Old Kilpatrick, is a village in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It has an estimated population of 4,820, it belonged to the parish of Old Kilpatrick. The Forth and Clyde Canal separates Old Kilpatrick from the north bank of the River Clyde, just a few metres beyond it to the south; the village is about 3 miles west of Clydebank, on the road west to Dumbarton where some say the river becomes the Firth of Clyde. The Great Western Road runs through the village whose immediate western neighbour, on the road and the canal, is Bowling, where the Forth and Clyde Canal meets the river; the modern A82 road runs between the village and the foot of the Kilpatrick Hills. In the 19th century it was described as being a single street. It's possible; the western end of the Antonine Wall is at Old Kilpatrick. The route was surveyed during the 18th century, traced to the Chapel Hill, where various Roman artefacts were found. Lottery funding has been assigned to producing replica distance markers. In 1790, when the Forth and Clyde Canal was being constructed, the remains of a bathhouse were discovered.
In 1913 the foundations of the fort, conjectured as being in the vicinity, were confirmed. In 1923, during redevelopment of the area, significant archaeology was undertaken which established the size and nature of the Roman Fort; the fort, built around 81 AD, occupied an area of about four acres and was enclosed by an outer defensive wall. If the date is correct, it shows. Internally, buildings discovered included barracks and a granary. A video reconstruction of the site has been produced. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the excavations. Major development precluded further significant excavation, nothing is visible of the remains today. Finds from Old Kilpatrick include several distance slabs. One distance slab by the Twentieth Legion is known to have been completed before 1684, it depicts Victory with a garland in the other. It records the completion of 4411 feet; the slabs along with many other finds from Old Kilpatrick are now kept at the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow. For example, 19 coins have been found as well as a beaker.
On 3 December 1969 a Roman votive altar was found at Old Kilpatrick. It has been scanned and a video produced; the inscription mentions the First Cohort of Baetasians known to have been at Bar Hill, a centurion from The First Legion. The parish system was introduced to Scotland in the 13th century. In about 1227, the church and lands of Kilpatrick were given to Paisley Abbey by Maldowen, Earl of Lennox; the parish remained under the supervision of the Abbey until the Reformation in 1560. At the Dissolution, the Church property fell into the possession of Lord Sempill; the lands were conferred on Claude Hamilton, founder of the Abercorn family. His son James Hamilton was created Lord Abercorn on 5 April 1603 on 10 July 1606 he was made Earl of Abercorn and Lord of Paisley, Hamilton and Kilpatrick. Kilpatrick was split into two parishes - Old and New Kilpatrick by an Act of Parliament on 16 February 1649; this division is unusual because this was a split of both the ecclesiastical and civil parishes and the wealth and stipend of the original parish was shared between the two new parishes.
It was more common for new parishes to have "daughter" status, with wealth retained by the central, or cathedral church. Old Kilpatrick was created a Burgh of barony in 1697, its population tripled between 1821 as the spinning and weaving industries developed. By 1831 the population was 5,800. Today, the north end of the Erskine Bridge, which replaced the Erskine Ferry, lands just above the village, the village is served by Kilpatrick railway station on the North Clyde Line. There are three public houses within Old Kilpatrick; the Twisted Thistle was known as the Telstar. After the closure of The Telstar, the building was renovated and reopened in 2014 as The Twisted Thistle. There are two annual fêtes. At the north end of Old Kilpatrick is the local school. Gavinburn Primary School where they have many fêtes annually; the minerals edingtonite and thomsonite were first found at Old Kilpatrick. In the early 1990s a large housing estate was constructed at the edge of Old Kilpatrick, the one estate was said to double the size of Old Kilpatrick.
