The Indian santoor instrument is a trapezoid-shaped hammered dulcimer, a variation of the Iranian Santur. The instrument is made of walnut and has 25 bridges; each bridge has 4 strings, making for a total of 100 strings. It is a traditional instrument in Jammu and Kashmir, dates back to ancient times, it was called Shatha Tantri Veena in ancient Sanskrit texts. In ancient Sanskrit texts, it has been referred to as shatatantri vina. In Kashmir the santoor was used to accompany folk music, it is played in a style of music known as the Sufiana Mausiqi. Some researchers slot it as an improvised version of a primitive instrument played in the Mesopotamian times Sufi mystics used it as an accompaniment to their hymns. In Indian santoor playing, the specially-shaped mallets are lightweight and are held between the index and middle fingers. A typical santoor has two sets of bridges, providing a range of three octaves; the Indian santoor is more rectangular and can have more strings than its Persian counterpart, which has 72 strings.
Musical instruments similar to the santoor are traditionally used all over the world. The trapezoid framework is made out of either walnut or maple wood; the top and bottom boards sometimes can be either veneer. On the top board known as the soundboard, wooden bridges are placed, in order to seat stretched metal strings across; the strings, grouped in units of 3 or 4, are tied on nails or pins on the left side of the instrument and are stretched over the sound board on top of the bridges to the right side. On the right side there are steel tuning pegs or tuning pins, as they are known, that allows tuning each unit of strings to a desired musical note or a frequency or a pitch; the santoor is played while sitting in an asana called ardha-padmasana position and placing it on top of the lap. While playing, the broad side is closer to the waist of the musician and the shorter side is away from the musician, it is played with a pair of light wooden mallets held with both hands. The santoor is a delicate instrument and is sensitive to light strokes and glides.
The strokes are played always on the strings either closer to the bridges or a little away from bridges. Both styles result in different tones. Sometimes strokes by one hand can be muffled by the other hand by using the face of the palm just to create variety. Abhay Sopori Shivkumar Sharma Bhajan Sopori Tarun Bhattacharya R. Visweswaran Rahul Sharma Ulhas Bapat
The swarmandal or Indian harp is a zither, originating from the Indian subcontinent, similar to the qanun, today most used as an accompanying instrument for vocal Indian classical music. The name combines mandal, representing its ability to produce a large number of notes. Swarmandals measure from twenty-four to thirty inches in length and twelve to fifteen inches in width; the singer may choose to employ any number of strings from 21 to 36. The strings are hooked in a nail lodged in the right edge of the swarmandal and on the left are wound around rectangular pegs which can be tightened with a special key. Wooden pegs were used instead of metal ones in the medieval period. A sharp 1⁄2-inch ridge on both sides of the swarmandal stands a little apart from the nails on which the strings are tightened; this ridge functions as a bridge on both sides. The swarmandal is similar to the zither in many respects; some of the vocalists who have used this instrument extensively are Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Salamat Ali Khan, Kishori Amonkar, Rashid Khan and Ajoy Chakrabarty.
Other vocalists such as Amir Khan have played around with it but preferred the simpler, less intrusive tanpura for accompaniment. The Beatles' 1967 single "Strawberry Fields Forever" features a swarmandal, played by George Harrison, as does "Within You Without You", from the band's Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album. Autoharp Drone Zither
Rudra veena, is a large plucked string instrument, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used in Hindustani classical music, one of the major types of veena played in Indian classical music. It has a long tubular body made of bamboo with a length between 54 and 62 inches. Two large, round resonators, made of dried and hollowed gourds, are attached under the tube. Twenty-four brass-fitted raised. There are 3 chikari strings; as Rudra is a name for the Hindu god Shiva, rudra vina means "the veena dear to Shiva". Shiva is said to have created the Rudraveena, inspired by his wife, Parvati, it is an ancient instrument played today. The rudra veena declined in popularity in part due to the introduction in the early 19th century of the surbahar, which allowed sitarists to more present the alap sections of slow dhrupad-style ragas. In the 20th century, Zia Mohiuddin Dagar modified and redesigned the rudra veena to use bigger gourds, a thicker tube, thicker steel playing strings and closed javari that.
This produced a deep sound when plucked without the use of any plectrum. The instrument was further modified as the shruti veena by Lalmani Misra to establish Bharat's Shadja Gram and obtain the 22 shrutis. Mohan Veena Rudra Veena Rudra Veena
The ghazal is a form of amatory poem or ode, originating in Arabic poetry. A ghazal may be understood as a poetic expression of both the pain of loss or separation and the beauty of love in spite of that pain; the ghazal form is ancient. The ghazal spread into South Asia in the 12th century due to the influence of Sufi mystics and the courts of the new Islamic Sultanate. Although the ghazal is most prominently a form of poetry of many languages of the Indian sub-continent and Turkey. A ghazal consists of between five and fifteen couplets, which are independent, but are linked – abstractly, in their theme; the structural requirements of the ghazal are similar in stringency to those of the Petrarchan sonnet. In style and content, due to its allusive nature, the ghazal has proved capable of an extraordinary variety of expression around its central themes of love and separation; the word ghazal originates from the Arabic word غزل. The root syllables Gh-Z-L have three possible meanings in Arabic: غَزَل or غَزِلَ - To sweet-talk, to flirt, to display amorous gestures.
