Legio XIII Gemina
Legio tertia decima Geminia, in English the 13th Twin Legion known as Legio tertia decima Gemina, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was one of Julius Caesar's key units in Gaul and in the civil war, was the legion with which he famously crossed the Rubicon on January 10, 49 BC; the legion appears to have still been in existence in the 5th century AD. Its symbol was the lion. Legio XIII was levied by Julius Caesar in 57 BC, before marching against the Belgae, in one of his early interventions in intra-Gallic conflicts. During the Gallic Wars, Legio XIII was present at the Battle against the Nervians, the Siege of Gergovia, while not mentioned in the sources, it is reasonable to assume that Legio XIII was present for the Battle of Alesia. After the end of the Gallic wars, the Roman Senate refused Caesar his second consulship, ordered him to give up his commands, demanded he return to Rome to face prosecution. Forced to choose either the end of his political career or civil war, Caesar brought Legio XIII across the Rubicon river and into Italy.
The legion remained faithful to Caesar during the resulting civil war between Caesar and the conservative Optimates faction of the senate, whose legions were commanded by Pompey. Legio XIII was active throughout the entire war, fighting at Pharsalus. After the decisive victory over Pompey at Pharsalus, the legion was to be disbanded, the legionaries "pensioned off" with the traditional land grants. After Munda, Caesar disbanded the legion, retired his veterans, gave them farmland in Italy. Augustus reconstituted the legion once again in 41 BC to deal with the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. Legio XIII acquired the cognomen Gemina after being reinforced with veteran legionaries from other legions following the war against Mark Antony and the Battle of Actium. Augustus sent the legion to Burnum, in Illyricum, a Roman province in the Adriatic Sea. In 16 BC, the legion was transferred to Emona in Pannonia. After the disaster of the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9, the legion was sent as reinforcements to Augusta Vindelicorum, to Vindonissa, Raetia, to prevent further attacks from the Germanic tribes.
Emperor Claudius sent them back to Pannonia around 45 and the legion built its legionary fortress at Poetovium. In the year of the four emperors, XIII Gemina supported first Otho and Vespasian against Vitellius, fighting in the two Battles of Bedriacum. Under Trajan the legion took part in both Dacian wars, it was transferred by Trajan in 106 to the newly conquered province of Dacia to garrison it. Vexillationes of the XIII Gemina fought under Emperor Gallienus in northern Italy; the emperor issued a legionary antoninianus celebrating the legion, showing the legion's lion. Another vexillatio was present in the army of the emperor of the Gallic Empire Victorinus: this emperor, in fact, issued a gold coin celebrating the legion and its emblem. In 271, the legion was relocated when the Dacia province was evacuated, restationed in Dacia Aureliana. In the 5th century, according to the Notitia Dignitatum, a legio tertiadecima gemina was in Babylon in Egypt, a strategic fortress on the Nile at the traditional border between Lower Egypt and Middle Egypt, under the command of the Comes limitis Aegypti.
- Marco Cornelio Marci filio Galeria Nigrino / Curiatio Materno consuli - / - tribuno militum legionis XIIII Geminae. Liria, Spain. CIL II2/14. - Caio Iulio Galeria Lepido Iessonensi primi pilari centurioni legionis XIII Geminae Piae Fidelis centurioni. Lerida, Spain. CIL II 4463. A fictionalized account of the actions of Legio XIII Gemina during the struggle between Julius Caesar and the Optimates faction under Pompey can be seen in the joint HBO/BBC/RAI television production Rome, most notably two of its soldiers: Centurion Lucius Vorenus and Legionary Titus Pullo, named after real-life Centurions Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo of the Legio XI Claudia. Roman legion List of Roman legions Dacia Ripensis "Notitia Dignitatum". Retrieved 2006-11-22. Lendering, Jona. "Legio XIII Gemina". Retrieved 2006-11-18. Cowan, Ross. Imperial Roman Legionary AD 161-284. Angus McBride. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-601-1. Media related to Legio XIII Gemina at Wikimedia Commons LEGIO TREDICI GEMINA, Italian re-enactment group LEG XIII GEM, Austrian re-enactment group LEGIO XIII GEMINA Blog Legio XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix
Ratiaria was a city founded by the Moesians, a Daco-Thracian tribe, in the 4th century BC, along the river Danube. In Roman times it was named Colonia Ulpia Traiana Ratiaria, it is located 2 km west of the present village of Archar in northwestern Bulgaria. The closest modern cities are Lom. An archaeological museum for the site has been established in Dimovo. Ratiaria was conquered by the Dacians of Burebista and by the Romans; the city had a gold mine in the vicinity, exploited by the Thracians. The earliest involvement of the Romans occurred in 75 BC when Gaius Curio Scribonius Burbuleio, prefect of Macedonia, entered this territory to ward off the Scordisci, the Dardani and the Daci. In 29 BC, Marcus Licinius Crassus chased the Triballi here to a fortress, it was not until the principate of Augustus that the Romans conquered the region, organised into a province named Moesia. In 33/34 AD Tiberius built the road linking the Danube forts including Ratiaria; the city was less important than the nearby Sirmium and Naissus, but its associated fortress located along the Danubian Limes made it a key legionary station.