The ancient graveyard surrounding the old parish church still has surviving gravestones from the 17th century. The current building dates from 1812 and is still in use as the local Church of Scotland parish church, now linked with neighbouring Bowling Parish Church; the local Roman Catholic church is St. Patrick's RC Church. Sadly a fire in August 2015 saw the RC congregation temporarily without a place to worship, taking up the kind offer of the nearby Church of Scotland congregation to use their building, a friendly act of
Port Glasgow is the second largest town in the Inverclyde council area of Scotland. The population according to the 1991 census for Port Glasgow was 19,426 persons and in the 2001 census was 16,617 persons; the most recent census in 2011 states that the population has declined to 15,414. It is located to the east of Greenock and was a burgh in the former county of Renfrew. A fishing hamlet named Newark, Port Glasgow came about as a result of large ships being unable to navigate the shallow and meandering River Clyde to the centre of Glasgow; as a result, it was formed as a remote port for Glasgow in 1668 and became known as'New Port Glasgow', shortened to'Port Glasgow' in 1775. Port Glasgow was home to dry docks and shipbuilding beginning in 1762; the town grew from the central area of the present town and thus many of the town's historic buildings and people are found here. Port Glasgow expanded up the steep hills inland to open fields where areas such as Park Farm, Boglestone and Devol were founded.
This area has subsequently become known as upper Port Glasgow and most of the town's population occupies these areas. The town is served by Port Glasgow railway station in the town centre and Woodhall railway station in the east end of the town. Both stations are on the electrified Inverclyde Line, which has frequent services to the termini at Glasgow Central and Wemyss Bay. All trains stop at Port Glasgow. From 1869 to 1959, the town was served by rail at Port Glasgow Upper railway station on the Greenock and Ayrshire Railway; this station was demolished. The town is connected to nearby Glasgow by the M8 motorway. Glasgow Airport located 21 km to the east is the closest airport to Port Glasgow; the origins of Port Glasgow go back to the construction by Sir George Maxwell between 1450 and 1477 of the "New Werke of Finlastoun", which became Newark Castle. At a good anchorage near the castle, a small fishing hamlet known as Newark formed, like other scattered hamlets along the shores of the River Clyde.
After 1589 the village of Greenock formed just under 4 miles to the west of Newark, became a market town with growing fishing and sea trade, although it had only a jetty in the bay to unload ships. Since seagoing ships could not go further up the Clyde due to sandbanks, the Glasgow merchants such as the Tobacco Lords wanted harbour access, but got into arguments with Greenock over harbour dues and warehouses, they put a bid in for the Easter Greenock estate for a harbour, but were outbid and the lands became the Barony of Cartsburn. They negotiated with Sir Patrick Maxwell of Newark Estate, in 1668 he agreed to lease the City of Glasgow 13 acres of land to the west of the castle, for payment of 1,300 merks and an annual feu duty of four merks. Construction of piers and breakwaters enclosing the harbour began promptly, Newport Glasgow was constituted as a free port. Trade prospered and by 1710 Newport Glasgow had the principal Clyde custom house in Customhouse Lane after 1754 in a new building constructed on the west quay of the harbour.
Through that century the town became known as Port Glasgow. Ships owned by Glasgow merchants, imported tobacco, rum and mahogany from the Americas, as well as timber and hemp from the Baltic; these goods were taken by road to Glasgow, as was market garden produce from farms around Port Glasgow. A change began in 1773 when the Lang Dyke was constructed to deepen the upper river, ships went upriver straight to Glasgow. In 1830, the custom house collected £243,349 3s 1d in revenue, but after that income from the port declined, while by Greenock had its own custom house. After 1693, the grid-iron street layout, which still forms much of the town centre today, was laid out. In 1780, Thomas McGill set up one of the first shipyards in the area, located near to Newark castle. By the 19th century, Port Glasgow had become a centre of shipbuilding; the Comet was the first commercial steam vessel in Europe. A replica of the Comet was built in 1962 to mark the 150th anniversary. It, a plaque commemorating the actual site of construction, were situated in Port Glasgow town centre in the early 1970s.
