In heraldry, sometimes referred to as attendants, are figures or objects placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up. Early forms of supporters are found in medieval seals. However, unlike the coronet or helmet and crest, supporters were not part of early medieval heraldry; as part of the heraldic achievement, they first become fashionable towards the end of the 15th century, but in the 17th century were not part of the full heraldic achievement. The figures used as supporters may be based on real or imaginary animals, human figures, in rare cases plants or other inanimate objects, such as the pillars of Hercules of the coat of arms of Spain; as in other elements of heraldry, these can have local significance, such as the fisherman and the tin miner granted to Cornwall County Council, or a historical link. The arms of nutritionist John Boyd-Orr use two'garbs' as supporters. Letters of the alphabet are used as supporters in the arms of Spain. Human supporters can be allegorical figures, or, more specifically named individuals.
There is one supporter on each side of the shield, though there are some examples of single supporters placed behind the shield, such as the imperial eagle of the coat of arms of the Holy Roman Empire. The arms of the Congo provide an unusual example of two supporters issuing from behind the shield. While such single supporters are eagles with one or two heads, there are other examples, including the cathedra in the case of some Canadian cathedrals. At the other extreme and rarer, the Scottish chief Dundas of that Ilk had three supporters: two conventional red lions and the whole supported by a salamander; the coat of arms of Iceland has four supporters. The context of the application of supporters may vary, although entitlement may be considered conditioned by grant of a type of augmentation of honour by admission in orders of chivalry or by heraldic authorities, such as in the case of traditional British heraldry. Animal supporters are, by default, as close to rampant as possible, if the nature of the supporter allows it, though there are some blazoned exceptions.
An example of whales'non-rampant' is the arms of the Dutch municipality of Zaanstad. Older writers trace origins of supporters to their usages in tournaments, where the shields of the combatants were exposed for inspection, guarded by their servants or pages disguised in fanciful attire. However, medieval Scottish seals afford numerous examples in which the 13th and 14th century shields were placed between two creatures resembling lizards or dragons; the seal of John, Duke of Normandy, eldest son of the King of France, before 1316 bears his arms as. In Canada, Companions of the Order of Canada, Commanders of the Order of Military Merit, Commanders of the Royal Victorian Order: people granted the style the Right Honourable, corporations are granted the use of supporters on their coats of arms. Further, on his retirement from office as Chief Herald, Robert Watt was granted supporters as an honour. In France, writers made a distinctive difference on the subject of supporters, giving the name of Supports to animals, real or imaginary, thus employed.
Trees and other inanimate objects which are sometimes used are called Soutiens. Knights Grand Companion and Principal Companions of the New Zealand Order of Merit are granted the use of heraldic supporters. In England, supporters were regarded as little more than mere decorative and artistic appendages. In the United Kingdom, supporters are an example of special royal favour, granted at the behest of the sovereign. Hereditary supporters are limited to hereditary peers, certain members of the Royal Family, to some chiefs of Scottish clans. Non-hereditary supporters are granted to life peers and Ladies of the Order of the Garter and Order of the Thistle and Dames Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Order of St Michael and St George, Royal Victorian Order and Order of the British Empire, Bailiffs and Dames Grand Cross of the Order of St John. Knights banneret were granted non-hereditary supporters, but no such knight has been created since the time of Charles I. Supporters may be granted to corporations which have a royal charter.
Private Officer of Arms
A private officer of arms is one of the heralds and pursuivants appointed by great noble houses to handle all heraldic and genealogical questions. Since the development of heraldry in the Middle Ages and the rise of officers of arms, noble families have appointed heralds and pursuivants to look after the correct marshalling of their coats of arms and research genealogical links. Many noblemen in Britain retained heralds from about 1170 onwards, as did important knights such as Sir John Chandos; the heralds were concerned with war and tournaments and identifying people by their arms. As such, they developed an interest in genealogy; the Lord of the Isles had Ross Herald and Islay Pursuivant. On the forfeiture of the Lordship these became, remain, Royal Officers. In 1725, Blanc Coursier Herald was created to serve Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, the tabard of the office includes Prince Williams differenced arms. Today, most officers of arms are employed by state heraldic authorities. There are, some private officers that still exist.
In Scotland, there are four private pursuivants of arms that are recognized by the Court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms. These are appointed by clan chiefs to look after matters of clan genealogy; the four recognized private Scottish pursuivants are listed below: Slains Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Hay – the Earl of Erroll, Lord High Constable of Scotland Garioch Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Mar – the Countess of Mar Endure Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Lindsay – the Earl of Crawford & Balcarres Finlaggan Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Macdonald and High Chief of Clan Donald – the Lord Macdonald of Slate. This post was revived, after five centuries in August 2005 In 10 November 1962 Fernando Muñoz Altea was appointed King of Arms of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies by HRH Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro, Head of the Royal House; the Kingdom of Sicily did not have actual heralds in recent times, but rather a Commission for Titles of Nobility based in Naples until 1861.
