The three-dollar piece was a gold coin produced by the United States Bureau of the Mint from 1854 to 1889. Authorized by the Act of February 21, 1853, the coin was designed by Mint Chief Engraver James B. Longacre; the obverse bears a representation of Lady Liberty wearing a headdress of a Native American princess and the reverse a wreath of corn, wheat and tobacco. In 1851, Congress had authorized a silver three-cent piece so that postage stamps of that value could be purchased without using the disliked copper cents. Two years a bill was passed which authorized a three-dollar coin. By some accounts, the coin was created. Longacre, in designing the piece, sought to make it as different as possible from the quarter eagle or $2.50 piece, striking it on a thinner planchet and using a distinctive design. Although over 100,000 were struck in the first year, the coin saw little use, it circulated somewhat on the West Coast, where gold and silver were used to the exclusion of paper money, but what little place it had in commerce in the East was lost in the economic disruption of the Civil War, was never regained.
The piece was last struck in 1889, Congress ended the series the following year. Although many dates were struck in small numbers, the rarest was produced at the San Francisco Mint in 1870. In 1832, New York Congressman Campbell P. White sought a means of returning American gold coins to circulation—as gold was overvalued with respect to silver by the government, gold coins had been exported since the start of the 19th century. White's solution was to have the silver dollar and gold eagle struck at full value, but to have smaller gold and silver coins, including a $3 piece, which contained less than their face value in metal. Although Congress, in passing the Coinage Act of 1834, made adjustments to the ratio between gold and silver, it did not authorize a $3 coin at that time; the Act of March 3, 1845 authorized the first United States postage stamps and set the rate for local prepaid letters at five cents. In the years following, this rate was seen as an impediment to commerce. Accordingly, Congress on March 3, 1851 authorized both a three-cent stamp and a three-cent silver coin.
Kentucky Representative Richard Henry Stanton believed that the need to make change from a silver half dime with large copper cents might defeat the new scheme, writing to Mint Director Robert M. Patterson that "reduced postage depended on a three-cent coin for use in those states where copper does not circulate." According to numismatic historian Walter Breen, "the main purpose of the new 3¢ piece would be to buy postage stamps without using the unpopular and filthy copper cents. By 1853, silver was overvalued with respect to gold; this was due to large discoveries of gold in California, silver was exported. To correct this situation, Secretary of the Treasury Thomas Corwin advocated reducing the precious-metal content of most silver coins to prevent their export; the opposition to the bill was led by Tennessee Representative Andrew Johnson, who believed that Congress had no authority to alter the gold/silver price ratio and, if it did, it should not exercise it. Congress passed the bill, which became law on February 21, 1853.
That bill authorized a three-dollar gold coin. According to Breen, Congress believed the new coin "would be convenient for exchange for rolls or small bags of silver 3¢ pieces, for buying sheets of 3¢ stamps—always bypassing use of copper cents". In 1889, then-Mint Director James P. Kimball wrote that "it is supposed that the three-dollar piece was designed to be a multiple of the three-cent piece, for the convenience of postal transactions". Numismatist Walter Hagans in his 2003 article on the three-dollar coin notes and dismisses the postal explanation, writing "the actual reason for the gold $3 coin was the abundant supply of gold discovered in California." Coin dealer and author Q. David Bowers notes that "whether or not the $3 denomination was necessary or worthwhile has been a matter of debate among numismatists for well over a century." Much of what is known of the design process for the three-dollar piece is from an August 21, 1858, letter from the Mint's chief engraver, James B. Longacre, the coin's designer, to James Ross Snowden.