Port Glasgow became a burgh in 1833, but around this time, the River Clyde up to Glasgow was deepened and new road and rail links meant that the town was no longer needed much as a port. The shipbuilding industry took over as the main source of employment and prosperity. Port Glasgow has been responsible for about a quarter of the total tonnage of ships launched on the Clyde, dealt in scrapping old ships, most notably the French liner "L'atlantique", the burnt out wreck of, broken up in the yard of Smith & Houston. However, as with most of Inverclyde's industry, the shipbuilding industry has all but gone and only Ferguson Marine Engineering remains in the town today. Ferguson's is one of the last remaining owned shipyards in Scotland. Ferguson's yard changed ownership in 2014 and is undergoing extensive renovation and modernisation, which has resulted in the demolition of most of the buildings on the site. Newark Castle stands close to the shore of the Clyde, dates to around 1484, it was home to the Maxwell Family until 1694.
By 1800, the castle was surrounded by shipyards, but today only Ferguson's shipyard remains, standing to the west of the castle. A park and waterfront walkway have been constructed to the east, on the site of Lamont's shipyard and Smith & Houston's shipbreaking yard; the castle is now a visito
Lanark is a small town in the central belt of Scotland. The name is believed to come from the Cumbric Lanerc meaning "clear space, glade". Lanark is traditionally the county town of Lanarkshire, though there are several larger towns in the county. Lanark railway station and coach station have frequent services to Glasgow. There is little industry in some residents commute to work in Glasgow and Edinburgh, its shops serve surrounding villages. There is a large modern livestock auction market on the outskirts of the town. Lanark has served as an important market town since medieval times, King David I made it a Royal Burgh in 1140, giving it certain mercantile privileges relating to government and taxation. King David I realised, he decided to create a chain of new towns across Scotland. These would be centres of Norman civilisation in a Celtic country, would be established in such a way as to encourage the development of trade within their area; these new towns were to be known as Burghs. Bastides were established in France for much the same reason.
When a site had been selected for a new town the King’s surveyors would lay out an area for the town’s market. Each merchant who came to the town was granted a plot of land bordering on the marketplace; these plots were known as rigs. Each feu in a burgh was the same size. In Forres in the north of Scotland each feu was 24 feet 429 feet deep; the layout of the feus in Lanark can still be seen between the north side of Lanark High Street and North Vennel, a lane which runs behind the feus. A motte and bailey castle was constructed at the bottom of Castlegate. Lanark had four town gates, West Port, East port and Castlegate. West Port gate was demolished in the 1770s; the first aviation meeting to be held in Scotland was held at Lanark Racecourse between 6 and 13 August 1910. This location was chosen because the land was flat, the racecourse had facilities for a paying public, there were stables to act as hangars for the aeroplanes and the racecourse was accessible by both road and by rail as The Caledonian Railway Company were prepared to construct a new station near the main entrance.
The aeroplanes were transported to the meeting by rail, as aviation technology at the time was not advanced enough to safely fly there. The Lanark meeting took place shortly after a similar event in Bournemouth at which Charles Rolls lost his life. Influenced by this, it was decided that no aircraft would fly closer than 300 yards away from the spectators. For the first time, aeroplanes were timed over a straight measured distance, allowing the first world records to be set, covering flights over 1 mile; the meeting was described by The Aero magazine as'the most successful yet held in Britain'. A permanent military presence was established in the town with the completion of Winston Barracks in the 1930s; the electorate in Lanark form part of various different constituencies. In local elections, they are part of the Clydesdale North constituency and elect representatives to South Lanarkshire Council; the most recent elections, held in 2012, saw Ed Archer, Catherine McClymont and Vivienne Shaw elected to represent the constituency.
