The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface. The period lasted 3.4 million years and ended between 8700 BCE and 2000 BCE with the advent of metalworking. Stone Age artifacts include tools used by modern humans and by their predecessor species in the genus Homo, by the earlier contemporaneous genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus. Bone tools were used during this period as well but are preserved in the archaeological record; the Stone Age is further subdivided by the types of stone tools in use. The Stone Age is the first period in the three-age system of archaeology, which divides human technological prehistory into three periods: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The Stone Age is contemporaneous with the evolution of the genus Homo, the only exception being the early Stone Age, when species prior to Homo may have manufactured tools. According to the age and location of the current evidence, the cradle of the genus is the East African Rift System toward the north in Ethiopia, where it is bordered by grasslands.
The closest relative among the other living primates, the genus Pan, represents a branch that continued on in the deep forest, where the primates evolved. The rift served as a conduit for movement into southern Africa and north down the Nile into North Africa and through the continuation of the rift in the Levant to the vast grasslands of Asia. Starting from about 4 million years ago a single biome established itself from South Africa through the rift, North Africa, across Asia to modern China, called "transcontinental'savannahstan'" recently. Starting in the grasslands of the rift, Homo erectus, the predecessor of modern humans, found an ecological niche as a tool-maker and developed a dependence on it, becoming a "tool equipped savanna dweller"; the oldest indirect evidence found of stone tool use is fossilised animal bones with tool marks. Archaeological discoveries in Kenya in 2015, identifying the oldest known evidence of hominin use of tools to date, have indicated that Kenyanthropus platyops may have been the earliest tool-users known.
The oldest stone tools were excavated from the site of Lomekwi 3 in West Turkana, northwestern Kenya, date to 3.3 million years old. Prior to the discovery of these "Lomekwian" tools, the oldest known stone tools had been found at several sites at Gona, Ethiopia, on the sediments of the paleo-Awash River, which serve to date them. All the tools come from the Busidama Formation, which lies above a disconformity, or missing layer, which would have been from 2.9 to 2.7 mya. The oldest sites containing tools are dated to 2.6–2.55 mya. One of the most striking circumstances about these sites is that they are from the Late Pliocene, where previous to their discovery tools were thought to have evolved only in the Pleistocene. Excavators at the locality point out that: "...the earliest stone tool makers were skilled flintknappers.... The possible reasons behind this seeming abrupt transition from the absence of stone tools to the presence thereof include... gaps in the geological record."The species who made the Pliocene tools remains unknown.
Fragments of Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus aethiopicus and Homo Homo habilis, have been found in sites near the age of the Gona tools. In July 2018, scientists reported the discovery in China of the oldest stone tools outside Africa, estimated at 2.12 million years old. Innovation of the technique of smelting ore began the Bronze Age; the first most significant metal manufactured was bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, each of, smelted separately. The transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age was a period during which modern people could smelt copper, but did not yet manufacture bronze, a time known as the Copper Age, or more technically the Chalcolithic, "copper-stone" age; the Chalcolithic by convention is the initial period of the Bronze Age. The Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age; the transition out of the Stone Age occurred between 6000 BCE and 2500 BCE for much of humanity living in North Africa and Eurasia. The first evidence of human metallurgy dates to between the 5th and 6th millennium BCE in the archaeological sites of Majdanpek and Pločnik in modern-day Serbia, though not conventionally considered part of the Chalcolithic or "Copper Age", this provides the earliest known example of copper metallurgy.
