The rohu, rui, or roho labeo is a species of fish of the carp family, found in rivers in South Asia. It is a large omnivore and extensively used in aquaculture; the rohu is a large, silver-colored fish of typical cyprinid shape, with a conspicuously arched head. Adults can reach a maximum weight of 45 kg and maximum length of 2 m; the rohu occurs in rivers throughout much of northern and central and eastern India, Bangladesh and Myanmar, has been introduced into some of the rivers of Peninsular India and Sri Lanka. The species is an omnivore with specific food preferences at different life stages. During the early stages of its lifecycle, it eats zooplankton, but as it grows, it eats more and more phytoplankton, as a juvenile or adult is a herbivorous column feeder, eating phytoplankton and submerged vegetation, it has modified, thin hair-like gill rakers. Rohu reach sexual maturity between five years of age, they spawn during the monsoon season, keeping to the middle of flooded rivers above tidal reach.
The spawning season of rohu coincides with the southwest monsoon. Spawn may be reared in tanks and lakes; the rohu is an important aquacultured freshwater species in South Asia. When cultured, it does not breed in lake ecosystems, so induced spawning is necessary; the rohu is prized as a game fish. Rohu is commonly eaten in Bangladesh, Nepal and the Indian states of Tripura, Bihar, Assam, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. A recipe for fried Rohu fish is mentioned in Manasollasa, a 12th century Sanskrit encyclopedia compiled by Someshvara III, who ruled from present-day Karnataka. In this recipe, the fish is marinated in salt after being skinned, it is dipped in turmeric mixed in water before being fried
Machher jhol or machha jhola is a traditional spicy fish stew in Bengali and Odia cuisines in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent. It is in the form of a spicy stew, served with rice. Machher Jhol is liberally seasoned with turmeric, garlic and grated ginger. Potatoes are added to the stew as a thickening agent. Tomatoes are added to impart the dish with a reddish color, preferred by the people of Bengal; the kinds of fish that used in Bengali and Odia households are hilsa and catla. Apart from these, there are some famous small sized fish that are favoured over others. Fish, onions, garlic, tomatoes, chilli peppers, other seasonings. Bengali cuisine Fish curry Dahi machha Chingudi jhola Chhencheda Odia cuisine
Baingan bharta is a dish from the Indian subcontinent that originated in the Punjab region.'Baingan ka bharta' is a part of the national cuisines of all nation states of the Indian subcontinent. It is a vegetarian dish, prepared by mincing eggplant, grilled over charcoal or direct fire; this infuses the dish with a smoky flavour. The smoked and mashed eggplant is mixed with cooked chopped tomato, browned onion, garlic, fresh cilantro, chili pepper, mustard oil or a neutral vegetable oil. Traditionally, the dish is eaten with flatbread and is served with rice or raita, a yogurt salad. In states such as Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, it is served hot with litti. In Pakistan and Bangladesh, baingan bharta is part of popular cuisine, while in India, it is part of the cuisines of many states, including Karnataka, Maharashtra and West Bengal; the dish has several regional names, such as: baingan ka bhurtha, baingan da bhurtha, pura begena chatoni, wangyacha bharit, begun bhôrta, olo. Some non-Punjabi variants may omit the tomato and sometimes the onion as well.
In Karnataka, it is called eṇṇegāyi and prepared by boiling and frying whole eggplant served with akki rotti. In the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Tamils prepare a similar dish called kathrikai thayir kothsu, in which the eggplant is cooked and sautéed with mustard, red chilis and sesame oil; the final step in the recipe involves adding yogurt to the mixture and dressing the dish with coriander leaves. In the Bhojpuri-speaking regions of India, it is known as baigan ka chokha. In Maharashtra in the northern Khandesh region, vangyache bharit as they call it is served in social gatherings including wedding ceremonies. During harvest season, a special "bharit party" is organised. Bharit is served with puri. In the Vidarbha and Khandesh regions of Maharashtra, two variants are popular: kachha bharit and phodni cha bharit. In kachha bharit, all the ingredients except for eggplant are used uncooked. Raw spring onion, green chillies, green coriander, sometimes fresh fenugreek leaves are mixed with flame-roasted eggplant along with raw linseed oil or peanut oil.
In phodni cha bharit, the above ingredients are first fried in oil with spices. The similar process is followed in other Indian states and Pakistan with slight variations on ingredients. In Vidarbha and Khandesh, it is considered a delicacy when the eggplants are roasted on a dried cotton plant stems, a process which gives a distinct smokey flavour to the dish; the dish is served with dal and rice. Eggplant is popular in Afghanistan in the form of a traditional salad called "bonjan salad", served at room temperature together with main dishes; the dish is served with a variety of breads and is similar to another Afghani dish called baingan ka raita. There are many variation of preparing eggplant. In a protest against BT Brinjal and the introduction of genetically modified crops, volunteers from Greenpeace and Delhi's Le Méridien hotel cooked 342 kilograms of organic brinjal bharta at Dilli Haat, New Delhi, on 6 September 2011; this set a world record for the largest amount of the dish produced in one occasion of preparation.