In elections to the Scottish Parliament, Lanark elects its representatives as part of the Clydesdale constituency, elects seven additional list members of parliament as part of the South of Scotland region. The current Clydesdale MSP is Aileen Campbell, SNP, who defeated the Labour incumbent, Karen Gillon, in the 2011 election after Gillon had held the seat since 1999. In Westminster elections, Lanark is part of the Hamilton East constituency. Labour MP Jimmy Hood represented the area in Parliament from 1987 till 2015. In elections to the European Parliament, Lanark is part of the Scotland constituency which elects six MEPs. Visitors to the town can visit the nearby World Heritage Site of New Lanark, close to the Falls of Clyde, the Corehouse estate and the Scottish Wildlife Trust's Corehouse Nature Reserve; the Lanark Museum is located inside the YMCA building. A large boating lake, Lanark Loch, adjoins Lanark Golf Club which has a lovely and historic 18 hole course for more experienced golf players and a 9-hole golf course.
The former racecourse now offers pony-trekking activities. The town's Castlebank Park lies near the former site of Lanark Castle, allows access to the River Clyde and the Clyde Walkway. An ornate gas lamp, known as the'Provost's Lamp' stands at the bottom of the high street; the lamp used to be placed outside the home of. One of the churches in the town bears the name of The Old Church of St Kentigern, who set up many medieval churches in the Scottish Lowlands, including Glasgow, died c.612 AD. The town's cemetery stands on the site of The Old Church of St Kentigern, includes many Covenanter graves. St. Nicolas' Parish Church stands at the bottom of the high street; the church bell is believed to date from 1110, may be one of the oldest church bells in the world. It was moved from The Old Church of St Kentigern when St. Nicolas's Church was built in 1774, it has been recast four times, including 1659 and 1983. There is an 8-foot statue of William Wallace in the steeple; this was sculpted by Robert Forrest, from an ancient drawing in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries.
This historic background forms the basis for the Lanark Lanimer celebrations, which t
Renfrewshire. Located in the west central Lowlands, it is one of three council areas contained within the boundaries of the historic county of Renfrewshire, the others being East Renfrewshire to the east and Inverclyde to the west, it shares borders with Glasgow, North Ayrshire and West Dunbartonshire, lies on The southern bank of The River Clyde. The term Renfrewshire may be used to refer to this historic county known as the County of Renfrew or Greater Renfrewshire, which remains in use as a registration county and lieutenancy area; the town of Paisley is the area's centre of local government. Present day Renfrewshire borders the south-west of Glasgow and contains many of Glasgow's commuter towns and villages. Renfrewshire has boundaries with North Ayrshire, East Renfrewshire and West Dunbartonshire. Although by area one of Scotland's smallest unitary authorities, it is one of the country's most populous areas, being the fifth largest unitary authority and the ninth largest including the city authorities.
The ancient county of Renfrewshire covered a larger area — including both Inverclyde and East Renfrewshire. This area still exists in the form of a lieutenancy area and registration county, has a statutory funding board called the Renfrewshire Valuation Joint Board; the county was traditionally based around its seat, the Royal Burgh of Renfrew and as such was known as the County of Renfrew. There was a district named Renfrew which existed between 1975 and 1996. Renfrew District covered a larger area than the present local authority area, included the towns of Barrhead and Uplawmoor, following the abolition of Strathclyde Regional Council region in 1996, were transferred into the new East Renfrewshire unitary local authority. Renfrewshire Council is the elected local authority for Renfrewshire, one of 32 local council areas in Scotland; the council is based at Renfrewshire House in Paisley. Renfrewshire Council won more awards than any other council in Scotland at the CoSLA Awards ceremony—winning three gold awards with a further three silver awards.
This is the highest number of awards won by a single Scottish council since CoSLA started handing out its awards. Renfrewshire Council is administered by the Scottish National Party; the Provost of Renfrewshire is Lorraine Cameron, while the leader the council and largest political grouping is Iain Nicholson of the Scottish National Party, elected following the 2017 Renfrewshire local council elections. The council's apolitical employed service is headed by a Chief Executive, responsible to the elected council for the delivery of its policies; this executive wing is divided into seven departments: the Chief Executive's Department and Corporate Services and Leisure Services, Environmental Services and Property Services and Transport, Social Work. Each department is headed by a Director, an non-political, paid member of staff. Renfrewshire is home to Scotland's second busiest airport, Glasgow International Airport, at Abbotsinch between Paisley and Renfrew, it is served by the M8 motorway, which terminates in the area, just east of Langbank, is a major artery between northwest and southwest Scotland, via the Erskine Bridge.