Note the Rudna Glava mine in Serbia. Ötzi the Iceman, a mummy from about 3300 BCE carried with him a flint knife. In regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa, the Stone Age was followed directly by the Iron Age; the Middle East and southeastern Asian regions progressed past Stone Age technology around 6000 BCE. Europe, the rest of Asia became post-Stone Age societies by about 4000 BCE; the proto-Inca cultures of South America continued at a Stone Age level until around 2000 BCE, when gold and silver made their entrance. The Americas notably did not develop a widespread behavior of smelting Bronze or Iron after the Stone Age period, although the technology existed. Stone tool manufacture continued after the Stone Age ended in a given area. In Europe and North America, millstones were in use until well into the 20th century, still are in many parts of the world; the terms "Stone Age", "Bronze Age", "Iron Age" were never meant to suggest that advancement and time periods in prehistory are only measured by the type of tool material, rather than, for
Salzburg "salt castle", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Federal State of Salzburg. Its historic centre is renowned for its baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centres north of the Alps, with 27 churches, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996. The city has a large population of students. Tourists visit Salzburg to tour the historic centre and the scenic Alpine surroundings. Salzburg was the birthplace of the 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was film The Sound of Music. Traces of human settlements have been found in the area; the first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were by the Celts around the 5th century BC. Around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. After the Norican frontier’s collapse, Juvavum declined so that by the late 7th century it nearly became a ruin.
The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, annexed the manor of Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg", he travelled to evangelise among pagans. The name Salzburg means "Salt Castle"; the name derives from the barges carrying salt on the River Salzach, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers. Hohensalzburg Fortress, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence, it was expanded during the following centuries. Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire; as the Reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War, the Archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress.
It was besieged for three months in 1525. Tensions were quelled, the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus, Paris Lodron, it was in the 17th century that Italian architects rebuilt the city centre as it is today along with many palaces. On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, travelling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia; the rest settled in other Protestant states in the British colonies in America. In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism. In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon.
In 1805, Salzburg was annexed to the Austrian Empire, along with the Berchtesgaden Provostry. In 1809, the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram. After the Congress of Vienna with the Treaty of Munich, Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria. Salzburg was integrated into the Province of Salzach and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linz. In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empire; the city became part of Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era led to increased tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to Hohensalzburg Fortress Following World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1918, it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands; this was replaced by the First Austrian Republic after the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
The Anschluss took place on 12 March 1938, one day before a scheduled referendum on Austria's independence. German troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to concentration camps; the synagogue was destroyed. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union, several POW camps for prisoners from the Soviet Union and other enemy nations were organized in the city. During the Nazi occupation, a Romani camp was built in Salzburg-Maxglan, it was an Arbeitserziehungslager. It operated as a Zwischenlager, holding Roma before their deportation to German extermination camps or ghettos in German-occupied territories in eastern Europe. Allied bombing killed 550 inhabitants. Fifteen air strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings those a
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising
The Archdiocese of Munich and Freising is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Bavaria, Germany. It is governed by the Archbishop of Munich and Freising, who administers the see from the co-cathedral in Munich, the Frauenkirche, never called in German Munich Cathedral; the other, much older co-cathedral is Freising Cathedral. The see was canonically erected in about 739 by Saint Boniface as the Diocese of Freising and became a prince-bishopric; the diocese was dissolved in 1803 following the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, although a titular bishop ruled until April 1, 1818, when Pope Pius VII elevated the diocese to an archdiocese with its new seat in Munich, rather than Freising. The archdiocese is divided into forty deaneries with 758 parishes, its suffragan bishops are the Bishop of Augsburg, the Bishop of Passau, the Bishop of Regensburg. The most famous archbishop was Joseph Ratzinger, elected as Pope Benedict XVI; the following is a selection of notable ordinaries of the Bishopric and Prince-Bishopric of Freising and the Archbishopric and Archdiocese of Munich and Freising Saint Corbinian Erembert Joseph of Freising known as Joseph of Verona Arbeo Atto Hitto Erchambert Anno Arnold Waldo Utto Dracholf Wolfram Lantbert Abraham Gottschalk Egilbert of Moosburg Nitker Ellenhard, Count of Meran Meginhard, Count of Scheyern Heinrich I of Ebersdorf Otto I Albert I Otto II Gerold von Waldeck Konrad I von Tölz und Hohenburg Konrad II of Wittelsbach Friedrich von Montalban Emicho of Wittelsbach In 1294, the Bishop's status as a prince of the Holy Roman Empire was confirmed.