Legio IV Flavia Felix was based here at least until the conquest of Dacia, together with the fleet of the Classis Moesica under Vespasian. After the conquest of Dacia, the castrum was abandoned and the settlement became a colonia within Moesia Superior named Colonia Ulpia Traiana Ratiaria after its founder the Emperor Trajan. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries Ratiaria became prosperous as a trade centre and customs port. A number of Roman patricians lived in Ratiaria, while the nearby Bononia was home to a small military unit. With the definitive abandonment of Dacia Traiana by Aurelian in 271, the old castra in the region were reopened, it is unclear whether Aurelian or the Emperor Diocletian replaced Dacia Aureliana with two provinces, but by 285, there were two: – Dacia Mediterranea with its capital at Serdica and Dacia Ripensis with its capital at Ratiaria. As the capital of the new province Ratiaria served both as the seat of the military governor and as the military base for the Roman legion XIII Gemina.
These two “Dacias” along with Dardania, Moesia Inferior and Praevalitana constituted the Diocese of Dacia. An important bishop’s cathedra was established in the town in the 4rd century AD; the city became an important Christian centre in several bishops are recorded. Palladius of Ratiaria, an Arian Christian theologian, lived here in the late 4th century. Rebuilding works were done under Anastasius I, celebrated in the new town’s name, Anastasiana Ratiaria. Priscus calls it a prosperous city in the 5th century. In AD 586 the town was sacked by the Avars. Archaeological excavations of the site have continued sporadically since then. Findings from Ratiaria, exhibited in Konaka History Museum, Vidin As provincial capital of Dacia Ripensis, it was the Metropolitan archdiocese, yet was to fade; the archdiocese was nominally restored in 1925 as a Latin Catholic titular archbishopric of the highest rank. The incumbent is Kurian Mathew Vayalunkal, having the following previous incumbents: Gustave-Charles-Marie Mutel, Paris Foreign Missions Society Andrew Killian Anselm Edward John Kenealy, Capuchin Franciscans Nikolay Avtonomov Marian Oles.
Kurian Mathew Vayalunkal. Palladius of Ratiaria, late 4th century Arian Christian theologian Roman Dacia Dacia List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia Bulgarian Archaeological Association - Excavations at Ratiaria GigaCatholic, with titular incumbent biography links Archaeological excavations of Ratiaria by the village of Archar Sarcophagus Ratiaria
Praevalitana was a Late Roman province that existed between c. 284 and c. 600. It included parts of present-day Montenegro, northern Albania, southwestern Serbia, its capital city was Scodra. The Roman Empire conquered the Adriatic-Balkanic region after the Third Illyrian War, the Romans defeated Gentius, the last king of Illyria, at Scodra in 168 BC and captured him, bringing him to Rome in 165 BC. Four client-republics were set up. Illyricum was directly governed by Rome and organized as a Roman province, with Scodra as its capital. Illyricum was split into two in 10 Pannonia and Dalmatia; the province of Dalmatia spread inland to cover all of the Dinaric Alps and most of the eastern Adriatic coast, including all actual Montenegro. The province of Praevalitana was established during the reign of Emperor Diocletian from the southeastern corner of the former province of Dalmatia and became part of the Diocese of Moesia, one of 12 dioceses created by Diocletian within his tetrarchy; the Diocese of Moesia was divided in two, the Diocese of Dacia in the north and the Diocese of Macedonia to the south.