The presence of the airport and the proximity to Glasgow means that Renfrewshire supports one of the busiest transport infrastructures in Scotland, is congested. Developments to ease traffic flow have included a lifting of tolls on the Erskine Bridge, plans to extend the rail network to connect to the airport, the M74 extension – which will handle traffic from Renfrewshire heading south, diverting it away from Glasgow city centre. Renfrewshire has bus links provided by First Buses, McGill's and other smaller operators. Renfrewshire contains several places of interest. In the west of Renfrewshire, Castle Semple Loch at Lochwinnoch and the wider Clyde Muirshiel Regional Park are natural areas of interest, alongside the Gleniffer Braes in the south. Paisley contains several historic buildings and notable sites, including Paisley Abbey, Paisley Museum and Coats Observatory, Paisley Town Hall, Coats Memorial Church, Sma' Shot Cottages and St Mirren Park. Outside of Paisley, the claimed birthplace of Scottish knight William Wallace, contains a monument in his honour, while the Weaver's Cottage at Kilbarchan is in the care of the National Trust for Scotland.
The town of Johnstone is notable for Johnstone Castle, Johnstone High Parish Church and for containing a museum within a supermarket. The Braehead Arena in Renfrewshire close to the boundary with Glasgow is home to leading professional basketball team, the Scottish Rocks, who compete in the British Basketball League; the arena was host to the 2000 Ford World Curling Championships. Renfrewshire has 11 secondary schools, 51 primary schools and 3 schools for children with additional support needs. Further education is provided by Paisley Campus of West College Scotland in Paisley, which caters to around 20,000 students; the college has sites in Inverclyde and West Dumbartonshire. The University of the West of Scotland is the single higher education provider in Renfrewshire. Prior to this, the Paisley Technical College and School of Art was a Central Institution or polytechnic. In 2007 the university merged with Bell College, a further educati
New Lanark is a village on the River Clyde 1.4 miles from Lanark, in Lanarkshire, some 25 miles southeast of Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded in 1786 by David Dale. Dale built the mills there in a brief partnership with the English inventor and entrepreneur Richard Arkwright to take advantage of the water power provided by the only waterfalls on the River Clyde. Under the ownership of a partnership that included Dale's son-in-law, Robert Owen, a Welsh philanthropist and social reformer, New Lanark became a successful business and an early example of a planned settlement and so an important milestone in the historical development of urban planning; the New Lanark mills operated until 1968. After a period of decline, the New Lanark Conservation Trust was founded in 1974 to prevent demolition of the village. By 2006 most of the buildings have been restored and the village has become a major tourist attraction, it is one of six UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Scotland and an Anchor Point of ERIH - the European Route of Industrial Heritage.
The New Lanark cotton mills were founded in 1786 by David Dale in a brief partnership with Richard Arkwright. Dale was one of the self-made "Burgher Gentry" of Glasgow who, like most of this gentry, had a summer retreat, an estate at Rosebank, not far from the Falls of Clyde, which have been painted by J. M. W. Turner and many other artists; the mills used the developed water-powered cotton spinning machinery invented by Richard Arkwright. Dale sold the mills and village in the early 19th century for £60,000, payable over 20 years, to a partnership that included his son-in-law Robert Owen. Owen, who became mill manager in 1800, was an industrialist who carried on his father-in-law's philanthropic approach to industrial working and who subsequently became an influential social reformer. New Lanark, with its social and welfare programmes, epitomised his Utopian socialism; the town and mills are important through their connection with Owen's ideas, but because of their role in the developing industrial revolution in the UK and their place in the history of urban planning.
