Da capo is an Italian musical term that means "from the beginning". It is abbreviated as D. C; the term is a directive to repeat the previous part of music used to save space, thus is an easier way of saying to repeat the music from the beginning. In small pieces, this might be the same thing as a repeat, but in larger works, D. C. might occur after one or more repeats of small sections, indicating a return to the beginning. The resulting structure of the piece is in ternary form. Sometimes, the composer describes the part to be repeated, for example: Menuet da capo. In opera, where an aria of this structure is called a da capo aria, the repeated section is adorned with grace notes; the word Fine is placed above the stave at the point where the movement ceases after a'Da capo' repetition. Its place is taken by a pause." Da Capo al Fine: Repeat from beginning to the end, or up to the word Fine —the word Fine itself signifying the end. Da Capo al Coda: Repeat from beginning to an indicated place and play the tail part.
It directs the musician to go back and repeat the music from the beginning, to continue playing until one reaches the first coda symbol. Upon reaching the first coda symbol, skip to the second coda symbol, continue playing until the end; the portion of the piece from the second coda to the end is referred to as the "coda" of the piece, or quite as the "end". This may be instructed by using the words al Coda after which the musician is to skip to the written word Coda. Da Capo al Segno: It means "From the beginning to the sign". Coda Repeat sign Dal segno
Peter Frans Gontha is an Indonesian businessman, commercial television pioneer, jazz impresario. He served as Indonesian ambassador to Poland from October 2014 to January 2019. Gontha was born in Central Java, to Victor Willem ` Wim' Gontha and Alice. After attending Jakarta's Kanisius College, he was educated in the Netherlands; as a young man, he worked for the Holland-America Line cruise company. In 1970, he started work for Shell Benelux Computer Center. Shell provided him with a scholarship to study accounting at the Praehap Institute in the Netherlands, he received his degree in Finance Accounting and Business Administration in 1972. From 1975 to 1979, Gontha worked for Citibank N. A. where he became assistant vice president. He became vice president of American Express Bank for Asia. In Indonesia, he was vice president of Bimantara Citra Group, an Indonesian conglomerate founded by former president Suharto’s middle son Bambang Trihatmodjo. Gontha founded Indonesia’s first commercial television network, Rajawali Citra Televisi Indonesia, in 1989 as part of Bimantara Group, co-founded the country's second commercial television network, Surya Citra Televisi in 1990, followed by satellite pay TV company Indovision in 1994.
In 1996, he purchased a controlling stake in the English-language daily newspaper, The Indonesian Observer. His media empire and ambitions earned him the nickname, “the Rupert Murdoch of Indonesia”, his public profile increased when he began hosting an Indonesian version of The Apprentice in 2005 aired on Indosiar, leading to him being dubbed “the Indonesian Donald Trump”. Gontha, known for his baldness, has dismissed the comparison as nonsense, saying he is just a hard worker who looks nothing like Trump, he was a co-founder of petrochemical firm PT Chandra Asri Indonesia. His other business ventures included Plaza Indonesia Realty, PT Tri Polyta Indonesia, First Media, Bali Intercontinental Resort, P. T. Datakom Asia and P. T. Jaring Data Interaktif. Gontha is the founder of the annual Jakarta International Java Jazz Festival, first held in 2005 and has attracted top jazz acts from around the world, his love of jazz stemmed from his father, a trumpeter for a jazz band at Shell oil company in Surabaya, East Java.
On 15 October 2014, Gontha was appointed Indonesian Ambassador to Poland by president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. On 11 December 2018, Gontha received an honorary star award from Polish President Andrzej Duda in recognition of his contribution to bilateral relations. On 7 January 2019, Indonesian President Joko Widodo appointed Siti Nugraha Mauludiah as Indonesian ambassador to Poland, replacing Gontha
Kingdom is a kingdom-building simulation game developed by Thomas van den Berg and Marco Bancale with support from publisher Raw Fury. The title was released on 21 October 2015 for Microsoft Windows, OS X, Linux systems. A port for Xbox One was released on 8 August 2016, the ports for iOS and Android were released on 31 January 2017, the ports for the Nintendo Switch and PlayStation 4 were released on 14 September 2017 and 16 January 2018 simultaneously. A reworked version of the game, titled Kingdom: New Lands, was released in August 2016, a sequel, Kingdom: Two Crowns, was released in 2018; the game is played out on a pixel art-based two-dimensional landscape. The player has otherwise little direct control of the game, thus must use the coins they collect in judicious ways. Kingdom received positive reviews appreciating the game's art and music, its approach that required the players to figure out what to do based on these elements, but felt that the tedious nature of some tasks in the game affected its end-game and replayability.
Kingdom is presented to the player in a pixel art, two-dimensional screen, with the goal to build up and create a kingdom while surviving various foes that will attempt to capture the player-character's crown ending their rule. The player starts the game with a randomly generated queen on horseback; the player can move the character on horse to the left or right, including at a gallop, but has no other direct action. As the character passes landmarks, these will produce a few coins, from which the player can pick up by riding over them, spend on various resources, which will be marked with open coin slots when the character passes near them; such resources will include hiring wandering travelers to become part of the kingdom and creating smiths to craft weapons and tools. As the player gathers more resources, new options to spend coins will open up. For example, once the player has a citizen of the kingdom with a tool, they can build defensive walls. Many such resources include upgrades. To get more coins, the player roams their kingdom.
While exploration of the kingdom can lead to finding more coins and potential resources, the areas away from the main kingdom center can become more dangerous for both the player-character and any followers. Other nights may have blood moons; these creatures will work to destroy existing resources that the player has created, steal gold from the player-character, if the player-character has no gold, steal their crown, which represents failure in the game from which the player will need to restart the game. The player is encouraged to manage the construction of defenses and guards to manage those defenses against the need to expand and improve the kingdom. There is an ultimate goal to achieve victory, though the player must come to determine that for themselves. Kingdom was developed by the two-man team of Thomas van den Berg and Marco Bancale, who go by the aliases noio and Licorice, respectively; the game is an expanded, standalone version of a Flash game by noio. The development of the game was supported by Raw Fury, a Sweden-based publisher launched by former members of Paradox Interactive and EA DICE.
In May 2019, Raw Fury acquired the rights to the series from van de Berg, allowing the publisher to continue development. In mid-2016, Raw Fury announced Kingdom: an expansion to the original game. New content will be added to the game that will address some of the repetitive aspects critics found on the game's original release, such as adding new lands to be explored and a seasonal climate system that affects gameplay; the expansion released on 9 August 2016, with owners of the original game able to update for free. Within one day of its Windows, OS X, Linux release, Raw Fury announced that it had sold enough copies to pay for the game's development; as a result, they affirmed that they will be releasing the title for the Xbox One, that all future improvements and expansions to the game will remain free to players on the forementioned platforms. The team later announced plans for a port to the Nintendo Switch. Mobile versions of the game, including the "New Lands" additions, for iOS and NVIDIA Shield devices were released circa March 2017.
Kingdom has received favorable reviews. Dan Stapleton of IGN gave the title a 7.7 out of 10, felt the lack of instruction combined with the tension of the various random attacks created a great experience for the game. Robert Purchase of Eurogamer gave the game a "Recommended" rating, believing the game achieved the right balance between being fair to the player while the player learns the mechanics of the game. James Davenport of PC Gamer, giving the game a 70 out of 100, was more critical of the lack of instruction, noting that a half-hour's worth of gameplay investment could be wiped away due to the player not being aware of how certain mechanics work, that the game would be one to test a player's patience. Reviewers praised the game's retro pixel art look and its chiptune soundtrack, which created the appropriat