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Dabru Emet

The Dabru Emet is a document concerning the relationship between Christianity and Judaism. It was signed by over 220 rabbis and intellectuals from all branches of Judaism, as individuals and not as representing any organisation or stream of Judaism. In light of the Second Vatican Council in 1965, the Dabru Emet was first published on 10 September 2000, in The New York Times, has since been used in Jewish education programs across the U. S. While affirming that there are theological differences between these two religions, the purpose of Dabru Emet is to point out common ground and a legitimacy of Christianity, for non-Jews, from the Jewish perspective, it is not an official document of any of the Jewish denominations per se, but it is representative of what many Jews feel. Eight major themes are expressed: Jews and Christians worship the same God Jews and Christians seek authority from the same book Christians can respect the claim of the Jews on the land of Israel Jews and Christians together accept the moral principles of the Torah Nazism is not a Christian phenomenon The controversy between Jews and Christians will not be settled until God redeems the entire world as promised in scripture and no-one should be pressed into believing another’s belief A new relationship between Jews and Christians will not weaken Jewish practice Jews and Christians must work together for justice and peace There are various objections to Dabru Emet from within the Jewish community.

Some hold. Thus, most Conservative and Reform rabbis have not signed it, although many do agree with most of the document. Few Orthodox rabbis have signed it. Instead, it is believed by many Jews that much of Christian theology and teachings have been anti-Semitic. Jews point to statements in the New Testament, such as John 8:43–47, in which Jesus speaks divisive words to some particular Jews of his day: On 3 December 2015, 28 Orthodox Rabbis released a statement through the Center for Jewish-Christian Understanding and Cooperation in Israel. Rabbis David Rosen, Shlomo Riskin and Mark Dratch are prominent among them in the interfaith movement; the unprecedented declaration, entitled "To Do the Will of Our Father in Heaven: Toward a Partnership between Jews and Christians", praises “Nostra Aetate,” a Vatican document that repudiated Christian persecution against Jews. “Now that the Catholic Church has acknowledged the eternal Covenant between God and Israel, we Jews can acknowledge the ongoing constructive validity of Christianity as our partner in world redemption, without any fear that this will be exploited for missionary purposes,” it reads.

The European Lutheran Commission on the Church and the Jewish People, an umbrella organization representing twenty-five Lutheran church bodies in Europe, issued on May 12, 2003 A Response to Dabru Emet: In its Driebergen Declaration, the European Lutheran Commission on the Church and the Jewish People… rejected the traditional Christian “teaching of contempt” towards Jews and Judaism, in particular, the anti-Jewish writings of Martin Luther, it called for the reformation of church practice in the light of these insights. Against this background, LEKKJ welcomes the issuance of Dabru Emet: A Jewish Statement on Christians and Christianity. We see in this statement a confirmation of our own work of these past years… We know that we must reexamine themes in Lutheran theology that in the past have given rise to enmity towards Jews… Fully aware that Dabru Emet is in the first instance an intra-Jewish invitation to conversation, we see in this statement an aid to us in expressing and living out our faith in such a way that we do not denigrate Jews, but rather respect them in their otherness, are enabled to give an account of our own identity more as we scrutinize it in the light of how others see us.

"How not to conduct Jewish-Christian dialogue" Jon D. Levenson.

Crown (botany)

The crown of a plant refers to the total of an individual plant's aboveground parts, including stems and reproductive structures. A plant community canopy consists of one or more plant crowns growing in a given area; the crown of a woody plant is the branches and reproductive structures extending from the trunk or main stems. Shapes of crowns are variable; the major types for trees are the excurrent branching habit resulting in conoid shapes and decurrent branching habit, resulting in round shapes. Crowns are characterized by their width, surface area and density. Measurements of crowns are important in quantifying and qualifying plant health, growth stage, efficiency. Major functions of the crown include light energy assimilation, carbon dioxide absorption and release of oxygen via photosynthesis, energy release by respiration, movement of water to the atmosphere by transpiration; these functions are performed by the leaves. Trees can be described as fitting different crown classes. Used are Kraft's classes.

Kraft designated these social classes based on temperate and boreal forests in Central Europe, so they do not work with every forest type in the world. Kraft wrote in German so here are his classes with translations: 1 v vorherrschend 2 h herrschend 3 m mitherrschend 4 b beherrscht 5 u unterständig this is split into 2 subclasses 5a and 5b Often it has been simplified to Dominant, Co-dominant and Suppressed. IUFRO developed a tree classification it is based on three components with numbers that aggregate to give a coded classification thus:Ecological criteria Height component: 100 Overstorey / Overlayer 200 Middlestorey / Middlelayer 300 Understorey / UnderlayerVitality component: 10 Lush 20 Normal 30 RetardedFuture growth potential component: 1 High 2 Average 3 Laggingand additionally Silvicultural Criteria Commercial worth 400 Valuable, outstanding tree 500 Usable, wood 600 Poor to Unusable QualityTrunk class 40 Valuable wood 50 Normal wood 60 Substandard wood Crown class 4 Deep crown 5 Medium crown 6 Shallow crown While both Kraft and IUFRO classifications are aimed at describing individual tree crowns both can and are applied to describe whole layers or storeys.