The New Lanark mills depended upon water power. A dam was constructed on the Clyde above New Lanark and water was drawn off the river to power the mill machinery; the water first travelled through a tunnel through an open channel called the lade. It went to a number of water wheels in each mill building, it was not until 1929. Water power is still used in New Lanark. A new water turbine has been installed in Mill Number Three to provide electricity for the tourist areas of the village. In Owen's time some 2,500 people lived at New Lanark, many from the poorhouses of Glasgow and Edinburgh. Although not the grimmest of mills by far, Owen found the conditions unsatisfactory and resolved to improve the workers' lot, he paid particular attention to the needs of the 500 or so children living in the village and working at the mills, opened the first infants' school in Britain in 1817, although the previous year he had completed the Institute for the Formation of Character. The mills thrived commercially, but Owen's partners were unhappy at the extra expense incurred by his welfare programmes.
Unwilling to allow the mills to revert to the old ways of operating, Owen bought out his partners. In 1813 the Board forced an auction, hoping to obtain the town and mills at a low price but Owen and a new board, sympathetic to his reforming ideas won out. New Lanark became celebrated throughout Europe, with many statesmen and royalty visiting the mills, they were astonished to find a clean, healthy industrial environment with a content, vibrant workforce and a prosperous, viable business venture all rolled into one. Owen's philosophy was contrary to contemporary thinking, but he was able to demonstrate that it was not necessary for an industrial enterprise to treat its workers badly to be profitable. Owen was able to show visitors the village's excellent housing and amenities, the accounts showing the profitability of the mills; as well as the mills' connections with reform and welfare, they are representative of the Industrial Revolution that occurred in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries and which fundamentally altered the shape of the world.
The planning of employment in the mills alongside housing for the workers and services such as a school makes the settlement iconic in the development of urban planning in the UK. In 1825, control of New Lanark passed to the Walker family when Owen left Britain to start settlement of New Harmony in the US; the Walkers managed the village until 1881, when it was sold to Birkmyre and Sommerville and the Gourock Ropeworks. They and their successor companies remained in control until the mills closed in 1968; the town and the industrial activity had been in decline before but after the mills closed migration away from the village accelerated, the buildings began to deteriorate. The top two floors of Mill Number 1 were removed in 1945 but the building has since been restored and is now the New Lanark Mill Hotel. In 1963 the New Lanark Association was formed as a housing association and commenced the restoration of Caithness Row and Nursery Buildings. In 1970 the mills, other industrial buildings and the houses used by Dale and Owen were sold to Metal Extractions Limited, a scrap metal company.
In 1974 the NLCT was founded to prevent demolition of
Motherwell is a large town and former burgh in North Lanarkshire, United Kingdom, south east of Glasgow. It has a population of around 32,120. In the parish of Dalziel and part of Lanarkshire, Motherwell is the headquarters for North Lanarkshire Council. Geographically the River Clyde separates Motherwell from Hamilton to the west whereas the South Calder Water separates Motherwell from Carfin to the north-east and New Stevenston and Bellshill towards the north. Motherwell is geographically close to Wishaw to the south-east. A Roman road through central Scotland ran along Motherwell’s side of the River Clyde, crossing the South Calder Water near Bothwellhaugh. At this crossing a fort and bath house were erected, but the Roman presence in Scotland did not last much than this. Motherwell's name comes from a well, the Lady Well dedicated to the Virgin Mary; the site of this well is now marked by a plaque on Ladywell Road. The name "Moderwelt" appears on a map of Lanarkshire made by Timothy Pont some time between 1583 and 1611 and printed in the Netherlands in around 1652.
By the start of the 19th century Motherwell was a small hamlet, a farming community of some 600 people living adjacently to the 16th century laird’s manor, Jerviston house. The hamlet remained reasonably small, reaching 1,700 people by 1841, centred on the crossroads between the main road following the Clyde, the road connecting Edinburgh with Hamilton and the west. Motherwell's fortunes changed in the second half of the 19th century. With the coming of the railway in 1848, came industry and money. By 1881 David Colville had opened both an steel works. By the end of the 19th century Motherwell Town Hall and Dalziel High School had been built, the local football club had been founded, its stadium, Fir Park, had been constructed. At the start of the 20th century Motherwell stood a large and growing industrial centre, a town of 37,000 people and a wide variety of heavy industries such as munitions and bridge components. By the 1930s most of Scotland’s steel production was in Motherwell, owned by the Colville family.