Praevalitana was part of the Diocese of Macedonia but moved into the Diocese of Dacia, a subdivision of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum. A province of brief existence, Macedonia Salutaris, was divided between Praevalitana and Epirus Nova. After the Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476, the region remained under the rule of the Eastern Roman Empire. In the 530s, Byzantine generals of Emperor Justinian I used Praevalitana as a base for military campaign against Ostrogoths in Dalmatia during the Gothic War. During the Migration Period, Praevalitana was overrun by invasions of the Slavs. In the 6th and 7th centuries, they destroyed overran much of the hinterland; the first written records of any kind of settlement in southern Dalmatia refer to the Roman province of Praevalitana and the Roman city of Birsiminium, which lived in the shadow of the Illyrian town of Doclea, a large city by the standards of that time, boasting 8-10 thousand inhabitants and named after one of the two major Illyrian tribes inhabiting these parts, the "Docleatae".
Circa 400, the Archdiocese of Doclea was established, which lasted till 927. The Docleatae inhabited the fertile valley of the River Zeta, located along the vital link between the coastal and continental regions of Montenegro, which helped their swift economic rise; the other tribe, the "Labeates", inhabited the entire area between modern Podgorica. They had their main fortification, called Metheon, developed social and military systems in place. From the 5th century, the settling of Slavic and Avaric tribes began in this area, always coupled with destructive raids on the native tribes and settlements. Doclea was not exempt from these violent raids, which would along with natural disasters, lead to the complete obliteration of this once prosperous town. After the Slavic tribes settled in this area they established another settlement, which took over the role held by Doclea: it was named Ribnica. Native non-romanized population retreated in the Albanian highlands, while Acruvium on the coast survived the Slav attacks and prospered as a merchant city-state of the original romanized Illyrians until the 10th century.
Other cities in the province included Risinium. Fine, John Van Antwerp Jr.. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. Moravcsik, Gyula, ed.. Constantine Porphyrogenitus: De Administrando Imperio. Washington D. C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies. Radomir Popović. Le christianisme sur le sol de l'Illyricum. Institute for Balkan Studies. ISBN 978-960-7387-10-3
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area, part of Scythia at the time. By 370 AD, the Huns had arrived on the Volga, by 430 the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe, conquering the Goths and many other Germanic peoples living outside of Roman borders, causing many others to flee into Roman territory; the Huns under their King Attila made frequent and devastating raids into the Eastern Roman Empire. In 451, the Huns invaded the Western Roman province of Gaul, where they fought a combined army of Romans and Visigoths at the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, in 452 they invaded Italy. After Attila's death in 453, the Huns ceased to be a major threat to Rome and lost much of their empire following the Battle of Nedao. Descendants of the Huns, or successors with similar names, are recorded by neighbouring populations to the south and west as having occupied parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia from about the 4th to 6th centuries.
Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century. In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu people, who were northern neighbours of China in the 3rd century BC. Since Guignes' time, considerable scholarly effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection; the issue remains controversial. Their relationships to other peoples known collectively as the Iranian Huns are disputed. Little is known about Hunnic culture and few archaeological remains have been conclusively associated with the Huns, they are believed to have used bronze cauldrons and to have performed artificial cranial deformation. No description exists of the Hunnic religion of the time of Attila, but practices such as divination are attested, the existence of shamans likely, it is known that the Huns had a language of their own, however only three words and personal names attest to it. Economically, they are known to have practiced a form of nomadic pastoralism.
They do not seem to have had a unified government when they entered Europe, but rather to have developed a unified tribal leadership in the course of their wars with the Romans. The Huns ruled over a variety of peoples, who spoke various languages and some of whom maintained their own rulers, their main military technique was mounted archery. The Huns may have stimulated the Great Migration, a contributing factor in the collapse of the Western Roman Empire; the memory of the Huns lived on in various Christian saints' lives, where the Huns play the roles of antagonists, as well as in Germanic heroic legend, where the Huns are variously antagonists or allies to the Germanic main figures. In Hungary, a legend developed based on medieval chronicles that the Hungarians, the Székely ethnic group in particular, are descended from the Huns. However, mainstream scholarship dismisses a close connection between the Huns. Modern culture associates the Huns with extreme cruelty and barbarism; the origins of the Huns and their links to other steppe people remain uncertain: scholars agree that they originated in Central Asia but disagree on the specifics of their origins.