This commission concerned itself with administration of certain nobiliary institutions and recognition of titles of nobility. Muñoz Altea continues this tradition as a Private Officer of Arms of the Royal House. In addition to his office as King of Arms, Muñoz Altea is delegate of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George. Heraldry Officer of Arms King of Arms Herald of Arms Pursuivant of Arms The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Chief Herald of Ireland The Court of the Lord Lyon The College of Arms The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland
Civic heraldry is heraldry used by municipalities. Cities, towns and other civic bodies use heraldic arms as symbols for themselves and their authority; the traditions differ somewhat from one country to the other, but some similarities can be seen which distinguish all civic heraldry from state or personal heraldry. The most prominent common element is the mural crown, used as a sign for a city and its authority in many countries. Cornish corporate heraldry Heraldry of the World
Officer of arms
An officer of arms is a person appointed by a sovereign or state with authority to perform one or more of the following functions: to control and initiate armorial matters to arrange and participate in ceremonies of state to conserve and interpret heraldic and genealogical records. The medieval practice of appointing heralds or pursuivants to the establishment of a noble household is still common in European countries those in which there is no official heraldic control or authority; such appointments are still made in Scotland, where four private officers of arms exist. These appointments are all purely advisory. Traditionally in England, the authority of the thirteen officers of arms in ordinary, who form the corporation of the Kings and Pursuivants of Arms, extends throughout the Commonwealth, with the exception of Scotland and South Africa. Officers of arms are of three ranks: kings of arms, heralds of arms, pursuivants of arms. Officers of arms whose appointments are of a permanent nature are known as officers of arms in ordinary.
The officers of arms in ordinary who form the College of Arms are members of the royal household and receive a nominal salary. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms, the Lyon Clerk and Keeper of the Records control matters armorial within a strict legal framework not enjoyed by their fellow officers of arms in London, the court, a part of Scotland's criminal jurisdiction has its own prosecutor, the court's Procurator Fiscal, however not an officer of arms. Lord Lyon and the Lyon Clerk are appointed by the crown, with the Crown's authority, Lyon appoints the other Scottish officers; the officers of arms in Scotland are members of the royal household. In the Republic of Ireland, matters armorial and genealogical come within the authority of an officer designated the Chief Herald of Ireland; the legal basis for Ireland's heraldic authority, therefore all grants since 1943, has been questioned by the Attorney General, therefore, on May 8, 2006 Senator Brendan Ryan introduced the Genealogy & Heraldry Bill, 2006, in Seanad Éireann to remedy this situation and legitimise actions since the transfer of power from the Ulster King of Arms.
In the Netherlands, officers of arms do not exist as permanent functions. Private heraldry is not legislated, state heraldry and the heraldry of the nobility is regulated by the High Council of Nobility. During the royal inauguration ceremony however, two Kings of Arms and two or four Heralds of Arms have figured; these were members of the High Council of Nobility. During the inaugurations of Wilhelmina and Juliana, the Kings of Arms wore nineteenth-century style court dress, whereas the Heralds wore tabards. All officers wore chains of office. In the inauguration of Queen Beatrix in 1980, the ceremonial office was held by members of the resistance, Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema being the elder King of Arms. Like most other participants in the pageant the officers of arms were no longer wearing ceremonial dress, but white tie instead; the senior King of Arms proclaims the King to be inaugurated after he or she has sworn allegiance to the constitution. The Heralds step outside the New Church in Amsterdam, where the inauguration ceremony is held, to announce this fact to the people gathered outside the church.
Heraldry King of Arms Herald of Arms Pursuivant of Arms Private Officer of Arms The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Chief Herald of Ireland The Flemish Heraldic Council Hofpfalzgraf Cronista Rey de Armas Portugal King of Arms The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland The Canadian Heraldic Authority The office of the Chief Herald of Sweden, Riksheraldikerämbetet
King of Arms
King of Arms is the senior rank of an officer of arms. In many heraldic traditions, only a king of arms has the authority to grant armorial bearings and sometimes certify genealogies and noble titles. In other traditions, the power has been delegated to other officers of similar rank. In England, the authority to grant a coat of arms is subject to the formal approval of the Earl Marshal in the form of a warrant. In jurisdictions such as the Republic of Ireland the authority to grant armorial bearings has been delegated to a chief herald that serves the same purpose as the traditional king of arms. Canada has a chief herald, though this officer grants arms on the authority of the Governor General as the Queen's representative through the Herald Chancellor's direct remit. Scotland's only king of arms, the Lord Lyon, exercises the royal prerogative by direct delegation from the Crown and like the Chief Herald of Ireland and the old Ulster King of Arms needs no warrant from any other office bearer.