In 1959 the Colville family were persuaded by the government to begin work of a vast new steel works, which would become Ravenscraig. Within a few years, Ravenscraig was producing more than a million tonnes of steel per year. Following nationalisation of the steel industry, production at the plant was raised, with the Motherwell blast furnaces producing 3 million tonnes each year. By the middle of the 1970s, Motherwell’s steel industry employed more than 13,000 people; the 1980s brought a catastrophic collapse in the industry of Motherwell. The steel strike of 1980 lost British Steel Corporation important contracts and markets, followed by the closure of important local customers such as the Linwood car factory and Bathgate truck factory, Ravenscraig employed only 3,200 people by the end of the 1980s. Ravenscraig closed on 24 June 1992, was demolished in July 1996, bringing 400 years of Scottish iron production to an end. Today the Dalzell Plate Mill is all that remains of Motherwell’s industrial heritage, rolling steel from Middlesbrough into steel plates of various sizes.
By the start of the 21st century Motherwell had begun to transform itself with the service industry thriving, the large scale unemployment of the previous twenty years had been remedied. Motherwell hosted the National Mòd in 1983. Strathclyde Park hosted the major Scottish music festival, T in the Park, until 1996, when it was moved to a disused airfield in Balado, Kinross-shire, it has hosted other music festivals such as Retrofest. Modern authors Des McAnulty and Mark Wilson have written novels of critical acclaim which are based in the town and neighbouring town Bellshill. Motherwell is the headquarters for both North Lanarkshire Council, one of Scotland's most populous local authority areas, of Police Scotland "Q" division; these organisations cover an overall population of 327,000 people throughout the 183 square miles of North Lanarkshire. Motherwell was noted as the steel production capital of Scotland, nicknamed Steelopolis, home of David Colville & Sons during the 19th and 20th centuries, with its skyline dominated by the water tower and three cooling towers of their Ravenscraig steelworks which closed in 1992.
The Ravenscraig plant had one of the longest continuous casting, hot rolling, steel production facilities in the world before it was decommissioned. The closure of Ravenscraig signalled the end of large scale steel making in Scotland, although the town's Dalzell steel plate works continues to be operated by Tata Steel Europe. In the past decade, Motherwell has to an extent recovered from the high unemployment and economic decline brought about by this collapse of heavy industry. A number of call centres and business parks such as Strathclyde Business Park have since set up in the region. Large employers include William Grant & Sons whisky distillers and the heavy equipment manufacturer Terex Trucks. Motherwell has been a Fairtrade Town since January 2007; the town has six stations, main railway station, Airbles Shieldmuir Carfin and Cleland. The main station runs on the West Coast Main Line from Glasgow to London and on the East Coast Main Line via Edinburgh and Newcastle, is located next to Motherwell Shopping Centre.
National train operators. The station is served by Abe
The Lowther Hills sometimes known as the Lowthers, are an extensive area of hill country in the Southern Uplands of Scotland, though some sub ranges of hills in this area go under their own local names - see "Hill Walking" below. They form a rhomboidal or lozenge shape on the map with the acute angles being to north and south, it has river valleys along its boundaries to north east and south west which carry the two largest arterial routes northwards into the west side of the Central Belt of Scotland. A string of small towns have long since developed along these routes. Most of the Lowther Hills lie in the Administrative County of Dumfries and Galloway, though part in the Administrative County of South Lanarkshire eats into them around the village of Leadhills and the Daer Reservoir; the is some obscurity surrounding the name Lowther. Derivation from the early Irish lothur meaning "a canal, a trench", in this sense "a pass between hills", has been suggested, it is some 30 kilometres across the rhomboid as the crow flies from the town of Sanquhar just to the west of the Lowthers to the towns of Beattock and Moffat on the east and some 28 kilometres from the town of Thornhill near the southern apex to Abington near the northern one.
