Glossary of architecture
This page is a glossary of architecture. Abacus A flat slab forming the uppermost member or division of the capital of a column. Accolade A sculptural embellishment of an arch. Aisle Subsidiary space alongside the body of a building, separated from it by columns, piers, or posts. Ante-choir The space enclosed in a church between the outer gate or railing of the rood screen and the door of the screen. Apron 1. Raised panel below a window or wall monument or tablet. 2. Open portion of a marine terminal adjacent to a vessel berth, used in the direct transfer of cargo between the vessel and the terminal. 3. Concrete slab outside a vehicular door or passageway used to limit the wear on asphalt paving due to repetitive turning movements or heavy loads. Apse Vaulted polygonal end of a chancel or chapel; that portion of a church Christian, beyond the "crossing" and opposite the nave. In some churches, the choir is seated in this space. Araeosystyle An architectural term applied to a colonnade, in which the intercolumniation is alternately wide and narrow.
Arcade Passage or walkway covered over by a succession of vaults supported by columns. Blind arcade or arcading: the same applied to the wall surface. Arch A curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight. Architrave Formalized lintel, the lowest member of the classical entablature; the molded frame of a door or window. Area Steps The Steps between a basement. Arris Sharp edge where two surfaces meet at an angle such as the corner of a square shaft. Arrowslit A thin vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows. Articulation Articulation is the manner or method of jointing parts such that each part is clear and distinct in relation to the others though joined. Ashlar Masonry of large blocks cut with faces and square edges. Atlas A support sculpted in the form of a man, which may take the place of a column, a pier or a pilaster. Atrium Inner court of a Roman or C20 house. Attic Small top story within a roof above the uppermost ceiling.
The story above the main entablature of a classical façade. Bahut A small parapet or attic wall bearing the weight of the roof of a cathedral or church. Balconet A false balcony, or railing at the outer plane of a window. Ball flower An architectural ornament in the form of a ball inserted in the cup of a flower, which came into use in the latter part of the 13th, was in great vogue in the early part of the 14th century. Baluster A Small moulded shaft, square or circular, in stone or wood, sometimes metal, supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase. Bar-stayed girder A structural member of inadequate capacity for its load or span, augmented by one or two steel bars anchored to each bearing end at or above the centroid of the girder to assume the tension forces; the bar runs down and below the girder and stand off the girder on one or more struts anchored to the girder at its bottom surface. The struts are sized to accept the compressive forces imposed without bending; the load limit to this member is the crippling capacity of the girder.
Bargeboard A board fastened to the projecting gables of a roof. Barrel vault An architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance. Bartizan An overhanging, wall-mounted turret projecting from the walls at the corners, of medieval fortifications or churches. Basement Lowest, subordinate storey of building either or below ground level. Basilica Originally a Roman, large roofed hall erected for transacting business and disposing of legal matters.. Medieval cathedral plans were a development of the basilica plan type. Batement Lights The lights in the upper part of a perpendicular window, abated, or only half the width of those below. Batter Upwardly receding slope of a wall or column. Battlement A parapet, in which rectangular gaps or indentations occur at intervals to allow for the discharge of arrows or other missiles. Bays Internal compartments of a building. External divisions of a building by fenestration. Bay window Window of one or more storeys projecting from the face of a building.
Canted: with a straight front and angled sides. Bow window: curved. Oriel: starts above ground level. Belfry Chamber or stage in a tower where bells are hung; the term is used to describe the manner in which bricks are laid in a wall so that they interlock. Bench table Stone seat which runs round the walls of large churches, sometimes round the piers. Bond Brickwork with overlapping bricks. Types of bond include stretcher, header, garden wall, basket and Chinese. Boss 1. Cut stone set in place for carving. 2. An ornamental projection, a carved keystone of a ribbed vault at the intersection of the ogives. Bossage Uncut stone, laid in place in a building, projecting outward from the building, to be carved into decorative mol
In architecture, a baseboard is wooden or vinyl board covering the lowest part of an interior wall. Its purpose is to cover the joint between the floor, it covers the uneven edge of flooring next to the wall. At its simplest, baseboard consists of a simple plank screwed or glued to the wall. A baseboard differs from a wainscot. Plastic baseboard comes in various plastic compounds, the most common of, UPVC, it is available in white or a flexible version in several colors and is glued to the wall. Vinyl baseboard can be difficult to remove or to replace, it has a long lifespan. Wooden baseboard can be available in lacquered or prepainted versions. Prepainted baseboards can be made from a single piece or finger jointed wood softwoods, while hardwoods are either lacquered, or raw for staining and made from a single piece of wood. Radiators are sometimes installed in front of baseboards; these radiators rely on hot water as their heat source. Electric heating is used in this manner. Baseboards have typical variations depending on the country.
