Mescalero or Mescalero Apache is an Apache tribe of Southern Athabaskan Native Americans. The tribe is federally recognized as the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, located in south central New Mexico. In the nineteenth century, the Mescalero opened their reservation to other Apache bands, such as the Mimbreno and the Chiricahua, many of whom had been imprisoned in Florida; the Lipan Apache joined the reservation. Their descendants are enrolled in the Mescalero Apache Tribe. Established on May 27, 1873, by Executive Order of President Ulysses S. Grant, the reservation was first located near Fort Stanton; the present reservation was established in 1883. It has a land area of 1,862.463 km² entirely in Otero County. The 463,000-acre reservation lies on the eastern flank of the Sacramento Mountains and borders the Lincoln National Forest. A small unpopulated section is in Lincoln County just southwest of Ruidoso. U. S. Route 70 is the major highway through the reservation; the tribe has an economy based on ranching and tourism.
The mountains and foothills are forested with pines. The Mescalero Apache developed a cultural center near the tribal headquarters on U. S. Route 70 in the reservation's largest community of Mescalero. On display are tribal artifacts and important historical information; the tribe operates another, larger museum on the western flank of the Sacramento Mountains in Dog Canyon, south of Alamogordo. The tribe developed and owns the Inn of the Mountain Gods Resort and Casino within Lincoln National Forest; as part of the IMG operation, the tribe owns and manages Ski Apache under contract as a concession with the US Forest Service. It is the southernmost major ski area in North America. In January 2012, Ski Apache celebrated its 50th anniversary; the ski area is situated adjacent to the massive peak of Sierra Blanca a 12,003-foot mountain. It is the southernmost alpine peak in the Continental United States and is part of the Sacramento Mountains. Using the EPA's Level III Ecoregion System, derived from Omernik, this mountain is included in the "Arizona/New Mexico Mountains,", south of the "Southern Rocky Mountains" of northern New Mexico.
Sierra Blanca peak, located on the reservation, is sacred ground for the Mescalero Apache Tribe. They do not allow access without a permit; the Mescalero Apache Tribe holds elections for the office of president every two years. The eight Tribal Council members are elected for two years. Election for the Council is held every year; the reservation had a population of 3,156 according to the 2000 census. In 1959, the tribe elected Virginia Klinekole as its first woman president, she was elected to the Tribal Council, serving on it until 1986. The tribe re-elected Wendell Chino as president. Soon after Chino's death, the late Sara Misquez was elected as president. Chino's son, Mark Chino has been elected and served as president. New officers have served in the 21st century. On January 11, 2008 Carleton Naiche-Palmer was sworn in as the new president of the Mescalero Apache tribe. From 2014 to 2018, Danny Breuninger was President of the Mescalero Apache Tribe. Serving in the Office of President is Arthur "Butch" Blazer.
Gabe Aguilar has been Vice President of the Mescalero Apache Tribe since 2014. The Mescalero language is a Southern Athabaskan language, a subfamily of the Athabaskan and Dené–Yeniseian families. Mescalero is part of the southwestern branch of this subfamily; these are considered the three dialects of Apachean. Although Navajo is a related Southern Athabaskan language, its language and culture are considered distinct from those of the Apache; the Mescalero Apache were a nomadic mountain people. They traveled east on the arid plains to hunt the buffalo and south into the desert for gathering Mescal Agave. Spanish colonists named them Mescalero Apache; the Mescalero Apache, along with the other Apache groups, lived by traditional hunting and gathering. If conditions were poor, they raided other tribes, Spanish and American settlers to survive; the Mescalero's autonym, or name for themselves, is Shis-Inday or Mashgalénde / Mashgalé-neí / Mashgalé-õde. The Navajo, another Athabascan-speaking tribe, call the Mescalero Naashgalí Dineʼé.
Like other Apache peoples they identify as Inday / Indee / Ndé / Nndé-í / Nndé-ne / Nndé-õne. Neighboring Apache bands called the Mescalero Nadahéndé, because the mescal agave was a staple food source for them. In times of need and hunger, they depended on stored mescal for survival. Since 1550 Spanish colonists referred to them as the Mescalero. Mescalero Apache bands were referred to by European colonists and settlers by different names, some related to their geographic territory, they were recorded in documents by a wide number of names: Apaches de Cuartelejo, Apaches del Río Grande, Faraones, Natage, Querechos, T
Fort Sill, Oklahoma is a United States Army post north of Lawton, about 85 miles southwest of Oklahoma City. It covers 94,000 acres; the fort was first built during the Indian Wars. It is designated as a National Historic Landmark and serves as home of the United States Army Field Artillery School as well as the Marine Corps' site for Field Artillery MOS school, United States Army Air Defense Artillery School, the 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade, the 75th Field Artillery Brigade. Fort Sill is one of the four locations for Army Basic Combat Training, it has played a significant role in every major American conflict since 1869. The site of Fort Sill was staked out on 8 January 1869, by Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, who led a campaign into Indian Territory to stop hostile tribes from raiding border settlements in Texas and Kansas. Sheridan's massive winter campaign involved six cavalry regiments accompanied by frontier scouts such as Buffalo Bill Cody, Wild Bill Hickok, Ben Clark and Jack Stilwell.