Sanquhar and Thornhill lie on the River Nith, Moffat on the River Annan and Abington on the River Clyde. Annandale and Clydesdale taken together, form a corridor between the Lowther Hills and the Moffat Hills; this corridor between the hills carries the main route running northwards into Scotland on its west side. It carries both the west coast railway line and the M74 motorway and has been the main route north over centuries. Nithsdale to the west of the Lowthers carries both the A76 road and the rail line from Dumfries to Kilmarnock; the next range of hills to the west beyond the River Nith is the Carsphairn and Scaur Hills The north west boundary of the hills runs up the Crawick Water in a north easterly direction from where the Crawick Water runs into the River Nith. This boundary follows the B740 road through Crawfordjohn and connects to the old trunk road north, used before the M74 was built on its present route. North of the B740 the hills fizzle out into the Central Lowlands of Scotland though Tinto Hill is an outlier 11 kilometres north of Abington.
The south east boundary of the hills is formed by the Forest of Ae, one of the largest forests, in Britain at 10,000 hectares. A continuous band of trees runs, again in a north easterly direction, from Auldgirth on the River Nith, for some 26 kilometres till it meets the M74 motorway 10 kilometres north of Beattock. South of the Forest you are into the plain. There are three passes running in a north easterly direction diagonally through the Lowthers linking the A76 trunk road to the M74 motorway. Dalveen Pass is the longest pass within the Lowther Hills, it runs from Carronbridge on the A76 just north of Thornhill to Elvanfoot near the M74 and carries the A702 trunk road. The road passes near the village of Durisdeer en route and reaches a height of 350 metres at the top of the pass; the Mennock Pass carries the B797 which runs from the small village of Mennock on the A76 to Abington near the M74, passing through the villages of Wanlockhead and Leadhills. The B797 reaches to a height of 467 metres as it leaves Wanlockhead -, the highest village in Scotland.
Crawick Pass is the most northerly of the three passes and carries the B740 from Crawick to Crawfordjohn and on to the M74. The Crawick is the shortest of the three passes without the steep ascents and overarching hills that characterise the other two, it is the lowest of the three reaching a maximum height of 288 metres. There was another pass from Durisdeer through to Wanlockhead called the Enterkin Pass, an old pack horse route through the hills from Dumfries to Glasgow, it has been argued by H. R. G. Inglis that this route was used for extracting lead to the Solway coast and was never viable as a main route north because of its height. There is no road through there now; the Enterkin Pass was the location of a 1684 Covenanter ambush of a party of Dragoons during the Killing Time The Romans built a road through from their fortlet near Durisdeer on a route which takes a more direct route to the head of the pass than is offered by the Dalveen Pass. Inglis calls this route Well Path and he considers this to have been on the main pilgrimage route from Edinburgh to Whithorn and one of the main ancient routes northwards through the Southern Uplands.
The village of Durisdeer sits at some distance from the A702 nestling into the foot of Durisdeer Hill at the bottom of the pass through the hills that the Romans used. The Duke of Buccleuch, the largest private landowner in Britain owns much of the land for many miles around this area and has a castle at Drumlanrig on the west bank of the River Nith some 5 kilometres north of Thornhill. In the church at Durisdeer there is a mausoleum to the first Duke of Buccleuch complete with marble statues of him and his wife Mary dating from 1713 though there has been a church on this site since medieval times; as you approach Elvanfoot on the A702 you come to what seems like an insignificant farmhouse by the roadside called Glenochar. But there are two things of interest close by here. Just to the north, there is Glenochar Bastle and Fermtoun a 17th-century settlement and fortified house; the archaeological dig which revealed this was the winner of the 1997 Pitt Rivers Award for amateur Archaeologists. Just to the south is the source of the River Clyde which flows north through Lanarkshire and pa