This letter is in response to some criticism, in it, Longacre discussed his views on coin design regarding the three-dollar piece. He noted that he was perplexed as to what to put on the coin. Although he had designed the three-cent piece and other issues before Snowden's directorship, he had been told what to put on those pieces; the coin weighed 64.5 grams, had a fineness of 900. Longacre noted that although those in charge of coinage design had dictated adaptations of Roman or Greek art, for the three-dollar coin, he was minded to create something American: Why should we in seeking a type for the illustration or symbol of a nation that need not hold itself lower than the Roman virtue or the Science of Greece prefer the barbaric period of a remote and distant people, from which to draw an emblem of nationality: to the aboriginal period of our own land: when the latter presents us with a characteristic distinction not less interesting, more peculiar than that which still casts its chain over the civilized portion of the older continent?
Why not be American from the spring-head within our own domain?... From the coppe
Georgia Gold Rush
The Georgia Gold Rush was the second significant gold rush in the United States and the first in Georgia, overshadowed the previous rush in North Carolina. It started in 1829 in present-day Lumpkin County near the county seat and soon spread through the North Georgia mountains, following the Georgia Gold Belt. By the early 1840s, gold became difficult to find. Many Georgia miners moved west when gold was found in the Sierra Nevada in 1848, starting the California Gold Rush. While the discovery in Georgia in 1828 was the event that led to what is called the "Georgia Gold Rush", there were reports of gold in the North Georgia Mountains much earlier. Since the 16th century, American Indians in Georgia told European explorers that the small amounts of gold which they possessed came from mountains of the interior; some poorly documented accounts exist of Spanish or French mining gold in North Georgia between 1560 and 1690, but they are based on supposition and on rumors passed on by Indians. In summing up known sources, Yeates observed: "Many of these accounts and traditions seem to be quite plausible.
It is hardly probable that the Spaniards would have abandoned mines which were afterwards found to be quite profitable, as those in North Georgia." Hernando de Soto led an expedition in 1540, "came across a young native who showed the Spaniards how gold was mined and refined by his people." Ozley Bird Saunook, a former Cherokee chief, claimed "his people knew of gold in the area as early as the sixteenth century when de Soto passed through the region."In 1799, gold was discovered in Cabarrus County, North Carolina, when Conrad Reed found a 17-pound "glittering stone" in Little Meadow Creek, on his father's farm. Conrad had the stone identified in North Carolina, three years later. By 1804, this Carolina Gold Rush resulted in placer mining, the discovery of a gold-rich quartz vein by Mathias Barringer along Long Creek in Stanly County, North Carolina; the gold belt was extended north into Virginia, south into South Carolina and Alabama. No one knows which version of the original find is accurate: Some anecdotes have either Frank Logan or his slave making the find in White County, Georgia, in Dukes Creek.
Another version of the White County find has John Witherood finding a three-ounce nugget along Dukes Creek. Still another version was that the North Carolina prospector Jesse Hogan found gold near Dahlonega, Georgia, at Ward's Creek. Thomas Bowen found gold in the roots of a storm-blown tree along Duke's Creek. Benjamin Parks found gold on his birthday in 1828 while walking along a deer path, subsequently he and his business partner, Joel Stephens, leased the site from Reverend O'Barr. However, these stories have no contemporary documents to support their validity. No matter who made the gold discovery in 1828, the gold rush started in 1829 in Lumpkin County and began spreading rapidly. One of the first public accounts was on August 1, 1829, when the Georgia Journal, ran the following notice. GOLD.—A gentleman of the first respectability in Habersham county, writes us thus under date of 22d July: "Two gold mines have just been discovered in this county, preparations are making to bring these hidden treasures of the earth to use."
So it appears that what we long anticipated has come to pass at last, that the gold region of North and South Carolina, would be found to extend into Georgia. The Macon Telegraph reported that in "the winter of 1829 and 30, when the precious metals having been discovered in great abundance upon our Cherokee soil, great numbers of people from Georgia and other States rushed to the Territory in search of its treasures."Gold was discovered in Carroll County, Georgia, in 1830. Although much of the land on which the gold was found was under the control of the Cherokee, mining operations sprang up in Lumpkin, White and Cherokee counties in the "Great Intrusion". In the early stages of the gold rush, the majority of the mining was placer mining. By 1830, Nile's Register estimated that there were 4,000 miners working on Yahoola Creek alone, over 300 ounces of gold per day were being produced in an area from north of Blairsville to the southeast corner of Cherokee County; the Philadelphia Mint received $212,000 in gold from Georgia in 1830.