غزال - A young, graceful doe. غَزَلَ - to spin. The poetic form derives its name from the first and the second etymological roots, One particular translation posits a meaning of ghazal as'the wail of a wounded deer', which provides much context to the theme of unrequited love common to many ghazals; the Arabic word غزل ġazal is pronounced like the English word guzzle, but with the ġ pronounced without a complete closure between the tongue and the soft palate. In English, the word is pronounced or; the ghazal is a short poem consisting of rhyming couplets, called Bayt. Most ghazals have between twelve shers. For a poem to be considered a true ghazal, it must have no fewer than five couplets. All ghazals confine themselves to less than fifteen couplets. Ghazal couplets are expected to have the same meter; the ghazal's uniqueness arises from its rhyme and refrain rules, referred to as the'qaafiyaa' and'radif' respectively. A ghazal's rhyming pattern may be described as BA, CA, DA... and so on. In its strictest form, a ghazal must follow five rules: Matlaa: The first sher in a ghazal is called the'matlaa'.
Both lines of the matla must contain the radif. The matlaa sets the tone of the ghazal, as well as its rhyming and refrain pattern.. Radif/Radeef: The refrain word or phrase. Both lines of the matlaa and the second lines of all subsequent shers must end in the same refrain word called the radif. Qaafiyaa: The rhyming pattern; the radif is preceded by words or phrases with the same end rhyme pattern, called the qaafiyaa. Maqtaa/Maktaa: The last couplet of the ghazal is called the maqtaa, it is common in ghazals for the poet's nom de plume, known as takhallus to be featured in the maqtaa. The maqtaa is more personal than the other couplets in a ghazal; the creativity with which a poet incorporates homonymous meanings of their takhallus to offer a additional layers of meaning to the couplet is an indicator of their skill. Bah'r/Beher: Each line of a ghazal must follow the same metrical pattern and syllabic count. Unlike in a nazm, a ghazal's couplets do not need a common continuity; each sher is self-contained and independent from the others, containing the complete expression of an idea.
However, the shers all contain a thematic or tonal connection to each other, which may be allusive. A near-universal convention that traces its history to the origins of the ghazal form is that the poem is addressed to a female beloved by a male narrator; the ghazal originated in Arabia in the 7th century, evolving from the qasida, a much older pre-Islamic Arabic poetic form. Qaṣīdas were much longer poems, with up to 100 couplets. Thematically, qaṣīdas did not include love, were panegyrics for a tribe or ruler, lampoons, or moral maxims. However, the qaṣīda's opening prelude, called the nasīb, was nostalgic and/or romantic in theme, ornamented and stylized in form. In time, the nasīb began to be written as standalone, shorter poems; the ghazal came into its own as a poetic genre during the Umayyad Era and continued to flower and develop in the early Abbasid Era. The Arabic ghazal inherited the formal verse structure of the qaṣīda a strict adherence to meter and the use of the Qaafiyaa, a common end rhyme on each couplet.
The nature of the ghazals changed to meet the demands of musical presentation, becoming briefer in length. Lighter poetic meters, such as khafîf, muqtarab were preferred, instead of longer, more ponderous meters favored for qaṣīdas. Topically, the ghazal focus changed from nostalgic reminisces of the homeland and loved-ones, towards romantic or erotic themes – These included sub-genres with themes of courtly love, homoeroticism, as a stylized introduction to a larger poem. With the spread of Islam, the Arabian ghazal spread both westwards, into Africa and Spain, as well as eastwards, into Persia; the popularity of ghazals in a particular region was preceded by a spread of the Arabic language in that country. In medieval Spain, ghazals written in Hebrew as well as Arabic have been found as far back the 1
The pump organ, reed organ, harmonium, or melodeon is a type of free-reed organ that generates sound as air flows past a vibrating piece of thin metal in a frame. The piece of metal is called a reed. More portable than pipe organs, free-reed organs were used in smaller churches and in private homes in the 19th century, but their volume and tonal range were limited, they had one or sometimes two manuals, with pedal-boards being rare. The finer pump organs had a wider range of tones, the cabinets of those intended for churches and affluent homes were excellent pieces of furniture. Several million free-reed organs and melodeons were made in the USA and Canada between the 1850s and the 1920s. During this time Estey Organ and Mason & Hamlin were popular manufacturers. Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein, professor of physiology at Copenhagen, was credited with the first free-reed instrument made in the Western world, after winning the annual prize in 1780 from the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg; the harmonium's design derives from the earlier regal.