Gottfried von Hexenagger Konrad III der Sendlinger Johannes I Wulfing Konrad IV von Klingenberg Johannes II Hake Albert II of Hohenberg Paul von Jägerndorf Leopold von Sturmberg Berthold von Wehingen Konrad V von Hebenstreit Hermann von Cilli Nicodemus of Scala Sixtus of Tannberg Ruprecht of the Palatinate Philip of the Palatinate Heinrich Pfalzgraf von Rhein Leo Lösch von Hilkershausen Moritz von Sandizell Ernst, Duke of Bavaria Albrecht Sigmund, Duke of Bavaria Joseph Clemens Kajetan, Duke of Bavaria Johann Theodor, duke of Bavaria Klemens Wenzeslaus, Duke of Saxony Joseph Konrad Freiherr von Schroffenberg. After his death, the temporal authority of the bishop was mediatised and abolished by the Elector of Bavaria. Joseph Jakob von Heckenstaller, vicar capitular; the episcopal functions were exercised by Johann Nepomuk Wolf. Lothar Anselm Freiherr von Gebsattel Karl August Cardinal Graf von Reisach Gregor von Scherr, O. S. B. Antonius von Steichele Antonius von Thoma Franz Joseph von Stein Franziskus Cardinal von Bettinger Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber Joseph Cardinal Wendel Julius August Cardinal Döpfner Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger Friedrich Cardinal Wetter Reinhard Cardinal Marx Albertus, O.
F. M. Johannes Frey, O. F. M. Johannes Berger, O. E. S. A. Erasmus Perchinger, O. F. M. Ulrich Pramberger, O. F. M. Mathias Schach, O. Cart. Konrad Mair Augustin Mair, C. R. S. A. Johann Peter Stoll, O. P. Oswald Fischer Sebastian Haidlauf Bartholomäus Scholl Johann Fiernhammer Johann Kaspar Kühner Simon Judas Thaddäus Schmidt Johann Sigmund Zeller von und zu Leibersdorf Johann Ferdinand Joseph von Boedigkeim Franz Ignaz Albert von Werdenstein Ernest Johann Nepomuk von Herberstein Johann Nepomuk von Wolf Franz Ignaz von Streber Johann Baptist von Neudecker Ludwig Hartl Michael Buchberger Johann Baptist Schauer Anton Scharnagl Johannes Baptist Neuhäusler Mathias Dionys Albert Paul Defregger Ernst Tewes, C. O. Franz Xaver Schwarzenböck Heinrich von Soden-Fraunhofen Engelbert Siebler Bernhard Hasslberger Franz Dietl Wolfgang Bischof The residence of the Archbishops of Munich and Freising is the Palais Holnstein in Munich. Bishops of Freising and Archbishops of Munich and Freising Rainer Maria Schießler Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Munich Catholic Encyclopedia article
The Amper, called the Ammer upstream of the Ammersee, through which it runs, is the largest tributary of the Isar in southern Bavaria, Germany. It flows north-eastward, reaching the Isar in Moosburg, about 190 kilometres from its source in the Ammergau Alps, with a flow of 45 m³/s. Including its tributary, Linder, it is 209.5 km long. Major tributaries are the Glonn; the Ammer starts just south of the village of Oberammergau. Riverside cities include Fürstenfeldbruck and Moosburg. Official website
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
A dacha is a seasonal or year-round second home located in the exurbs of Russian-speaking and other post-Soviet countries. A cottage or shack serving as a family's main or only home, or an outbuilding, is not considered a dacha, although some dachas have been converted to year-round residences and vice versa. In some cases, owners occupy their dachas for part of the year and rent them to urban residents as summer retreats. People living in dachas are colloquially called dachniki; the Russian term is said to have no exact counterpart in English. Dachas are common in Russia, are widespread in most parts of the former Soviet Union and in some countries of the former Eastern Bloc. Surveys in 1993–1994 suggest about 25% of Russian families living in large cities had dachas. Most dachas are in colonies of dachas and garden plots near large cities; these clusters have existed since the Soviet era, consist of numerous small 600-square-metre, land plots. They were intended only as recreation getaways of city dwellers and for growing small gardens for food.