For example, in China the baseboards are very low in height, are made of plastic or redwood, have a simple or unprofiled design. In contrast, in the UK, where they are referred to as skirting board not baseboard, there are a vast number of profiles available; these profiles are named after the period when they were developed, such as Victorian or Edwardian. Quarter round Crown molding
A pedestal or plinth is the support of a statue or a vase. Although in Syria, Asia Minor and Tunisia the Romans raised the columns of their temples or propylaea on square pedestals, in Rome itself they were employed only to give greater importance to isolated columns, such as those of Trajan and Antoninus, or as a podium to the columns employed decoratively in the Roman triumphal arches; the architects of the Italian revival, conceived the idea that no order was complete without a pedestal, as the orders were by them employed to divide up and decorate a building in several stories, the cornice of the pedestal was carried through and formed the sills of their windows, or, in open arcades, round a court, the balustrade of the arcade. They would seem to have considered that the height of the pedestal should correspond in its proportion with that of the column or pilaster it supported. In the imperial China, a stone tortoise called bixi was traditionally used as the pedestal for important stele those associated with emperors.
According to the 1396 version of the regulations issued by the Ming Dynasty founder, the Hongwu Emperor, the highest nobility and the officials of the top 3 ranks were eligible for bixi-based funerary tablets, while lower-level mandarins' steles were to stand on simple rectangular pedestals. An elevated pedestal or plinth which bears a statue and, raised from the substructure supporting it is sometimes called an acropodium; the term is from the Greek akros or "topmost" and pous or "foot". Pedestal crater Pedestal desk Pedestal table, a table with a single central leg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pedestal". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Lincrusta is a embossed wallcovering, invented by Frederick Walton. In 1860, Walton patented linoleum floor covering. Lincrusta was launched in 1877 and was used in a host of applications from royal homes to railway carriages. Many examples over a hundred years old can still be found throughout the world. Found in Victorian properties and restoration projects, Lincrusta is frequently used in commercial projects such as hotel foyers, bars and casinos. Notable installations included six staterooms on the Titanic, the White House, the Winchester Mystery House and Roseland Cottage in Woodstock, where it has been restored and is on view to the public. Lincrusta is made from a paste of gelled linseed wood flour spread onto a paper base, it is rolled between steel rollers, one of which has a pattern embossed upon it. The linseed gel continues to dry for many years, so the surface gets harder over time. Both oil-based and water-based paints can be applied to Lincrusta, therefore it can provide a base for effects from simple colour washes or marbling and glazing, to more elaborate gilding and ver de mer treatments.
Lincrusta was manufactured in Sunbury-on-Thames until 1918 when the manufacturing was moved to Darwen, Lancashire. The first production of Lincrusta in the United States was in 1883 in Connecticut. There were factories built in 1880 at Pierrefitte, by 1889 in Hannover, Germany. Lincrusta is now produced in Lancashire using traditional methods. Heritage Wallcoverings Ltd acquired the Lincrusta operating assets in July 2014. Parsons, Ralph From Floor to Ceiling: How One Man's Inventions Brought Fame to Staines and Sunbury Spelthorne Museum, England, ISBN 0-9530265-0-7
Crown molding encapsulates a large family of moldings which are designed to gracefully flare out to a finished top edge. Crown molding is used for capping walls and cabinets, is used extensively in the creation of interior and exterior cornice assemblies and door and window hoods.. In recent times, crown moldings have made their appearance as decorated plaster or wooden trim where walls meet ceilings. Crown molding is applied along the seams where ceiling meets wall, it is not placed flush against the wall nor against the ceiling. Instead, when viewed from the molding's end, it, the ceiling, the wall form a "hollow" triangle; this adds a difficulty to the installation process, namely the need for complex cuts to form corners where two walls meet. There are two common ways to fashion inside corners. One is to use a compound miter saw to cut the ends of the corner pieces along two axes simultaneously; the other, called coping, is a two step process, first to cut a simple miter and to use a coping saw to undercut the miters.