Classical sources assert that they appeared in Europe around 370. Most Roman writers' attempts to elucidate the origins of the Huns equated them with earlier steppe peoples. Roman writers repeated a tale that the Huns had entered the domain of the Goths while they were pursuing a wild stag, or else one of their cows that had gotten loose, across the Kerch Strait into Crimea. Discovering the land good, they attacked the Goths. Jordanes' Getica relates that the Goths held the Huns to be offspring of "unclean spirits" and Gothic witches. Since Joseph de Guignes in the 18th century, modern historians have associated the Huns who appeared on the borders of Europe in the 4th century AD with the Xiongnu who had invaded China from the territory of present-day Mongolia between the 3rd century BC and the 2nd century AD. Due to the devastating defeat by the Chinese Han dynasty, the northern branch of the Xiongnu had retreated north-westward. Scholars discussed the relationship between the Xungnu, the Huns, a number of people in central Asia were known as or came to be identified with the name "Hun" or "Iranian Huns", the Chionites, the Kidarites, the Hephthalites being the most prominent.
Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen was the first to challenge the traditional approach, based on the study of written sources, to emphasize the importance of archaeological research. Since Maenchen-Helfen's work, the identification of the Xiongnu as the Huns' ancestors has become controversial. Additionally, several scholars have questioned the identification of the "Iranian Huns" with the European Huns. Walter Pohl cautions that none of the great confederations of steppe warriors was ethnically homogenous, the same name was used by different groups for reasons of prestige, or by outsiders to describe their lifestyle or geographic origin, it is therefore futile to speculate about identity or blood relationships between Hiung-nu, Attila's Huns, for instance. All we can safely say is that the name Huns, in
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records, its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Armenian, Coptic and many other writing systems; the Greek language holds an important place in the history of Christianity. Greek is the language in which many of the foundational texts in science astronomy and logic and Western philosophy, such as the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle, are composed. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of Classics. During antiquity, Greek was a spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world, West Asia and many places beyond.
It would become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire and develop into Medieval Greek. In its modern form, Greek is the official language in two countries and Cyprus, a recognised minority language in seven other countries, is one of the 24 official languages of the European Union; the language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Italy, Albania and the Greek diaspora. Greek roots are used to coin new words for other languages. Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, or earlier; the earliest written evidence is a Linear B clay tablet found in Messenia that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC, making Greek the world's oldest recorded living language. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now-extinct Anatolian languages; the Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods: Proto-Greek: the unrecorded but assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek.
The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age. Mycenaean Greek: the language of the Mycenaean civilisation, it is recorded in the Linear B script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards. Ancient Greek: in its various dialects, the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilisation, it was known throughout the Roman Empire. Ancient Greek fell into disuse in western Europe in the Middle Ages, but remained in use in the Byzantine world and was reintroduced to the rest of Europe with the Fall of Constantinople and Greek migration to western Europe. Koine Greek: The fusion of Ionian with Attic, the dialect of Athens, began the process that resulted in the creation of the first common Greek dialect, which became a lingua franca across the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East. Koine Greek can be traced within the armies and conquered territories of Alexander the Great and after the Hellenistic colonization of the known world, it was spoken from Egypt to the fringes of India.
After the Roman conquest of Greece, an unofficial bilingualism of Greek and Latin was established in the city of Rome and Koine Greek became a first or second language in the Roman Empire. The origin of Christianity can be traced through Koine Greek, because the Apostles used this form of the language to spread Christianity, it is known as Hellenistic Greek, New Testament Greek, sometimes Biblical Greek because it was the original language of the New Testament and the Old Testament was translated into the same language via the Septuagint. Medieval Greek known as Byzantine Greek: the continuation of Koine Greek, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. Medieval Greek is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles, ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were approaching Modern Greek in many respects, to learned forms imitating classical Attic. Much of the written Greek, used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine.
Modern Greek: Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period, as early as the 11th century. It is the language used by the modern Greeks, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it. In the modern era, the Greek language entered a state of diglossia: the coexistence of vernacular and archaizing written forms of the language. What came to be known as the Greek language question was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek: Dimotiki, the vernacular form of Modern Greek proper, Katharevousa, meaning'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek, developed in the early 19th century and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state. In 1976, Dimotiki was declared the official language of Greece, having incorporated features of Katharevousa and giving birth to Standard Modern Greek, used today for all official purposes and in education; the historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language is emphasised.
