnic groups. Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the worlds 64th largest city and the fifth fastest-growing city in the world, Kabul is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. The city is at a location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia. It has been part of the Achaemenids, Mauryans, Kabul Shahis, Ghaznavids, Later, it was controlled by the Mughal Empire until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empire in 1747. The city is located high up in a valley between the Hindu Kush mountains. Kabul became the capital of Afghanistan during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani, in the early 19th century, the British occupied the city but were compelled to abandon it. Relations between Afghanistan and Great Britain were established, the city was occupied by the Soviets in 1979 but they too abandoned it after the 1988 Geneva Accords were signed.
A civil war in the 1990s between various rebel groups destroyed much of the city, resulting in many casualties, since the removal of the Taliban from power in late 2001, the city gradually began rebuilding itself with assistance by the international community. Despite the many terrorist attacks by elements, the city is growing and developing. The city is divided into about 18 districts, the Kabul International Airport is located in the Wazir Akbar Khan district a few miles from the foreign embassies. The Parliament of Afghanistan, built by India, is located in the Kārte Seh district, spelled Cabool, Kabol, or Cabul. The word Kubhā is mentioned in the Rigveda, one of the four sacred texts of Hinduism, and the Avesta. The Rigveda praises it as a city, a vision of paradise set in the mountains. The area in which the Kabul valley sits was ruled by the Medes before falling to the Achaemenids, there is a reference to a settlement called Kabura by the rulers of the Achaemenid Empire, It became a center of Zoroastrianism followed by Buddhism and Hinduism.
The region became part of the Seleucid Empire but was given to the Indian Maurya Empire. The Greco-Bactrians captured Kabul from the Mauryans in the early 2nd century BC, indo-Scythians expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BC, but lost the city to the Kushan Empire about 100 years later. Some historians ascribe Kabul the Sanskrit name of Kamboja and it is mentioned as Kophes or Kophene in some classical writings
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format