Other estimates were that in 1831 there were 6,000 to 10,000 miners between the Chestatee River and the Etowah River. Boom towns like Auraria and Dahlonega began to appear, and Dahlonega was said to have supported 15,000 miners at the height of the gold rush. During this rapid influx of prospectors and settlers, tensions with the Cherokee increased. Before long, gold mines appeared in most counties in the North Georgia mountains, including Georgia's northeastern-most county, Rabun; the culmination of tensions between the Cherokee and various states, including Georgia, led to the forced migration of Native Americans known as the Trail of Tears. President Andrew Jackson authorized the Indian Removal Act in 1830, which would allow a take over of the gold mining areas among other places; the Cherokee Nation turned to the federal court system to avoid being forced off their ancestral lands. The Supreme Court first ruled in favor of the State of Georgia in the 1831 case Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, but the following year, in Worcester v. Georgia reversed this decision to recognize the Cherokee as a sovereign nation.
Jackson proceeded with removal of remaining Cherokee from the North Georgia gold fields. The Philadelphia Mint received over half a million dollars in gold from Georgia in 1832; the state of Georgia held the Gold Lottery of 1832 and awarded land, owned by the Cherokee, to the winners in 40-acre tracts. The Philadelphia Mint rece
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Lumpkin County, Georgia
Lumpkin County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,966, its county seat is Dahlonega. This area was settled by the Cherokee, who occupied areas of what became delimited as southeastern Tennessee and western North Carolina. Lumpkin County was created on December 3, 1832; the county was named for Wilson Lumpkin. Lumpkin's daughter, Martha Wilson Lumpkin Compton, was the namesake of the town named Marthasville, the early-1840s name for Atlanta in Fulton County. In the 1830s, gold was discovered in the county near Auraria, leading to a rush of miners and development; the U. S. government established a mint in Dahlonega, operating for 23 years until the outbreak of the American Civil War. State contractors acquired gold from Lumpkin County to gild the dome of the current state capitol building in Atlanta. Agriculture and agritourism are top business industries. In addition, vineyards have been developed here and, since the mid-1990s, Lumpkin County has been recognized as "the heart of Georgia wine country."
The county features five licensed wineries, which attract many tourists. In 2015, state senator Steve Gooch introduced Georgia Senate Resolution 125 recognizing Lumpkin County as the Wine Tasting Room Capital of Georgia; the historic Dahlonega Square is a popular destination. It has gift shops, art galleries and artists' studios, additional tasting rooms. Lumpkin County is the home of the U. S. Army's Camp Frank D. Merrill, the base of the 5th Ranger Training Battalion of the U. S. Army Ranger School's mountain phase. Camp Frank D. Merrill is located in the northern end of the county, within the Blue Ridge Wildlife Management Area of the Chattahoochee National Forest. Three veterans' organizations are located in Lumpkin County, to serve the veterans and the community: the Heyward Fields American Legion Post 239, the US Army Mountain Ranger Association, the Lumpkin and White County Veterans of Foreign Wars Post 5533. Lumpkin County has an agency to help veterans, the Lumpkin County Veterans Affairs Advisory Committee.
This group is in charge of the Lumpkin County Veterans Memorial and the twice yearly veterans' memorial crosses, which are installed to line both sides of the major roads in Dahlonega from mid-May through the Fourth of July, again for the month of November. The crosses are adorned with the names of the county's veterans who have died, some in combat, those who returned home and died. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 284 square miles, of which 283 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles is water. The summit of Blood Mountain, which Lumpkin shares with Union County to the north, is the highest point in the county. At 4458 feet, Blood Mountain is the 5th-highest peak in Georgia and the highest point on Georgia's portion of the Appalachian Trail; the western forty percent of Lumpkin County is located in the Etowah River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin, while the eastern sixty percent of the county is located in the Upper Chattahoochee River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin.