A portion of the final dish was sent to the Indian Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh's residence, accompanied by a letter of protest containing an explanation. Eggplant salads and appetizers List of smoked foods Step by step recipe of authentic baigan Bharta Baingan Bharta Recipe with Spring Onion Baingan aloo tamatar ka mix chokha
Khichra or Khichda is a variation of the dish Haleem, popular with Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. Khichra is cooked all year and at the Ashura of Muharram, it is made up of goat meat, beef and spices cooked to a thick paste. It is the meat based variant of rice dish from the Indian subcontinent called Khichdi. In Pakistan, beef Haleem and Khichra is sold as street food in most cities throughout the year. Khichra and Haleem are the similar dishes as meat is grinded in Haleem while meat is in shape of cubes in Khichra; the origin of Haleem lies in the popular Arabian dish known as Harees. According to Shoaib Daniyal, writing in The Sunday Guardian, the first written recipe of Harees dates back to the 10th century, when Arab scribe Abu Muhammad al-Muzaffar ibn Sayyar compiled a cookbook of dishes popular with the "kings and caliphs and lords and leaders" of Baghdad. "The version described in his Kitab Al-Tabikh, the world’s oldest surviving Arabic cookbook, is strikingly similar to the one people in the Middle East eat to this day" it reported.
Harees was introduced by Arab soldiers of the Hyderabad Nizam's army to the city. As per the Delhi based historian Sohail Hashmi, the Khichra originated as a famine relief measure in the North Indian city of Lucknow while building the Old Imambara of Lucknow. Due to a famine, the Nawab of Awadh commenced the construction of an Imambargah, announcing that anyone who participated in the construction would be given free food; this free food consisted of rice cooked with mutton and various pulses, thus becoming rich in protein and carbohydrates. This aided a number of famine affected people. Once the construction of the Imambargah was completed, the dish continued to get popular and can today be found not just in Lucknow, but a number of cities of the Indian subcontinent. Travellers took this dish to other parts of the Indian subcontinent, where it further acquired a local flavor. In the Indian subcontinent, both Haleem and Khichra are made with same ingredients. Haleem is cooked until the meat blends with the lentils, while in Khichra chunks of meat remains as cubes.
Khichra is a meat dish. While Khichri is a vegetarian dish with rice and pulses or lentils. Khichdi List of Pakistani soups and stews List of stews
Amritsari Papar Warian
Amritsari Papar or papad is a thin, disc-shaped food made from seasoned dough of peeled black gram flour originating of the Indian subcontinent. The Dough is rolled into a disc shape, sun-dried to prepare raw papar. Flours from other sources such as lentils, rice, tapioca or potato, can be used, but typical Amritsari papar are made from urad dal, black pepper, sometimes pomegranate. Papar are served as an accompaniment to a meal after roasting in oven or on a coal fire, in the Indian subcontinent. Papar has a high sodium content. Amritsari Warian is made from dough prepared from mixture of urad dal ground to paste from hing, black pepper, red chili, coriander seeds, cumin seeds etc. Paste is spread for sun-drying in half round 5 cm balls. Warian which have been dried but not precooked are used in curries and vegetable dishes; these give the recipes a typical chili taste. Traditional papar makers of Amritsar were concentrated earlier in a typical market known as Bazar Papparan near the Golden Temple.
After the implementation of Galiara, a beautification project around the Golden Temple surroundings, these papar makers are spread out in the surrounding area, but their products are well received by travelers, are exported
Tenualosa ilisha is a species of fish related to the herring, in the Clupeidae family. It is a popular and sought-after food fish in the Indian Subcontinent, it is Bangladesh's national fish. The fish contributes about 1.15 % of GDP in Bangladesh. On 6 August 2017, Department of Patents and Trademarks under the Ministry of Industries of Bangladesh has declared the recognition of ilish as the product of Bangladesh. Sixty-five percent of total produced ilish in the world is produced in Bangladesh which applied for Geographical Indication in 2004. About 450,000 people are directly involved in the catching of the fish as a large part of their livelihood. Other names include: ilish, palla fish, ilih etc.. The name ilish is used in India's Assamese, Bengali-and Odia community. In Iraq it is Called Sboor. In Malaysia and Indonesia, it is known as terubuk. Due to its unique features of being oily and tender, some Malays call it'terubuk unno'; the fish is marine. - 200 m. Within a tropical range, it can grow up to 60 cm in length with weights of up to 3 kg.