Troops camped at the location of the new fort included the 7th Cavalry, the 19th Kansas Volunteers and the 10th Cavalry, a distinguished group of black "buffalo soldiers" who constructed many of the stone buildings still surrounding the old post quadrangle. At first, the garrison was called "Camp Wichita" and was referred to by the Indians as "the Soldier House at Medicine Bluffs." Sheridan named it in honor of his West Point classmate and friend, Brigadier General Joshua W. Sill, killed during the American Civil War; the first post commander was Brevet Maj. Gen. Benjamin Grierson and the first Indian agent was Colonel Albert Gallatin Boone, grandson of Daniel Boone. Other forts in the frontier fort system were Forts Griffin, Belknap, Fort Stockton, Fort Davis, Fort Bliss, McKavett, Fort McIntosh, Fort Inge, Phantom Hill, Richardson in Texas. There were "sub posts or intermediate stations" including Bothwick's Station on Salt Creek between Fort Richardson and Fort Belknap, Camp Wichita near Buffalo Springs between Fort Richardson and Red River Station, Mountain Pass between Fort Concho and Fort Griffin.
Several months after the establishment of Fort Sill, President Ulysses Grant approved a peace policy placing responsibility for the Southwest tribes under Quaker Indian agents. Fort Sill soldiers were restricted from taking punitive action against the Indians, who interpreted this as a sign of weakness; the Indians used Fort Sill as a sanctuary. In 1871, General of the Army William Tecumseh Sherman arrived at Fort Sill from Fort Richardson, while on a tour of Army posts throughout the country. Sherman was at Fort Richardson when they became aware of the Warren Wagon Train Raid, in which seven muleskinners were killed by Indians when their wagon train was ambushed. Soon after Sherman arrived at Fort Sill, the Indian Agent brought several Kiowa chiefs to tell their story about attacking the wagon train; when Sherman ordered their arrest during a meeting on Grierson's porch, two of the Indians attempted to assassinate him. In memory of the event, the Commanding General's quarters were dubbed Sherman House.
The Army arrested three chiefs during the porch skirmish: Satank and Addo-etta. Sherman ordered them to Texas for a civil trial for the murders; when the three were put into a wagon and taken under cavalry escort to Fort Richardson, Satank began his death song. A mile down the trail, he grabbed the carbine of one of the troopers in the wagon. Before he could cock and fire it, he was hit by several shots fired by the escort. Satank was left against a tree and the column continued on its mission. A marker on Berry Road near the curve marks the spot where an honored warrior, fell, his grave is in Chiefs Knoll in the post cemetery. Satanta and Addo-etta were tried by Texas courts on 5 and 6 July, the first time Indians had been tried in civil courts, they were sentenced to death by hanging. Supporters of the Quaker peace policy convinced Governor Edmund J. Davis to commute the Indians' sentences to life imprisonment. In October 1873 they were paroled. In June 1874, the Comanches and Southern Cheyennes engaged in the Red River War.
The year-long struggle was a war of attrition that involved relentless pursuit by converging military columns. General Phillip Sheridan ordered five army columns to converge on the general area of the Texas Panhandle and upon the upper tributaries of the Red River; the strategy was to deny the Indians any safe haven and attack them unceasingly until they went permanently to the reservations. Three of the five columns were under the command of Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie; the Tenth Cavalry, under Lieutenant Colonel John W. Davidson, came due west from Fort Sill; the Eleventh Infantry, under Lieutenant Colonel George P. Buell, moved northwest from Fort Griffin. Mackenzie himself led the Fourth Cavalry north from Fort Concho; the fourth column, consisting of the Sixth Cavalry and Fifth Infantry, was commanded by Colonel Nelson A. Miles and came south from Fort Dodge; the fifth column, the Eighth Cavalry commanded by Major William R. Price, a total of 225 officers and men, plus six Indian scouts and two guides originated from Fort Union, marched east via Fort Bascom in New Mexico.