Apical dominance Canopy Canopy Diameter at breast height Fruit tree forms Growth habit Habit Pruning Stratification Tree crown measurement Tiller Understory Tree crown Kozlowski, T.. The physiological ecology of woody plants. Academic Press


The Mycetophilidae are a family of small flies, forming the bulk of those species known as fungus gnats. About 3000 described species are placed in 150 genera, but the true number of species is undoubtedly much higher, they are found in the damp habitats favoured by their host fungi and sometimes form dense swarms. Adults of this family can be separated from other small flies by the humped thorax, well-developed coxae, spinose legs, but identification within the family between genera and species requires close study of microscopic features such as subtle differences in wing venation and variation in chaetotaxy and genitalia; the terrestrial larvae feed on fungi the fruiting bodies, but spores and hyphae, but some species have been recorded on mosses and liverworts. The larvae of some species, while still being associated with fungi, are at least predatory; some species are attracted to the fungus smell of Jack-in-the-Pulpit, fall into their inflorescences and accomplish their pollination. Around a dozen mycetophilid species are unique among flies in displaying bioluminescence.

In some species, this is restricted to the larval stage, but in others this feature is retained by the pupae and adults. The ability to produce their own light may be used by some predatory larvae as a lure for potential prey, although it obviously makes them more susceptible to predation or parasitism; these belong to the family Keroplatidae. Mycetophilids, including some extant genera, are well represented in amber deposits and the group appears to have been well established and diversified by the Cretaceous period at the latest; some 800 species have been split into a separate family by Tuomikoski in Keroplatidae. This split is not universally recognized as yet, many sources still include the keroplatid genera within the Mycetophilidae. Other recent families, included here in Mycetophilidae as they are not recognized by all workers are Ditomyiidae, Lygistorrhinidae and Rangomaramidae; the Mycetophilidae sensu lato contain about 330 described genera. These include: Evenhuis, N. L. 2006. Catalog of the Keroplatidae of the World.

Bishop Museum Bulletin in Entomology 13. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1–178. Online here Fungus Gnats Online Images

Leon Ockenden

Leon Ockenden is an English actor and writer who works in TV, film and radio. He grew up in the resort town of Cornwall. Ockenden left school at the age of 16 to become a baker. After working in hotel kitchens in Sweden and Germany for one year, he returned to Britain to work as a pastry chef at the Hilton Hotel on London's Park Lane, he studied performing arts at the College of Further Education in Plymouth. He received a scholarship from the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, where he took a three-year acting course and graduated in 2003. Ockenden appeared in the British/Australian drama television series Tripping Over, playing a carpenter named Callum, he lent his voice and likeness to the 2010 video game Heavy Rain, in which he played Federal Bureau of Investigation profiler Norman Jayden. Before the show was cancelled in 2015, he was a regular of the British drama television series Waterloo Road, in which he played the role of Hector Reid, a jocular and sometimes vitriolic teacher of PE.

After Waterloo Road, Ockenden has had other roles as a recurring cast member. One of these roles includes the character of Will in the long-running soap opera Coronation Street, he has joined the presenting team on the chat show This Morning as one of its regular chefs for its cooking segment. Ockenden married actress Vanessa Hehir on 24 October 2010, they have a daughter. How the Other Half Loves Flare Path Muswell Hill Plague Over England Women Beware Women The Tempest Leon Ockenden on IMDb

Alejandra Guzman En Vivo

Alejandra Guzmán En Vivo is the second live album recorded by Mexican singer Alejandra Guzmán. A DVD with the full concert was released; the only new track included is a version of "Wild Thing" by Chip Taylor. "Ruge el Corazón" — 3:51 "Toda la Mitad" — 4:10 "Eternamente Bella" — 3:20 "Cuidado Con el Corazón" — 5:10 "Mala Hierba" — 3:24 "Ven" — 2:35 "Todo" — 4:15 "Algo Natural" — 4:28 "Reina de Corazones" — 2:59 "Guera" — 4:03 "Loca" — 4:59 "Wild Thing" — 2:57 "Hacer el Amor con Otro" — 6:16 "Enemigos" — 3:59 "De Verdad" — 3:47 "Caramelo" — 2:57 "Mírala, Míralo" — 3:37 "Diablo" — 3:59 "Volveré a Amar" — 5:19 "Popurrí: La Plaga/Popotitos/Pólvora" — 5:08 Abraham Barrera – piano, keyboards Iván Barrera – bass Javier Barrera – arranger, musical direction Cristhian Cambresy – graphic design Oscar Galvan – acoustic guitar, electric guitar Alejandro Giacománmastering Guillermo Gutiérrez – A&R Alejandra Guzmán – vocals Marielos Labias – chorus Antonio Maldonado – mixing Jorge Mendoza – digital processing Javier Olmedo – coordination, creative consultant Gilda Oropeza – A&R Daniel Parra – chorus Samuel Parra – chorus Miguel Pasos – electric guitar

Crossing (architecture)

A crossing, in ecclesiastical architecture, is the junction of the four arms of a cruciform church. In a oriented church, the crossing gives access to the nave on the west, the transept arms on the north and south, the choir, as the first part of the chancel, on the east; the crossing is sometimes surmounted by a dome. A large crossing tower is common on English Gothic cathedrals. With the Renaissance, building a dome above the crossing became popular; because the crossing is open on four sides, the weight of the tower or dome rests on the corners. In centuries past, it was not uncommon for overambitious crossing towers to collapse. Sacrist Alan of Walsingham's octagon, built between 1322 and 1328 after the collapse of Ely's nave crossing on 22 February 1322, is the "... greatest individual achievement of architectural genius at Ely Cathedral" according to architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner. A tower over the crossing may be called a lantern tower if it has openings through which light from outside can shine down to the crossing.

In Early Medieval churches, the crossing square was used as a module, or a unit of measurement. The nave and transept would have lengths that were a certain multiple of the length of the crossing square; the term is occasionally used for secular buildings of a cruciform plan, for instance The Crystal Palace in London