Dachniki use their dachas for fishing and other leisure activities. Growing garden crops – still seen as an important part of dacha life – remains popular. Dachas originated as small country estates given as a gift by the tsar, have been popular among the Russian upper- and middle-classes since. During the Soviet era, many dachas were state-owned, were given to the elite of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; the government of the Russian Federation continues to own State dachas used by the president and other officials. They were popular in the Soviet Union, because people did not have the opportunity to buy land and build a house where they wanted, because they lacked other opportunities to spend their time and money; as regulations restricted the size and type of dacha buildings for ordinary people during the Soviet period, permitted features such as large attics or glazed verandas became widespread and oversized. In the period from the 1960s to 1985 legal limitations were strict: only single-story summer houses without permanent heating and with living areas less than 60 m2 were allowed as second housing.
In the 1980s planners loosened the rules, since 1990 all such limitations have been eliminated. The first dachas in Russia began to appear during the 17th century referring to small estates in the country that were given to loyal vassals by the tsar. In archaic Russian, the word dacha means something given, from the verb "дать" – "to give". During the Age of Enlightenment, Russian aristocracy used their dachas for social and cultural gatherings, which were accompanied by masquerade balls and fireworks displays; the coming of the Industrial Revolution to Russia brought about a rapid growth in the urban population, wealthy urban residents desired to escape the polluted cities, at least temporarily. By the end of the 19th century, the dacha became a favorite summer retreat for the upper and middle classes of Russian society. In the tsarist era, dachas were not used much for growing food. Anton Chekhov wrote a novelette entitled Dachniki, about newlywed city-dwellers living a'simple' summer life of walks in the countryside.
Following the Russian Revolution, most dachas were nationalised. Some were converted into vacation homes for factory workers, while others of better quality, were distributed among the prominent functionaries of the CPSU and the newly emerged cultural and scientific elite. All but a few dachas remained the property of the state and the right to use them was revoked when a dacha occupant was dismissed or fell out of favour with the rulers of the state. Building new dachas required permission from senior officials and was granted during the early years of the Soviet Union; the seniormost Soviet leaders all had their own dachas, Joseph Stalin's favourite was in Gagra, Abkhazia. New dachas started to be built in larger numbers during the 1930s, dacha colonies for artists, or soldiers, or various classes of party functionaries, started to form. There were legal size restrictions for dacha houses in the Soviet era, they had to be only one story tall. For that reason, they had a mansard roof, considered by authorities as just a large garret or attic, not a second story.
Ill-equipped and without indoor plumbing, dachas were a solution for millions of working-class families, to have their own form of summer retreat. Having a piece of land offered an opportunity for city dwellers to indulge themselves in growing their own fruits and vegetables. In the years before and after World War II, cultivation of garden crops on dacha plots was substantial, because of the failure of the centrally planned Soviet agricultural programme to supply enough fresh produce. Many dacha owners grew crops for market. Since growing garden crops has been of lesser importance, but continues to be widespread. Many Russian dacha owners still see gardening as a key value of dachnik culture. Keeping historical food shortages in mind, they take great pride in growing their own food rather than buying it at a store; the period after World War II saw moderate growth in dacha development. Since there was no actual law banning the construction of dachas, people began occupying unused plots of land near cities and towns, growing gard
Sigismund, Duke of Bavaria
For other nobles of the same name, please see Sigismund Sigismund of Bavaria was a member of the Wittelsbach dynasty. He ruled as Duke of Bavaria-Munich from 1460 to 1467, as Duke of Bavaria-Dachau until his death. Sigismund was the third son of Albert III of Bavaria with Princess Anna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen-Einbeck his second wife. Sigismund was Duke of Bavaria-Munich from 1460 to 1467, until 1463 together with his brother John IV. In 1467, he resigned in favor of his younger brother Albert IV and kept only the new duchy of Bavaria-Dachau as his domain until his death. In 1468, the foundation stone of the Frauenkirche in Munich was laid by Sigismund, he ordered to enlarge Blutenburg Castle, to construct its chapel, to build the church St. Wolfgang in Pipping nearby in 1488; the redesign of the ducal court Alter Hof was initiated by Sigismund as well who lived there for a time towards the end of the 15th Century and was a patron of the revival of Gothic arts in Bavaria. Sigismund died on February 1, 1501 at Blutenburg Castle and was buried at the Frauenkirche in Munich