Although Greek h
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is God. Arian teachings were first attributed to a Christian presbyter in Alexandria of Egypt; the teachings of Arius and his supporters were opposed to the theological views held by Homoousian Christians, regarding the nature of the Trinity and the nature of Christ. The Arian concept of Christ is based on the belief that the Son of God did not always exist but was begotten within time by God the Father. There was a dispute between two interpretations of Jesus' divinity based upon the theological orthodoxy of the time, one trinitarian and the other non-trinitarian, both of them attempted to solve its respective theological dilemmas. So there were two orthodox interpretations which initiated a conflict in order to attract adepts and define the new orthodoxy.
The two interpretations initiated a broader conflict as to which belief was the successor of Christian theology from its inception. The former was formally affirmed by the first two Ecumenical Councils, in the past several centuries, Arianism has continued to be viewed as "the heresy or sect of Arius"; as such, all mainstream branches of Christianity now consider Arianism to be heterodox and heretical. The trinitarianism, or homoousianism viewpoint, was promulgated by Athanasius of Alexandria, who insisted that Homoousianism theology was both the true nature of God and the teaching of Jesus. Arius stated: "If the Father begat the Son he, begotten had a beginning in existence, from this it follows there was a time when the Son was not." Nonetheless, the Ecumenical First Council of Nicaea of 325, convened by Emperor Constantine to ensure Church unity, deemed Arianism to be a heresy." According to Everett Ferguson, "The great majority of Christians had no clear views about the nature of the Trinity and they did not understand what was at stake in the issues that surrounded it."Ten years however, Constantine the Great, himself baptized by the Arian bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia, convened another gathering of Church leaders at the regional First Synod of Tyre in 335, to address various charges mounted against Athanasius by his pro-Arius detractors, such as "murder, illegal taxation and treason", following his refusal to readmit Arius into fellowship.
Athanasius was exiled to Trier following his conviction at Tyre of conspiracy, Arius was exonerated. Athanasius returned to Alexandria in 346 A. D. two years after the deaths of both Arius and Constantine. The Roman Emperors Constantius II and Valens were Arians or Semi-Arians, as was the first King of Italy and the Lombards were Arians or Semi-Arians until the 7th century. Visigothic Spain was Arian until 581. Arianism is used to refer to other nontrinitarian theological systems of the 4th century, which regarded Jesus Christ—the Son of God, the Logos—as either a begotten creature or as neither uncreated nor created in the sense other beings are created. Arius had been a pupil of Lucian of Antioch at Lucian's private academy in Antioch and inherited from him a modified form of the teachings of Paul of Samosata, he taught that the Son of God did not always exist together eternally. Arians taught that the Logos was a divine being begotten by God the Father before the creation of the world, made him a medium through whom everything else was created, that the Son of God is subordinate to God the Father.
A verse from Proverbs was used: "The Lord created me at the beginning of his work". Therefore, the Son was rather the first and the most perfect of God's creatures, he was made "God" only by the Father's permission and power. Controversy over Arianism arose in the late 3rd century and persisted throughout most of the 4th century, it involved most church members—from simple believers and monks to bishops and members of Rome's imperial family. Two Roman emperors, Constantius II and Valens, became Arians or Semi-Arians, as did prominent Gothic and Lombard warlords both before and after the fall of the Western Roman Empire; such a deep controversy within the Church during this period of its development could not have materialized without significant historical influences providing a basis for the Arian doctrines. Of the three hundred bishops in attendance at the Council of Nicea, two bishops did not sign the Nicene Creed that condemned Arianism. Emperor Constantine ordered a penalty of death for those who refused to surrender the Arian writings: In addition, if any writing composed by Arius should be found, it should be handed over to the flames, so that not only will the wickedness of his teaching be obliterated, but nothing will be left to remind anyone of him.
And I hereby make a public order, that if someone should be discovered to have hidden a writing composed by Arius, not to have brought it forward and destroyed it by fire, his penalty shall be death. As soon as he is discovered in this offence, he shall be submitted for capital punishment.... Reconstructing what Arius taught, why, is a formidable task, both because little of his own w