The plan called for the converging columns to maintain a continuous offensive until a decisive defeat had been inflicted on the Indians. As many as 20 engagements took place across the Texas Panhandle; the Army, consisting of soldiers and scouts, sought to engage the Indians at any opportunity. The Indians, traveling with women and elderly attempted to avoid them; when the two did encounter one anothe
Geronimo was a prominent leader and medicine man from the Bedonkohe band of the Apache tribe. From 1850 to 1886 Geronimo joined with members of three other Chiricahua Apache bands—the Tchihende, the Tsokanende and the Nednhi—to carry out numerous raids as well as resistance to US and Mexican military campaigns in the northern Mexico states of Chihuahua and Sonora, in the southwestern American territories of New Mexico and Arizona. Geronimo's raids and related combat actions were a part of the prolonged period of the Apache–United States conflict, which started with American settlement in Apache lands following the end of the war with Mexico in 1848. While well known, Geronimo was not a chief among the Bedonkohe band. However, since he was a superb leader in raiding and warfare he led large numbers of men and women beyond his own following. At any one time, about 30 to 50 Apaches would be following him. During Geronimo's final period of conflict from 1876 to 1886 he "surrendered" three times and accepted life on the Apache reservations in Arizona.
Reservation life was confining to the free-moving Apache people, they resented restrictions on their customary way of life. In 1886, after an intense pursuit in Northern Mexico by U. S. forces that followed Geronimo's third 1885 reservation "breakout", Geronimo surrendered for the last time to Lt. Charles Bare Gatewood, an Apache-speaking West Point graduate who had earned Geronimo's respect a few years before. Geronimo was transferred to General Nelson Miles at Skeleton Canyon, just north of the Mexican/American boundary. Miles treated Geronimo as a prisoner of war and acted promptly to remove Geronimo first to Fort Bowie to the railroad at Bowie Station, Arizona where he and 27 other Apaches were sent off to join the rest of the Chiricahua tribe, exiled to Florida. In his old age, Geronimo became a celebrity, he appeared at fairs, including the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis, where he rode a ferris wheel and sold souvenirs and photographs of himself. However, he was not allowed to return to the land of his birth.
He died at the Fort Sill hospital in 1909, still as a prisoner of war. He is buried at the Fort Sill Indian Agency Cemetery surrounded by the graves of relatives and other Apache prisoners of war. Apache is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans from the Southwest United States; the current division of Apachean groups includes the Western Apache, Mescalero, Jicarilla and Plains Apache. During the centuries of Apache-Mexican and Apache-United States conflict, raiding had become embedded in the Apache way of life, used not only for strategic purposes but as an economic enterprise, there was overlap between raids for economic need and warfare. Raids ranged from stealing livestock and other plunder, to the capture and/or killing of victims, sometimes by torture. Mexicans and Americans responded with retaliatory attacks against the Apache which were no less violent and were seldom limited to identified individual adult enemies; the raiding and retaliation fed the fires of a virulent revenge warfare that reverberated back and forth between Apaches and Mexicans and Apaches and Americans.
From 1850 to 1886 Geronimo, as well as other Apache leaders, conducted attacks, but Geronimo was driven by a desire to take revenge for the murder of his family and accumulated a record of brutality during this time, unmatched by any of his contemporaries. His fighting ability extending over 30 years forms a major characteristic of his persona. Among Geronimo's own Chiricahua tribe many had mixed feelings about him. While respected as a skilled and effective leader of raids or warfare, he emerges as not likable, he was not popular among the other Apache; this was because he refused to give in to American government demands leading to some Apaches fearing the American responses to Geronimo's sense of Indian nationalism. Apache people stood in awe of Geronimo's "powers" which he demonstrated to them on a series of occasions; these powers indicated to other Apaches that Geronimo had super-natural gifts that he could use for good or ill. In eyewitness accounts by other Apaches, Geronimo was able to become aware of distant events as they happened, he was able to anticipate events that were in the future.
He demonstrated powers to heal other Apaches. Geronimo was born to the Bedonkohe band of the Apache, in Arizpe, near Turkey Creek, a tributary of the Gila River in the modern-day state of New Mexico part of Mexico, though the Apache disputed Mexico's claim, his grandfather, had been chief of the Bedonkohe Apache. He had four sisters, his parents raised him according to Apache traditions. Geronimo married a woman named Alope, from the Nedni-Chiricahua band of Apache when he was 17, she was the first of nine wives. On March 5, 1858, a company of 400 Mexican soldiers from Sonora led by Colonel José María Carrasco attacked Geronimo's camp outside Janos while the men were in town trading. Among those killed were his wife and mother; the loss of his family led Geronimo to hate all Mexicans for the rest of his life. Recalling that at the time his band was at peace with the Mexicans, Geronimo remembered the incident as follows: Late one afternoon when returning from town we were met by a few women and children who told us th
Chiricahua are a band of Apache Native Americans, based in the Southern Plains and Southwest United States. Culturally related to other Apache peoples, Chiricahua shared a common area, language and intertwined family relations. At the time of European contact, they had a territory of 15 million acres in Southwestern New Mexico and Southeastern Arizona in the United States and in Northern Sonora and Chihuahua in Mexico. Today Chiricahua are enrolled in two federally recognized tribes in the United States: the Fort Sill Apache Tribe, located near Apache, Oklahoma with a small reservation outside Deming, New Mexico, the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation near Ruidoso, New Mexico; the San Carlos Apache Tribe, Arizona does have Chiricahua Apache people there also. The Chiricahua Apache written as Chiricagui, Apaches de Chiricahui, Chilicague and Chiricagua, were given that name by the Spanish; the White Mountain Coyotero Apache, including the Cibecue and Bylas groups of the Western Apache, referred to the Chiricahua by the name Ha'i’ą́há, while the San Carlos Apache called them Hák'ą́yé which means ″Eastern Sunrise″, or ″People in the East″.
Navajo refer to the Chiricahua as Chíshí. The Chiricahua autonym, or name by which they refer to themselves, is Nde, Ne, Néndé, Héndé or Hen-de – "The People, Men"; the Chiricahua referred to outsiders, such as Americans, Mexicans or other Indians, as Enee, ⁿdáa or Indah / N'daa. This word has two possible meanings, the first being "strange people, non-Apache people" or "enemy", but another being "eye". Sometimes it is said that all Apaches referred to the Americans and European settlers as Bi'ndah-Li'ghi' / Bi'nda-li'ghi'o'yi, but this seems a name from Mescalero and Lipan Apache bands, as the Chiricahua bands called them Daadatlijende, meaning "Blue/green eye people" or Indaaɫigáí / Indaaɫigánde meaning "White skinned or pale colored people" or "Strange, non-Apache people, which are white-skinned"). Łigáí means "it is white" or it can be translate as "it is pale colored". The í on the end translates as "the one that is", but in the context of human beings, can mean "the group who are". Several loosely affiliated bands of Apache came improperly to be known as the Chiricahuas.
These included the Chihenne, the Nednai and Bedonkohe. Today, all are referred to as Chiricahua, but they were not a single band nor the same Apache division, being more identified, all together, as "Central Apaches". Many other bands and groups of Apachean language-speakers ranged over eastern Arizona and the American Southwest; the bands that are grouped under the Chiricahua term today had much history together: they intermarried and lived alongside each other, they occasionally fought with each other. They formed short-term as well as longer alliances that have caused scholars to classify them as one people; the Apachean groups and the Navajo peoples were part of the Athabaskan migration into the North American continent from Asia, across the Bering Strait from Siberia. As the people moved south and east into North America, groups splintered off and became differentiated by language and culture over time; some anthropologists believe that the Apache and the Navajo were pushed south and west into what is now New Mexico and Arizona by pressure from other Great Plains Indians, such as the Comanche and Kiowa.
Among the last of such splits were those that resulted in the formation of the different Apachean bands whom the Europeans encountered: the southwestern Apache groups and the Navajo. Although both speaking forms of Southern Athabaskan, the Navajo and Apache have become culturally distinct; the Tsokanende Apache division was once led, from the beginning of the 18th century, by chiefs such as Pisago Cabezon, Posito Moraga, Tapilà, Vivora, Miguel Narbona and Cochise and, after his death, his sons Tahzay and Naiche, under the guardianship of Cochise's war chief and brother-in-law Nahilzay, the independent chiefs Chihuahua, Ulzana and Pionsenay. After Victorio's death, Geronimo and youngest Cochise's son Naiche were the last leaders of the Central Apaches, their mixed Apache group was the last to continue to resist U. S. government control of the American Southwest. From the beginning of EuropeanAmerican/Apache relations, there was conflict between them, as they competed for land and other resources, had different cultures.
Their encounters were preceded by more than 100 years of Spanish colonial and Mexican incursions and settlement on the Apache lands. The United States settlers were newcomers to the competition for land and resources in the Southwest, but they inherited its complex history, brought their own attitudes with them about American Indians and how to use the land. By the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848, the US took on the responsibility to prevent and punish cross-border incursions by Apache who were ra
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine is a city in the Southeastern United States, on the Atlantic coast of northeastern Florida. Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorers, it is the oldest continuously inhabited European-established settlement within the borders of the continental United States; the county seat of St. Johns County, St. Augustine is part of Florida's First Coast region and the Jacksonville metropolitan area. According to the 2010 census, the city's population was 12,975; the United States Census Bureau's 2013 estimate of the city's population was 13,679, while the urban area had a population of 71,379 in 2012. St. Augustine was founded on September 8, 1565, by Spanish admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, he named the settlement "San Agustín", as his ships bearing settlers and supplies from Spain had first sighted land in Florida eleven days earlier on August 28, the feast day of St. Augustine; the city served as the capital of Spanish Florida for over 200 years. It was designated as the capital of British East Florida when the colony was established in 1763 until it was ceded to Spain in 1783.
Spain ceded Florida to the United States in 1819, St. Augustine was designated the capital of the Florida Territory upon ratification of the Adams–Onís Treaty in 1821; the Florida National Guard made the city its headquarters that same year. The territorial government moved and made Tallahassee the capital in 1824. Since the late 19th century, St. Augustine's distinct historical character has made the city a major tourist attraction. Founded in 1565 by the Spanish conquistador Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, St. Augustine is the oldest continuously occupied settlement of European origin in the contiguous United States. In 1562, a group of Huguenots led by Jean Ribault arrived in Spanish Florida to establish a colony in the territory claimed by Spain, they explored the mouth of the St. Johns River, calling it la Rivière de Mai sailed northward and established a settlement called Charlesfort at Port Royal Sound in present-day South Carolina. Spain learned of this French expedition through its spies at ports on the Atlantic coast of France.
The Huguenot nobleman René de Laudonnière, who had participated in the expedition, returned to Florida in 1564 with three ships and 300 Huguenot colonists. He arrived at the mouth of the River May on June 22, 1564, sailed up it a few miles, founded Fort Caroline. Desiring to protect its claimed territories in North America against such incursions, the Spanish Crown issued an asiento to Menéndez, signed by King Philip II on March 20, 1565, granting him expansive trade privileges, the power to distribute lands, licenses to sell 500 slaves, as well as various titles, including that of adelantado of Florida; this contract directed Menéndez to sail for La Florida, reconnoitre it from the Florida Keys to present-day Canada, report on its coastal features, with a view to establishing a permanent settlement for the defense of the Spanish treasure fleet. He was ordered as well to drive away any intruders. On July 28, Menéndez set sail from Cádiz with a fleet led by his 600-ton flagship, the San Pelayo, accompanied by several smaller ships, carrying over 1,000 sailors and settlers.
On the feast day of St. Augustine, August 28, the fleet sighted land and anchored off the north inlet of the tidal channel the French called the River of Dolphins. Menéndez sailed north and confronted Ribault's fleet outside the bar of the River May in a brief skirmish. On September 6, he returned to the site of his first landfall, naming it after the Catholic saint, disembarked his troops, constructed fortifications to protect his people and supplies. Menéndez marched his soldiers overland for a surprise attack on Fort Caroline, where they killed everyone in the fort except for the women and children. Jean Ribault had put out to sea with his ships for an assault on St. Augustine, but was surprised by a storm that wrecked his ships further south. Informed by his Indian allies that the survivors were walking northward on the coast, Menéndez began to search for the Frenchmen, who had made it as far as the banks of the Matanzas River's south entrance. There they were confronted by his men on the opposite side.
After several parleys with the Spanish, Jean Ribault and the Frenchmen with him surrendered. In May 1566, as relations with the neighboring Timucua Indians deteriorated, Menéndez moved the Spanish settlement to a more defensible position on the north end of the barrier island between the mainland and the sea, built a wooden fort there. In 1572, the settlement was relocated to the mainland, in the area just south of the future town plaza. Confident that he had fulfilled the primary conditions of his contract with the King, including the building of forts along the coast of La Florida, Menéndez returned to Spain in 1567. After several more transatlantic crossings, Menéndez fell ill and died on September 17, 1574. Succeeding governors of the province maintained a peaceful coexistence with the local Native Americans, allowing the isolated outpost of St. Augustine some stability for a few years. On May 28 and 29, 1586, soon after the Anglo-Spanish War began between England and Spain, the English privateer Sir Francis Drake sacked and burned St. Augustine.
The approach of his large fleet obliged Governor Pedro Menéndez Márquez and the townspeople to flee for their safety. When the English got ashore, they seized some artillery pieces and a royal strongbox containing gold ducats, the garrison payroll; the killing of their sergeant major by the Spanish rearguard caused Dr
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United