It is found in rivers and estuaries in Bangladesh, Pakistan and the Persian Gulf area where it can be found in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in and around Iran and southern Iraq. It has no dorsal spines but 18 -- anal soft rays; the belly has 30 to 33 scutes. There is a distinct median notch in upper jaw. Gill rakers fine and numerous, about 100 to 250 on lower part of arch and the fins are hyaline; the fish shows a dark blotch behind gill opening, followed by a series of small spots along the flank in juveniles. Color in life, silver shot with purple; the species filter feeds by grubbing muddy bottoms. The fish schools in coastal waters and ascends up the rivers for around 50 – 100 km to spawn during the South West monsoons and in January to April. April is the most fertile month for breeding of ilish; the young fish returning to the sea are known in Bangladesh as jatka, which includes any ilish fish up to 9 inches long. The fish is popular food amongst the people of South Asia and in the Middle East, but with Bengalis and Odias.
Bengali fish curry is a popular dish made with mustard seed. The Bengalis popularly call this dish shorshe ilish, it is popular in India in West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Andhra Pradesh. It is exported globally. In North America other shad fish are sometimes used as an ilish substitute in Bengali cuisine; this occurs near the East coast of North America, where fresh shad fish having similar taste can be found. In Bangladesh, fish are caught in the Meghna-Jamuna delta, which flows into the Bay of Bengal and Meghna, Jamuna rivers. In India, the Ganges Delta, Hooghly, Mahanadi,Narmada and Godavari rivers and the Chilika Lake are famous for his fish yields. In Pakistan, most hilsa fish are caught in the Indus River Delta in Sindh, they are caught in the sea, but some consider the marine stage of the fish as not so tasty. The fish has sharp and tough bones, making it problematic to eat for some. Ilish is an oily fish rich in omega 3 fatty acids. Recent experiments have shown its beneficial effects in decreasing cholesterol level in rats and insulin level.
In Bengal and Odisha, ilish can be smoked, steamed or baked in young plantain leaves, prepared with mustard seed paste, eggplant, different condiments like jira and so on. It is said. Ilish roe is popular as a side dish. Ilish can be cooked in little oil since the fish itself is oily. In Andhra Pradesh, the saying goes "Pustelu ammi ayina Pulasa tinocchu", meaning It's worth eating Pulasa/Ilish by selling the nuptials. Ilish is the National Fish of Bangladesh. In many Bengali Hindu families a pair of ilish fishes are bought on auspicious days, for example for special prayers or puja days like for the Hindu Goddess of music and knowledge Saraswati Puja, which takes place in the beginning of Spring or on the day of Lakshmi Puja which takes place in autumn; some people offer the fish to the goddess Lakshmi, without which the Puja is sometimes thought to be incomplete. In Bengal Ilish is used during wedding as tattwa gift. During Gaye Holud tattwa the family of the groom presents a pair of Ilish to the family of the bride.
However, due to the scarcity of Ilish, nowadays it is replaced by Rohu in West Bengal, while the tradition continues in Bangladesh. In West Bengal, a famous dish which tastes good with fried ilish fish is'khichudi', it is popular among all Bengalis during monsoon, known as the month of ilish. In West Bengal and Bangladesh, ilish is termed as the'queen' of fishes; this fish is called as PULASA in Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh State in India. The name Pulasa stays with the fish for a limited period between July-Sept of a year, when floodswater flow in Godavari River; this time the fish is in sometimes $100 per kilo. Hilsha fish
Catla known as the major South Asian carp, is an economically important South Asian freshwater fish in the carp family Cyprinidae. It is native to rivers and lakes in northern India, Myanmar and Pakistan, but has been introduced elsewhere in South Asia and is farmed. In Nepal and in neighbouring Indian regions, it is called Bhakura. Catla is a fish with large and broad head, a large protruding lower jaw, upturned mouth, it whitish on its belly. It reaches 38.6 kg in weight. Catla is a midwater feeder. Adults feed on zooplankton using large gill rakers, but young ones on both zooplankton and phytoplankton. Catla attains sexual maturity at an average weight of 2 kg; the catla was listed as the only species in the genus Catla, but this was a synonym of the genus Gibelion. More Catalog of Fishes has moved this species to Labeo; this species has been confused with the giant barb of south-east Asia, the two taxa do bear an extraordinary resemblance to each other in their large heads. It is one of the most important aquacultured freshwater species in South Asia.
It is grown in polyculture ponds with other carp-like fishes with the roho labeo and mrigal carp. The reported production numbers have increased during the 2000s, were in 2012 about 2.8 million tonnes per year. Catla is sold and consumed fresh and regionally, it is transported on ice. Fish of 1–2 kg weight are preferred by the consumers. Catla catla - http://en.bdfish.org/2010/02/catla-catla-catla-hamilton-1822/. BdFISH Menon, A. G. K. 1999 Check list - fresh water fishes of India. Rec. Zool. Surv. India, Misc. Publ. Occas. Pap. No. 175, 366 p