In the Kingdom of Spain, the power to certify coats of arms has been given to the Cronistas de Armas. The English and Scottish kings of arms are the only officers of arms to have a distinctive crown of office, used for ceremonial purposes such as at coronations. At the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, the kings of arms used a crown trimmed with sixteen acanthus leaves alternating in height, inscribed with the words Miserere mei Deus secundum magnam misericordiam tuam; when this crown is shown in pictorial representations, only nine leaves and the first three words are shown. A new crown has been made for the Lord Lyon, modelled on the Scottish Royal crown among the Honours of Scotland; this crown has removable arches which will be removed at coronations to avoid any hint of lèse majesté. Garter Principal King of Arms Clarenceux King of Arms Norroy and Ulster King of Arms Lord Lyon King of Arms Garter King of Arms is the herald of the Order of the Garter as is in Scotland Lord Lyon King of Arms the herald of the Order of the Thistle.
The Norroy and Ulster King of Arms is the herald of the Order of St Patrick. Other British orders of chivalry have their own kings of arms: Bath King of Arms, for the Order of the Bath King of Arms of the Order of St Michael and St George King of Arms of the Order of the British Empire The Chief Herald of Canada The Chief Herald of Ireland The National Herald of South Africa The State Herald of Sweden is the head of a branch of the National Archives of Sweden New Zealand Herald of Arms Extraordinary The Herald of Arms of New Zealand Cronistas Reyes de Armas Portugal Rei de Armas or Rei de Armas Portugal Rei de Armas Algarve Rei de Armas Índia Rei de Armas América, África e Índia King of Arms Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies Media related to King of Arms at Wikimedia Commons Bureau of Heraldry The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Canadian Heraldic Authority Heraldic authority State Ceremonial The Court of the Lord Lyon The College of Arms The Canadian Heraldic Authority at Archive.today The Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland Genealogy & Heraldry Bill, 2006 - new legislation on heraldry before the Irish Senate King of Arms Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies
A heraldic knot is a knot, unknot, or design incorporating a knot used in European heraldry. While a given knot can be used on more than one family's achievement of arms, the family on whose coat the knot originated gives its name to the said knot; these knots can be used to charge shields and crests, but can be used in badges or as standalone symbols of the families for whom they are named. The simplest of these patterns, the Bowen knot, is referred to as the heraldic knot in symbolism and art outside of heraldry
A galero is a broad-brimmed hat with tasselated strings worn by clergy in the Catholic Church. Over the centuries, the red galero was restricted to use by individual cardinals while such other colors as green and violet were reserved to clergy of other ranks and styles; when creating a cardinal, the pope used to place a scarlet galero on the new cardinal's head in consistory, the practice giving rise to the phrase "receiving the red hat." In 1969, a Papal decree ended the use of the galero. Since that time, only the scarlet zucchetto and biretta are placed over the heads of cardinals during the consistory; some cardinals continue to obtain a galero so that the custom of suspending it over their tombs may be observed. Cardinal Raymond Burke has been known to wear the galero on occasion in the 21st century. A few cardinals from eastern rites wear distinctive oriental headgear. Other ecclesiastical hats are used by ministers of other Christian communities. Alongside Catholic clergy, the Scots Public Register records its use by Episcopalian and Presbyterian ministers.
The Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland uses a black hat, with blue cords and ten tassels Traditionally, the galero remains over the tomb until it is reduced to dust, symbolizing how all earthly glory is passing. In a cathedral that has no crypt, the galeri are suspended from the ceiling. For example, following the death of Cardinal Basil Hume, Archbishop of Westminster, in 1999, his relatives had a galero installed above his tomb in Westminster Cathedral, alongside those of his predecessors; the privilege of wearing the red galero was first granted to cardinals by Pope Innocent IV in 1245 at the First Council of Lyon. Tradition in the Archdiocese of Lyon is that the red color was inspired by the red hats of the canons of Lyon. Pope Innocent wanted his favorites to be distinct and recognizable in the lengthy processions at the council. Anachronistically, some early Church Fathers are shown wearing a galero, notably Jerome is pictured in art either wearing a galero, or with one close by.
Though the office of cardinal did not exist in Jerome's day, he had been secretary to Pope Damasus I, which in days would have made him a cardinal ex officio. Cardinal Jean Cholet used his galero to crown Charles of Valois in 1285 at Girona during the Aragonese Crusade, pronouncing him King of Aragon; as a result, roi du chapeau became Charles's nickname. The use of the galero was abolished in 1969 with instruciton Ut sive sollicite; the galero continues to appear today in ecclesiastical heraldry as part of the achievement of the coat of arms of an armigerous Catholic cleric. The ecclesiastical hat replaces the helmet and crest, because those were considered too belligerent for men in the clerical estate; the color of the hat and number of tassels indicate the cleric's place in the hierarchy. Priests and ministers have a black hat with cords and tassels, the number depending upon their rank. Bishops use a green hat with green cords and six green tassels on each side, archbishops have a green hat with green cords and ten green tassels on each side, cardinals have a red hat with red cords and fifteen red tassels on each side.
Depiction in arms can vary depending on the artist's style. Philippi, Dieter. Sammlung Philippi – Kopfbedeckungen in Glaube, Religion und Spiritualität. St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig. ISBN 978-3-7462-2800-6. Pictures of clerical headgear and literature in German language Picture of a cardinal's galero, hanging