Many different companies now manufacture crown molding in materials such as foam. These are offered with corner blocks, are popular with DIY home improvement enthusiasts; the use of a coped joint for interior corners saves the trouble of having to determine and cut the exact inside degree measurement, since most corners are not 90/45 degrees. Outside corners must be mitered, care must be taken in measuring and cutting, since not all outside corners measure true. If the angle is not 45/22.5 degrees, a corner measuring device or piece of scrap crown molding may be used to obtain the right measurement before the final cut is made. Fitting crown molding requires a cut at the correct combination of bevel angle; the calculation of these angles is affected by two variables: the spring angle, the wall angle. Pre-calculated crown molding tables or software can be used to facilitate the determination of the correct angles. Given the spring angle and the wall angle, the formulas used to calculate the miter angle and the bevel angle are: Miter angle = arctan Bevel angle = arcsin Online Angle Generator and Crown Molding Installation Tutorials
Merriam-Webster, Inc. is an American company that publishes reference books and is known for its dictionaries. In 1828, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G & C Merriam Co. in Springfield, Massachusetts. In 1843, after Noah Webster died, the company bought the rights to An American Dictionary of the English Language from Webster's estate. All Merriam-Webster dictionaries trace their lineage to this source. In 1964, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. acquired Inc. as a subsidiary. The company adopted its current name in 1982. In 1806, Webster published A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. In 1807 Webster started two decades of intensive work to expand his publication into a comprehensive dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language. To help him trace the etymology of words, Webster learned 26 languages. Webster hoped to standardize American speech, since Americans in different parts of the country used somewhat different vocabularies and spelled and used words differently.
Webster completed his dictionary during his year abroad in 1825 in Paris, at the University of Cambridge. His 1820s book contained 70,000 words, of which about 12,000 had never appeared in a dictionary before; as a spelling reformer, Webster believed that English spelling rules were unnecessarily complex, so his dictionary introduced American English spellings, replacing colour with color, waggon with wagon, centre with center. He added American words, including skunk and squash, that did not appear in British dictionaries. At the age of 70 in 1828, Webster published his dictionary. However, in 1840, he published the second edition in two volumes with much greater success. In 1843, after Webster's death, George Merriam and Charles Merriam secured publishing and revision rights to the 1840 edition of the dictionary, they published a revision in 1847, which did not change any of the main text but added new sections, a second update with illustrations in 1859. In 1864, Merriam published a expanded edition, the first version to change Webster's text overhauling his work yet retaining many of his definitions and the title "An American Dictionary".
This began a series of revisions. In 1884 it contained 118,000 words, "3000 more than any other English dictionary". With the edition of 1890, the dictionary was retitled Webster's International; the vocabulary was vastly expanded in Webster's New International editions of 1909 and 1934, totaling over half a million words, with the 1934 edition retrospectively called Webster's Second International or "The Second Edition" of the New International. The Collegiate Dictionary was introduced in 1898 and the series is now in its eleventh edition. Following the publication of Webster's International in 1890, two Collegiate editions were issued as abridgments of each of their Unabridged editions. With the ninth edition, the Collegiate adopted changes which distinguish it as a separate entity rather than an abridgment of the Third New International; some proper names were returned including names of Knights of the Round Table. The most notable change was the inclusion of the date of the first known citation of each word, to document its entry into the English language.
The eleventh edition includes more than 225,000 definitions, more than 165,000 entries. A CD-ROM of the text is sometimes included; this dictionary is preferred as a source "for general matters of spelling" by the influential The Chicago Manual of Style, followed by many book publishers and magazines in the United States. The Chicago Manual states. Merriam overhauled the dictionary again with the 1961 Webster's Third New International under the direction of Philip B. Gove, making changes that sparked public controversy. Many of these changes were in formatting, omitting needless punctuation, or avoiding complete sentences when a phrase was sufficient. Others, more controversial, signaled a shift from linguistic prescriptivism and towards describing American English as it was used at that time. Since the 1940s, the company has added many specialized dictionaries, language aides, other references to its repertoire; the G. & C. Merriam Company lost its right to exclusive use of the name "Webster" after a series of lawsuits placed that name in public domain.
Its name was changed to "Merriam-Webster, Incorporated", with the publication of Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary in 1983. Previous publications had used "A Merriam-Webster Dictionary" as a subtitle for many years and will be found on older editions; the company has been a subsidiary of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. since 1964. In 1996, Merriam-Webster launched its first website, which provided free access to an online dictionary and thesaurus. Merriam-Webster has published dictionaries of synonyms, English usage, biography, proper names, medical terms, sports terms, Spanish/English, numerous others. Non-dictionary publications include Collegiate Thesaurus, Secretarial Handbook, Manual for Writers and Editors, Collegiate Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia of Literature, Encyclopedia of World Religions. On February 16, 2007, Merriam-Webster announced the launch of a mobile dictionary and thesaurus service developed with mobile search-and-information provider AskMeNow. Consumers use the service to access definitions and synonyms via text message.