Union County – north White County – east Hall County – southeast Dawson County – west Fannin County – northwest Chattahoochee National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 21,016 people, 7,537 households, 5,366 families residing in the county. The population density was 74 people per square mile. There were 8,263 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.02% White, 1.46% Black or African American, 0.97% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.57% from other races, 1.53% from two or more races. 3.46% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,537 households out of which 32.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.50% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 22% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.04.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.30% under the age of 18, 15.40% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 21.60% from 45 to 64, 9.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,167, the median income for a family was $46,368. Males had a median income of $31,289 versus $23,955 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,062. About 9.00% of families and 13.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.50% of those under age 18 and 16.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 29,966 people, 10,989 households, 7,645 families residing in the county; the population density was 105.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,925 housing units at an average density of 45.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.4% white, 1.1% black or African American, 0.6% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.5% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.6% were American, 17.5% were Irish, 15.6% were English, 14.4% were German, 5.0% were Scotch-Irish. Of the 10
The Philadelphia Mint was created from the need to establish a national identity and the needs of commerce in the United States. This led the Founding Fathers of the United States to make an establishment of a continental national mint, a main priority after the ratification of the Constitution of the United States; the Coinage Act of 1792 was entered into law on April 2. It proclaimed the creation of the United States Mint. Philadelphia at that time was the nation's capital; the Mint Act instituted a decimal system based on a dollar unit. David Rittenhouse, an American scientist, was appointed the first director of the mint by President George Washington. Two lots were purchased by Rittenhouse on July 18, 1792, at Seventh Street and 631 Filbert Street in Philadelphia for $4,266.67. The next day, demolition of an abandoned whiskey distillery on the property began. Foundation work began on July 31, by September 7, the first building was ready for installation of the smelting furnace; the smelt house was the first public building.
A three-story brick structure facing Seventh Street was constructed a few months later. Measuring nearly 37 ft wide on the street, it only extended back 33 ft; the gold and silver for the mint were contained in basement vaults. The first floor housed deposit and weighing rooms, along with the press room, where striking coins took place. Mint official offices were on the second floor, the assay office was located on the third floor. A photograph of the Seventh Street building taken around 1908 show that by the year 1792 and the words "Ye Olde Mint" had been painted onto the facade. Between the smelt house and the building on Seventh Street, a mill house was built. Horses in the basement turned a rolling mill located on the first floor. In January 1816, the smelt and mill houses were destroyed by a fire; the smelt house was never repaired and all smelting was done elsewhere. The mill house, destroyed, was soon replaced with a large brick building, it included a new steam engine in the basement to power the machinery.
Until 1833, these three buildings provided the United States with hard currency. Operations moved to the second Philadelphia mint in 1833, the land housing the first mint was sold. In the late 19th or early 20th century, the property was sold to Frank Stewart, who approached the city, asking them to preserve or relocate the historic buildings. With no governmental help, the first mint was demolished between 1907 and 1911. Now, only a small plaque remains to memorialize the spot. On July 4, 1829, a cornerstone was laid for the building at the intersection of Chestnut and Juniper Streets, it was designed by William Strickland. The second Philadelphia Mint, the "Grecian Temple", was constructed of white marble with classic Greek-style columns on front and back. Measuring 150 ft wide in front by 204 ft deep, it was a huge improvement over the first facility, in space as well as image. Opening in January 1833, its production was constrained by the outdated machinery salvaged from the first mint. Franklin Peale was sent to Europe to study advanced coinmaking technologies which were brought back and implemented, increasing productivity and quality.