A harmonium-like instrument was exhibited by Gabriel-Joseph Grenié in 1810. He called it an orgue expressif, because his instrument was capable of greater expression, as well as of producing a crescendo and diminuendo. Alexandre Debain improved Grenié's instrument and gave it the name harmonium when he patented his version in 1840. There was concurrent development of similar instruments. A mechanic who had worked in the factory of Alexandre in Paris emigrated to the United States and conceived the idea of a suction bellows, instead of the ordinary bellows that forced the air outward through the reeds. Beginning in 1885, the firm of Mason & Hamlin, of Boston made their instruments with the suction bellows, this method of construction soon superseded all others in America. Harmoniums reached the height of their popularity in the West in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, they were popular in small churches and chapels where a pipe organ would be too large or too expensive. Harmoniums weigh less than similar sized pianos and are not as damaged in transport, thus they were popular throughout the colonies of the European powers in this period not only because it was easier to ship the instrument out to where it was needed, but it was easier to transport overland in areas where good-quality roads and railways may have been non-existent.
An added attraction of the harmonium in tropical regions was that the instrument held its tune regardless of heat and humidity, unlike the piano. This "export" market was sufficiently lucrative for manufacturers to produce harmoniums with cases impregnated with chemicals to prevent woodworm and other damaging organisms found in the tropics. At the peak of the instruments' Western popularity around 1900, a wide variety of styles of harmoniums were being produced; these ranged from simple models with plain cases and only four or five stops, up to large instruments with ornate cases, up to a dozen stops and other mechanisms such as couplers. Expensive harmoniums were built to resemble pipe organs, with ranks of fake pipes attached to the top of the instrument. Small numbers of harmoniums were built with two manuals; some were built with pedal keyboards, which required the use of an assistant to run the bellows or, for some of the models, an electrical pump. These larger instruments were intended for home use, such as allowing organists to practise on an instrument on the scale of a pipe organ, but without the physical size or volume of such an instrument.
For missionaries, chaplains in the armed forces, travelling evangelists, the like, reed organs that folded up into a container the size of a large suitcase or small trunk were made. The invention of the electronic organ in the mid-1930s spelled the end of the harmonium's success in the West; the Hammond organ could imitate the tonal quality and range of a pipe organ whilst retaining the compact dimensions and cost-effectiveness of the harmonium as well as reducing maintenance needs and allowing a greater number of stops and other features. By this time, harmoniums had reached high levels of mechanical complexity, not only through the need to provide instruments with a greater tonal range, but due to patent laws, it was common for manufacturers to patent the action mechanism used on their instruments, thus requiring any new manufacturer to develop their own version. The last mass-producer of harmoniums in North America was the Estey company, which ceased manufacture in the mid-1950s; as the existing stock of instruments aged and spare parts became hard to find and more were either scrapped or sold.
It was not uncommon for harmoniums to be "modernised" by having electric blowers fitted very unsympathetically. The majority of Western harmoniums today are in the hands of enthusiasts, though the instrument remains popular in South Asia. Modern electronic keyboards can emulate the sound of
The pakhawaj or mridang is a barrel-shaped, two-headed drum, originating from the Indian subcontinent, a variant and descendant of the older mridang. It is the standard percussion instrument in the dhrupad style and is used as an accompaniment for various forms of music and dance performances; the pakhavaj has a low, mellow tone rich in harmonics. Set horizontally on a cushion in front of the drummer's crossed leg, the larger bass-skin is played with the left hand, the treble skin by the right hand; the bass face is smeared with wet wheat dough which acts as the kiran and is the cause of the vivid bass sound the pakhavaj produces. The Pakhawaj is tuned like the tabla, with wooden wedges; the fine tuning is done on the woven outer ring, part of the skin. The bass skin is traditionally prepared for playing by applying a freshly made batter of flour and water in order to receive its low-pitched sound; the word pakhāvaja or pakhavāja is of Prakrit origin. This word is derived from the words pakṣa, vādya.
This instrument is always known as not pakshavadya. It is said that, during the 14th century, the great mridangists experimented with the materials used in mridang construction, started using wood for the main body as opposed to the original clay. Thus, a new name pakhawaj emerged, whilst the older name, mridang was still used; as with the tabla, the pakhavaj rhythms are taught by a series of mnemonic syllables known as bol. The playing technique varies from that of tabla in many aspects: in the bass face, the artist hits with his whole palm instead of the finger tip hitting, done in tabla. In the treble face, the artist hits his whole palm with the fingers properly placed on the skin to produce different bols. In traditional pakhavaj styles a student would learn a number of different strokes which produce a specific sound; these are practiced with corresponding syllables. A basic capacity is to play a theka in a particular tala or rhythmic cycle, as for instance chautala, unrelated to chowtal, a folksong in the Bhojpuri rejion, in 12 beats: | dha dha | din ta || kite dha | din ta | tite kata | gadi gene | Advanced students learn relas that are virtuoso pakhavaj compositions.
Mridangam Tabla Dhol Khol