Services include Merr
Spring Hall known as Spring Hall Mansions, is a mansion situated off the Huddersfield Road, West Yorkshire. A house had been built on the site by 1614, it was rebuilt in Gothic Revival style and completed in 1871 to a larger ground plan by architects James Mallinson and William Swinden Barber for Tom Holdsworth. In World War I, the house served as a hospital, it remained in the family's ownership until the death of Holdsworth's nephew in 1920. Subsequently, it became a boarding house, passed through several hands until it was presented to Halifax Corporation in 1948. After most of the grounds had been sold off, the remainder was used for sports and recreation, the building was used as a ballet studio; the building fell into disrepair but was renovated in 2009. As of 2014, Calderdale Register Office has officiated at wedding ceremonies in the Hall's ground floor suite since 2011, the upper floors are now rented out as office space. Although many of Barber's buildings are now listed, Spring Hall remains unlisted, although it retains its 17th-century cellars and many original 1871 features including the painted and galleried Arts and Crafts grand staircase.
By 1871 when he designed this mansion in partnership with James Mallinson, William Swinden Barber was an established and respected local architect, having designed and co-designed important public buildings and churches in the Halifax area. He was a Gothic Revival and Arts and Crafts architect, having connections with leading artists in these movements through mutual founder-membership of the Artists Rifles. Today, fifteen or more examples of his work are now Grade II listed buildings; the original plans by Mallinson and Barber of the rebuild, dated April 1870, still exist at West Yorkshire Archive Service. The building is first recorded as Spring Hall in 1614, it has been known as Spring Hall Mansions at least since 1927, is not listed, although it is a major design by Mallinson and Barber. In 1870–1871 it was razed to ground level to enable a rebuild, leaving only the 17th-century arched cellars, they extended the ground plan and constructed the present Gothic Revival and Arts and Crafts mansion, completed in 1871.
The work involved an application in February 1871 from the architects to alter the fence wall between the Spring Hall estate and the Huddersfield turnpike road. During office hours, most of the exterior and the remaining grounds are accessible to the public. Spring Hall is a large, three-storey, cellared building, set in its own grounds, it has pitched roofs and tall, Elizabethan-style chimneys. There is a four-storey, pinnacled tower and a ground-floor entrance-porch at the south-east corner; the west side, which faces the drive and the Huddersfield Road, has two non-functioning gargoyles representing a dog and fox on the outer corners of the central bay of the first floor. Besides being evident from outside, these gargoyles can be seen through adjacent windows, from inside the building; the lintel above the ground floor window on the same bay is carved with a frieze of stylised flower motifs separated by a zigzag line, the window below contains stone frames with double ogee curves along the top edges.
Above the south-east entrance porch is the Holdsworth family crest carved in stone: a lion rampant, holding an opened scroll. Inside the building, only the porch and entrance hall are accessible to the public, during office hours. Although as of 2014 much of the interior has been adapted for office use and for the Calderdale Register Office, the grand Arts and Crafts wooden staircase has survived intact, along with some wall and ceiling decoration; the lower part of the staircase is visible from the entrance hall. The dark-varnished and galleried staircase retains faded gilding and stencilled motifs on its first floor ceiling and on the underside of the first landing, visible from the ground floor; the decorative, carved frieze around these ceilings still has old and faded gilding. The newel post is of unusual design. There are four carved plaster corbels supporting the first floor staircase ceiling, they represent a woman with grapes and flowers, a winged cherub, a man with harvest motifs and a full-bearded man in medieval costume, carrying scrolls.
In the latter corbel which overlooks the stairwell, the bearded man's profile is similar to Barber's profile in his portrait by David Wilkie Wynfield, his scrolls are long and slim enough to be building plans. These details beg the question as to whether it is a portrait of the architect, placed to overlook his work; the plaster corbels on the ground floor staircase ceiling are carved with lions, in connection with the Holdsworth family crest. Two original first-floor fireplaces survive. One of these has an over-painted stone surround and mantelpiece, a hearth surfaced with Arts and Crafts tiles; the other one in the music room is a large and decoratively carved oak affair, with matching doorways either side. These doors open into a dressing room; the doors and fireplace contain half-columns and pediments in a semi-neoclassical style, with a carved frieze of fruit and leaves, the helmeted head of St Cecilia, patroness of musicians. The hearth contains a hand-made Arts and Crafts cast iron hood and moulded, coloured ceramic tiles on the surround.
The hearth's floor tiles have been removed. The music room has a carved, oak dado, a decorative plaster ceiling with ceiling roses which double as ventilators, there are the original wooden beams designed to support the heavy hung ceiling. On the ground floor, a decorative plaster ceiling with layered and coloured cornice survives in the wedding room of the register offic