Sold in 1902, the second mint was demolished. The cornerstone buried in 1833 was unearthed and contained a candy jar with a petrified cork stoppering it. Inside the jar were three coins, a few newspapers, a scroll with information on the first mint and the creation of the second; the site has been occupied since 1914 by 1339 Chestnut Street. The third Philadelphia Mint was built at 1700 Spring Garden Street and opened in 1901, it was designed by William Martin Aiken, Architect for the Treasury, but it was constructed under James Knox Taylor. It was a block from the United States Smelting Company, at Broad and Spring Garden Streets. In one year alone, the mint produced 501,000,000 coins, as well as 90,000,000 coins for foreign countries. A massive structure nearly a full city block, it was an instant landmark, characterized by a Roman temple facade. Visitors enjoyed seven themed glass mosaics designed by Louis C. Tiffany in a gold-backed vaulted ceiling; the mosaics depicted ancient Roman coinmaking methods.
This mint still stands intact, much of the interior is intact, as well. It was acquired by the Community College of Philadelphia in 1973. A tribute page has been created. Two blocks from the site of the first mint, the fourth and current Philadelphia Mint opened its doors in 1969, it was designed by Philadelphia architect Vincent G. Kling, who would help design Five Penn Center, Centre Square, the Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts, it was the world's largest mint when it was built and held that distinction as of October 2017. The Philadelphia Mint can produce up to one million coins in 30 minutes, it took three years for the original mint to produce that many. The mint produces medals and awards for military and civil services. Engraving of all dies and strikers only occurs here. Uncirculated coins minted here have the "P" mint mark, while circulated coins from before 1980 carried no mint mark except the Jefferson nickels minted from 1942–1945 and the 1979 Susan B. Anthony dollar coins. Since 1980, all coins minted there have the "P" mint mark except cents until 2017.
Tours can be taken. This takes place via an enclosed catwalk above the minting facility itself. Various video stations are p
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
William P. Price
William Pierce Price was a politician who served in the United States House of Representatives. Price was born in Georgia. Price was born to William Pierce Price, Sr. and Sarah Denton Price in Dahlonega, Georgia.. Price was apprenticed to the printer's trade. In 1851, he moved to Greenville, South Carolina, around the age of 16, he attended Furman University, South Carolina, but left before graduating to take charge of the editorial department of the Southern Enterprise, a Greenville newspaper. While in school he had studied law, he was admitted to the bar in 1856 and commenced practice in Greenville, South Carolina around the age of 20. During the Civil War Price served in the Confederate States Army as orderly sergeant in Kershaw's Second South Carolina Regiment, he was elected and served as member of the South Carolina House of Representatives 1864-1866. In 1866, he moved back to his birthplace of Georgia. Two years in 1868 he served as member of the Georgia House of Representatives until 1870.
His next appointment as a Democrat to the Forty-first Congress to fill the vacancy caused by failure to elect. He was reelected to the Forty-second Congress and served from December 22, 1870, to March 3, 1873, he was not a candidate for renomination in 1872. He was again a member of the State house of representatives 1877-1879, of the State senate in 1880 and 1881, of the State house of representatives in 1894 and 1895, he served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1880. After serving in politics he resumed the practice of law, he was instrumental in the establishment of what was North Georgia Agricultural College, now called the University of North Georgia, of which he served as president of the board of trustees from 1870 until his death in 1908. He died on November 4, 1908 in Dahlonega and is interred in Mt. Hope Cemetery; the iconic Price Memorial Hall with its gold tipped spear is named in his honor. Charter member of Sigma Alpha Epsilon, Georgia Delta chapter, North Georgia Agricultural College, Dahlonega, GA Sept. 29th 1879.
In 1879, a fire destroyed the Dahlonega Gold Mint, being used by the North Georgia Agricultural College at the time. Shortly thereafter, Price Memorial Hall was built in its place. Today Price Memorial Hall is the oldest surviving structure. Price married daughter of Col. William Martin, they had no children. United States Congress. "William P. Price". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov