The Mercedes Simplex was an automobile produced from 1902 to 1909 by the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. It continued the use of the Mercedes name as the brand of DMG, rather than Daimler; the Mercedes Simplex was designed by Wilhelm Maybach in Germany. It featured powerful engines, its large and wide body had a low center of gravity. A highlight of the simplex family was the model 60 hp. With this car Mercedes laid the foundation of a new car segment, the super-luxury class with an imposing touring Saloon body, it was unlike anything else at the time and established itself well with royalty and aristocrats, its immense size and luxuries were to set the milestones for the development of this segment, continued on by numerous models over the next 70 odd years, including the 630, 770 Grand, 300 Adenauer and terminating in 1981 with the demise of the 600 Grand. All these models occupied the absolute top segment in the automotive world along with brands such as Rolls Royce, Bentley and other demised car manufacturers.
The car's predecessor, the Mercedes 35hp of 1901, had broken with the previous primitive automotive standards. Now, DMG and Maybach intended to improve this further by providing "comfort by means of simplicity", hence the name Simplex. A complementary explanation for the name is that, by the standards of 1901, the car was simple to operate; the creation of the previous model, the Mercedes 35hp, predecessor of the Simplex, was due to DMG's industrial might, the know-how of its industrial designer Wilhelm Maybach and Emil Jellinek's enthusiasm for motorsport. Jellinek was DMG's foreign agent based on the French Riviera where he was the Austro-Hungarian consul; that car had resulted in the company's early success. In 1902, Maybach decided to incorporate a series of modifications to the Simplex, anticipating a large number of sales. To suit their high society clients, the new Mercedes would be shown publicly while driving through the most traditional avenues in town or to picnic in a park; when Jellinek received his first Simplex on 1 March 1902 at Nice, he rushed to incorporate it into his Mercedes race team, competing in the Nice-La Turbie hillclimbing race.
He set new records. On 7 April 1902, during Nice week, Albert Lemaître finished second in the Nice – La Turbie mountain race driving a Mercedes Simplex, he was competing in the category for racing cars weighing more than 1000 kg. In 1902, in the United States, a Mercedes Simplex won the 5-mile track race at Grosse Pointe, Detroit. In this 1902 campaign, the third step involved William K. Vanderbilt Jr, a US multimillionaire and race car enthusiast who created in 1904 the American Vanderbilt Cup, he had set several records with the previous Mercedes, in some of the most popular races around the turn of the century long distance ones. Now, with the Mercedes Simplex, Vanderbilt took part in the 600-mile race to Paris, he broke all records in the Ablis to Chartres race with flying start, with a top-speed of 111.8 km/h. One of his Simplex units is the oldest surviving Mercedes car. Mercedes-Simplex's prowesses were resonating all around the world. More than DMG obtained clients among the most important social figures.
Meeting Maybach at Berlin's automobile exhibition of 1903 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany expressed his admiration for the car. Congratulating him for all the achievements at the races, he contrasted these with car's name, commenting: "A beautiful engine you have here! But it's not as simple as that, you know." In 1903, Maybach designed a second version of 60 hp. Mercedes Simplex' framework was long and with a low center of gravity, giving an improved stability at high speeds; the wheelbase was extended to 2.45 meters. Its designed frame was made of pressed steel; the engine was welded onto it directly. Other general modifications reduced the overall Simplex weight to 942 kg, assuring better results in racing; the original 1902 wheels were wooden, with pneumatic tires. In 1905, the Mercedes Simplex pioneered cast-steel wheels; the front and rear axles were modernized progressively, becoming equal in diameter around 1909: 1902: 910x90-1020x120. Rear 10% bigger. 1909: 915x105-935x135. Equalized. Attached to these were the two powerful brake systems, one hand-operated and the other by foot: the main hand brake acted on the rear wheels, with drum brakes the secondary foot brake acted on the chain drive's intermediate driveshaftBoth systems were water-cooled by a sprinkling system over hot zones when braking.
Both axles were rigid. The steering-axles were located at the extremes, decreasing the transmission of road shocks to the driver's hands; the Mercedes Simplex' engine was mounted over the front axle. The engine's power was taken from a sprocket flywheel, 60 cm in diameter, transmitting it to the rear drive by a long roller chain; the gate gear manual gearbox featured four speeds and reverse, controlling a coil spring clutch acting on the flywheel system. A lever produced both deceleration together; the engine produced 44 hp at 1300 rpm. Its four cylinders featured: water cooling lubrication by driver-controlled pressure 120 mm bore and 150 mm stroke valves mechanically timed by enclosed camshaft mechanically engine displacement of 6786 ccIt used magneto electric-spark ignition system, with single spray-nozzle carburetor, for all cylinders; the engine was helped by the use of a decompressor. Maybach's tubular ho
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. The term transmission refers to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device. In British English, the term transmission refers to the whole drivetrain, including clutch, prop shaft and final drive shafts. In American English, the term refers more to the gearbox alone, detailed usage differs; the most common use is in motor vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the internal combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines need to operate at a high rotational speed, inappropriate for starting and slower travel; the transmission reduces the higher engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque in the process. Transmissions are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted. A transmission has multiple gear ratios with the ability to switch between them as speed varies.
This switching may be done automatically. Directional control may be provided. Single-ratio transmissions exist, which change the speed and torque of motor output. In motor vehicles, the transmission is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling because internal combustion engines cannot run below a particular speed; the output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to one or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential may provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to permit the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds as it changes the direction of rotation. Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include power transformation. Hybrid configurations exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to speed and throttle input. Early transmissions included the right-angle drives and other gearing in windmills, horse-powered devices, steam engines, in support of pumping and hoisting.
Most modern gearboxes are used to increase torque while reducing the speed of a prime mover output shaft. This means that the output shaft of a gearbox rotates at a slower rate than the input shaft, this reduction in speed produces a mechanical advantage, increasing torque. A gearbox can be set up to do the opposite and provide an increase in shaft speed with a reduction of torque; some of the simplest gearboxes change the physical rotational direction of power transmission. Many typical automobile transmissions include the ability to select one of several gear ratios. In this case, most of the gear ratios are used to slow down the output speed of the engine and increase torque. However, the highest gears may be "overdrive" types. Gearboxes have found use in a wide variety of different—often stationary—applications, such as wind turbines. Transmissions are used in agricultural, construction and automotive equipment. In addition to ordinary transmission equipped with gears, such equipment makes extensive use of the hydrostatic drive and electrical adjustable-speed drives.
The simplest transmissions called gearboxes to reflect their simplicity, provide gear reduction, sometimes in conjunction with a right-angle change in direction of the shaft. These are used on PTO-powered agricultural equipment, since the axial PTO shaft is at odds with the usual need for the driven shaft, either vertical, or horizontally extending from one side of the implement to another. More complex equipment, such as silage choppers and snowblowers, have drives with outputs in more than one direction; the gearbox in a wind turbine converts the slow, high-torque rotation of the turbine into much faster rotation of the electrical generator. These are more complicated than the PTO gearboxes in farm equipment, they weigh several tons and contain three stages to achieve an overall gear ratio from 40:1 to over 100:1, depending on the size of the turbine. The first stage of the gearbox is a planetary gear, for compactness, to distribute the enormous torque of the turbine over more teeth of the low-speed shaft.
Durability of these gearboxes has been a serious problem for a long time. Regardless of where they are used, these simple transmissions all share an important feature: the gear ratio cannot be changed during use, it is fixed at the time. For transmission types that overcome this issue, see Continuously variable transmission known as CVT. Many applications require the availability of multiple gear ratios; this is to ease the starting and stopping of a mechanical system, though another important need is that of maintaining good fuel efficiency. The need for a transmission in an automobile is a consequence of the characteristics of the internal combustion engine. Eng
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
NSU Motorenwerke AG, or NSU, was a German manufacturer of automobiles and pedal cycles, founded in 1873. Acquired by Volkswagen Group in 1969, VW merged NSU with Auto Union, creating Audi NSU Auto Union AG Audi; the name NSU originated as the city where NSU was located. NSU originated as the "Mechanische Werkstätte zur Herstellung von Strickmaschinen", a knitting machine manufacturer established in 1873 by Christian Schmidt, a technically astute entrepreneur, in the town of Riedlingen on the Danube; the business relocated in 1880 to Neckarsulm. There followed a period of rapid growth and in 1886, the company began to produce bicycles, the first of them a'high wheeler' or'Penny-farthing' branded as the "Germania". By 1892, bicycle manufacturing had replaced knitting machine production. At about this time, the name NSU appeared as a brand name; the first NSU motorcycle appeared in 1901, followed by the first NSU car in 1905. In 1932, under pressure from their bank, NSU recognised the failure of their attempt to break into volume automobile production, their built car factory in Heilbronn was sold to Fiat, who used the plant to assemble Fiat models for the German market.
From 1957, NSU-Fiat cars assumed the brand name Neckar. During World War II NSU produced the Kettenkrad, the NSU HK101, a half-tracked motorcycle with the engine of the Opel Olympia, they made the 251 OSL motorcycle during the war. In December 1946, Das Auto reported the company had resumed the manufacture of bicycles and motor-bicycles at Neckarsulm. For Germany, this was a time of new beginnings, in July 1946, a new board was appointed, headed by General Director Walter Egon Niegtsch, who earlier in his career had spent 17 years with Opel. NSU motorbike production restarted, in a destroyed plant, with prewar designs like the Quick, OSL, Konsul motorbikes; the first postwar model was the NSU Fox in 1949, available in 4-stroke versions. In 1953, the NSU Max followed, a 250 cc motorbike with a unique overhead camdrive driven by reciprocating rods. All these new models had an innovative monocoque frame of pressed steel and a central rear suspension unit. Albert Roder, the chief engineer behind the success story, made it possible that in 1955, NSU became the biggest motorcycle producer in the world.
NSU holds four world records for speed: 1951, 1953, 1954, 1955. In August 1956, Wilhelm Herz at the Bonneville Salt Flats, became the first man to ride a motorcycle faster than 200 mph. In 1957, NSU re-entered the car market with the new Prinz, a small car with a doubled NSU Max engine, an air-cooled two-cylinder engine of 600 cc and 20 hp. Motorbike production continued until 1968. NSU's last production motorcycle was the Quick 50. In 1964, NSU offered the world's first Wankel engined car: the Wankelspider. In development of the project, NSU built the Sport Prinz, with a 129 hp 995 cc 2-rotor. In the same year Prinz 1000 and derivatives like the TT and TT/S followed; the Typ 110 was launched in 1965 as a family car with a more spacious body design. The last NSU cars with a conventional four-stroke engine had the air-cooled OHC four-cylinder engine in common; the car was marketed in the U. K. as "NSU TYP 110", Karobes, a major supplier of car accessories, provided a head rest specially for this car: "A new one which can be fitted without a screw, may be adjusted forwards and backwards."Also in 1964, NSU partnered with Citroën to develop the Wankel engine via the Comotor subsidiary, which resulted in the abortive 1973 Citroën GS Birotor production car.
In 1967, the four-door NSU Ro 80, with a 115 hp version of the same 2-rotor, was presented to the public. Weighing 1,200 kg, it had a Cd of 0.36, disc brakes, independent suspension, front wheel drive by Fichtel & Sachs Saxomatic three-speed transmission. It soon gained several design awards such as "car of the year 1967", while drivers liked its performance. All the world's major motor manufacturers purchased licenses from NSU to develop and produce the rotary engine, with the notable exception of BMW. Despite its public acclaim, sales of the Ro 80 were disappointing; the transmission drew complaints and the engine suffered numerous failures at low mileage. Competitor automakers, apart from Mazda, held back from taking a lead in developing and marketing the Wankel technology, anticipated income associated with those royalty deals failed to materialize; the development of the rotary engine was cost-intensive for the small company. Problems with the apex seals of the engine rotor damaged the brand's reputation amongst consumers.
In 1969, the company was taken over by Volkswagenwerk AG, which merged NSU with Auto Union, the owners of the Audi brand which Volkswagen had acquired five years earlier. The new company was called Audi NSU Auto Union AG and represented the effective end of the NSU marque with all future production to bear the Audi badge; the management of the new combine was based at the Neckarsulm plant, however when the small rear-engined NSU models were phased out in 1973, the Ro 80 was the last car still in production carrying the NSU badge. Audi never made. In 1985, the company name was shortened to Audi AG and management moved back to Audi's headquarters in Ingolstadt; as production of the Ro 80 continued in the Neckarsulm plant, production of larger Audi models like 100 and 200 was
Exposition Universelle (1889)
The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a world's fair held in Paris, from 6 May to 31 October 1889. It was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, an event considered symbolic of the beginning of the French Revolution; the fair included a reconstruction of the Bastille and its surrounding neighborhood, but with the interior courtyard covered with a blue ceiling decorated with fleur-de-lys and used as a ball room and gathering place. The exhibition was "used as showcases for scientific and technological advances, but often included exhibits of objects from the past, including prehistoric times." The 1889 Exposition covered a total area of 0.96 km2, including the Champ de Mars, the Trocadéro, the quai d'Orsay, a part of the Seine and the Invalides esplanade. Transport around the Exposition was provided by the 3 kilometre 600 mm gauge Decauville railway at Exposition Universelle, it was claimed. Some of the locomotives used on this line saw service on the Chemins de Fer du Calvados and the Diégo Suarez Decauville railway.
The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower. The 1889 fair was held on the Champ de Mars in Paris, the site of the earlier Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867, would be the site of the 1900 exposition. Since the lifts had not been completed when the Exposition opened, the first visitors had to walk up to the second floor platform. Workers had worked through the night the day before the exhibition opened to complete the necessary construction needed to safely allow patrons to set foot upon the structure; when speaking of the dedicated workers, M. Salles, the son-in-law of Eiffel made the statement that "no soldier on the battle field deserved better mention than these humble toilers, will never go down in history." No one other than construction personnel were allowed higher than the second floor platform. An significant building constructed for the fair was the Galerie des machines, designed by architect Ferdinand Dutert and engineer Victor Contamin, it was reused at the exposition of 1900 and destroyed in 1910.
At 111 meters, the Galerie spanned the longest interior space in the world at the time, using a system of hinged arches made of steel or iron. Although described as being constructed of steel, it was made of iron. There is an extensive description, with illustrations, of the Exposition's two famous buildings in the British journal Engineering. A follow-up report appears a late issue with this summation: the exhibition will be famous for four distinctive features. In the first place, for its buildings the Eiffel tower and the Machinery Hall; the 28 June issue of Engineering mentions a remarkable "Great Model of the Earth" created by Theodore Villard and Charles Cotard. There were unseasonal thunderstorms in Paris during that summer of 1889, causing some distress to the canopies and decoration of the exposition, as reported by the Engineering issues at that time; the Exhibition included a building by the Paris architect Pierre-Henri Picq. This was an elaborate iron and glass structure decorated with ceramic tiles in a Byzantine-Egyptian-Romanesque style.
After the Exposition the building was shipped to Fort de France and reassembled there, the work being completed by 1893. Known as the Schoelcher Library it contained the 10,000 books that Victor Schoelcher had donated to the island. Today, it houses over 250,000 books and an ethnographic museum, stands as a tribute to the man it is named after who led the movement to abolish slavery in Martinique. A "Negro village" where 400 people were displayed constituted the major attraction. Matching the opening day of the Exposition, the Opéra Comique premiered on 14 May 1889 with a work specially composed for that event: Jules Massenet's Esclarmonde and entertaining crowds of visitors for the more than 50 evenings the Exposition lasted. At the Exposition, the French composer Claude Debussy first heard Javanese gamelan music, performed by an ensemble from Java; this influenced some of his compositions. William Stroudley, locomotive superintendent of the London and South Coast Railway died whilst at the exhibition, where he was exhibiting one of his locomotives.
Heineken received the Grand Prix at the exposition. Buffalo Bill recruited American sharpshooter Annie Oakley to rejoin his "Wild West Show" which performed for packed audiences throughout the Exposition. Other prominent visitors included the Shah of Persia Nasereddin Shah, Prince of Wales and his wife, Princess Alexandra. S. journalist and diplomat Whitelaw Reid. A central attraction in the French section was the Imperial Diamond, at the time the largest diamond in the world; the Mexican pavi
Mercedes 15/70/100 PS
The Mercedes 15/70/100 PS was a large automobile introduced by Daimler in 1924. Production continued till 1929 by which time Daimler had merged with Benz & Cie as a result of which the car’s name had changed to Mercedes-Benz Typ 400. A defining feature of the car was the switchable supercharger fitted to the engine. Plans for the car were drawn up by the company’s Technical Director, Paul Daimler, son of the company’s founder. Following an acrimonious disagreement about new model policy, Daimler left in 1922, transferring to rival manufacturer Horch, it was left to Daimler’s successor as Technical Director to complete the development and handle the launch of the 15/70/100 PS. The strategy for the model’s development appears to have been similar under both men, based on the company’s successful racing cars, using knowledge gained on the race track to develop a large fast road car. Daimler had been branding their passenger cars with the "Mercedes" name since 1902. For their model names at this time the manufacturer applied the followed German naming conventions of the time.
On Daimler's Mercedes 15/70/100 PS the “15” defined the car’s tax horsepower, used by the authorities to determine the level of annual car tax to be imposed on car owners. The “70” and the “100” both defined the manufacturer’s claims regarding car’s actual power output as defined in metric horsepower. In Germany tax horsepower, defined by statute since 1906, was based on the dimensions of the cylinders in the engine. Unlike the systems used elsewhere in Europe, the German tax horsepower calculation took account both of the cylinder bore and of the cylinder stroke, there was therefore a direct linear relationship between engine size and tax horsepower; the unusual feature in the naming of this car was the inclusion of two different power output figures. This arose from the fitting to the engine of a switchable supercharger. With the device switched off maximum claimed output was of 70 PS. With the supercharger invoked, maximum output rose to 100 PS; the Mercedes 15/70/100 PS survived the fusion of Daimler with Benz & Cie which came into effect in 1926.
However, cars of the newly merged company were now branded “Mercedes-Benz” and the model acquired the new model name “Typ 400”, being now known as the Mercedes-Benz Typ 400 The alternative name Mercedes-Benz 15/70/100 PS was and is sometimes used. Many buyers will have purchased the car in bare chassis form and purchased bodywork separately from an independent coach builder; the manufacturer’s listed body types were a four or six seater Torpedo bodied “Tourenwagen”, a six-seater ”Pullman-Limousine”, a six-seater “Landaulet”, a six-seater “Coupe-Limousine” and a 4-door four seater Cabriolet. The six cylinder in-line 3920 cc engine featured an overhead camshaft which at the time was an unusual feature, with “bevel linkage”. However, it was the switchable supercharger, adopted from the company’s racing cars, that attracted most of the attention. With the device switched off maximum claimed output was of 70 PS at 3,100 rpm: with the supercharger operating, maximum output rose to 100 PS; the top speed listed was 105 km/h or 112 km/h according to which of the two offered final drive ratios was fitted.
Power was transmitted to the rear wheels via a multi-plate dry disc clutch and a four speed manual transmission. The gear lever was to the driver’s right, directly outside the door, but at some stage it was repositioned to what has subsequently become a more conventional location in the middle of the floor to the driver’s left; the suspension configuration followed the conventions of the time, using rigid beam axles and semi-elliptic leaf springs. Braking operated on all four wheels using a cable linkage; the car changed little during its production life. The name change to Mercedes-Benz Typ 400 which followed the Daimler/Benz fusion was not accompanied by any changes to the car. However, in 1927 the centre of gravity was lowered as a result of a switch to an “underslung” chassis which left the axles directly above the longitudinal chassis members, whereas earlier car had applied the “Hochbett” overslung chassis layout whereby the longitudinal chassis members were attached directly above the axles.
In 1928 the effectiveness of the brakes was increased through the addition of a vacuum powered support. Before the mid-1926 merger Daimler produced 1002 of the Mercedes branded cars: following the merger which created “Mercedes-Benz” a further 911 of the cars, now badged as Mercedes-Benz products, were produced; the car’s replacement, designed in some haste under the auspices of the newly created company, was the Mercedes-Benz Typ Nürburg 460, much more aggressively priced and sold in greater numbers albeit during a period which included several years of strong growth in the overall size of the German passenger car market. Oswald, Werner: Mercedes-Benz Personenwagen 1886–1986, Motorbuch-Verlag Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3613011336 Oswald, Werner. Deutsche Autos 1920-1945, Band 2. Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02170-6; this entry incorporates information from the equivalent German Wikipedia entry. 1925 Mercedes 15/70/100