The Mōri clan was a Japanese samurai clan descended from Ōe no Hiromoto. The family's most illustrious member, Mōri Motonari expanded the clan's power in Aki Province. During the Edo period his descendants became daimyō of the Chōshū Domain under the Tokugawa shogunate. After the Meiji Restoration with the abolition of the han system and daimyō, the Mōri clan became part of the new nobility; the founder of the clan, Mōri Suemitsu, was the fourth son of Ōe no Hiromoto. He founded the clan when he took the name from his shōen named "Mōri" in Aikō District, Sagami Province. After the Jōkyū War, Suemitsu was appointed to the jitō office of a shōen in Aki Province, he was defeated by Hōjō Tokiyori in 1247 and committed suicide at Minamoto no Yoritomo's shrine along with his Miura clan allies. The genealogy of the Mori clan is well verified because it matches up from several different sources such as the Mōri Family Tree, Sonpi Bunmyaku and Ōe Family Tree. According to the Sonpi Bunmyaku from the late 14th century: Ōe no Hiromoto ┃ Mōri Suemitsu ┃ Mōri Tsunemitsu ┃ Mōri Tokichika ┃ Mōri Sadachika ┃ Mōri Chikahira, moved the family to Aki Province.
┃ Mōri Motoharu During the Kamakura shogunate the Mōri were a gokenin family due to the fame of their ancestor Ōe no Hiromoto. Mōri Suemitsu, the fourth son of Ōe no Hiromoto inherited Mōri-shōen from his father and, why he began to use the name, it is reasonable to say he is the first head of the Mōri clan but in the Mōri family tradition he is the 39th head of the family according to him being the 39th linear descendant of Amenohohi-no-mikoto, an ancient god of Japan. After the third head of the clan, Mōri Tokichika, his son Mōri Sadachika was supposed to succeed him but he and his son were both killed by the Hōjō clan and the great-grandson of Tsunemitsu became the next head of the clan. At the end of the Kamakura shogunate they became distant from the shogunate and showed a favorable attitude to Ashikaga Takauji. In the Sengoku period, Mōri Motonari expanded their power to the whole of Aki province and to other neighboring provinces. In his generation, Mōri became the daimyō from a local jizamurai.
During the war with the Oda clan and the Ikkō-ikki, the Mōri helped the Ikkō-ikki clans by establishing a naval trade route between each other's provincial docks and harbours, the Oda nullified this by laying siege to the trade ships between the two clans and went to further disrupt trade by attempting to destroy the Mōri fleet, failing on their first attempt in 1571. The second battle took place in 1579 with the Oda sending eight Atakebune warships to destroy the Mōri naval threat. After a struggle between Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who led his army as a general of Oda Nobunaga, the two sides made peace and Mōri remained as a daimyō who kept five provinces in Chūgoku. In 1600, Mōri Terumoto nominally led the West Army in the Battle of Sekigahara; the West Army lost the battle and the Mōri clan lost three eastern provinces and moved their capital from Hiroshima to present-day Hagi, Yamaguchi. The newer fief, Mōri han, consisted of two provinces: Suō Province. Derived from the former, Mōri han was referred to as Chōshū han.
After the Meiji Restoration with the abolition of the han system and daimyō, the Mōri clan became part of the new nobility. They became a Duke family. Mōri Suemitsu, fourth son of Ōe no Hiromoto, gokenin of the Kamakura shogunate. Mōri Tsunemitsu, gokenin of the Kamakura shogunate. Mōri Tokichika, gokenin of the Kamakura shogunate. Mōri Motoharu, great-grandson of Tokichika skipped over, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Mōri Hirofusa, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Mōri Mitsufusa, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Mōri Hiromoto, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Mōri Toyomoto, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Mōri Hiromoto, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Died young of alcohol poisoning. Mōri Okimoto, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Died young of alcohol poisoning, succeeded by his infant son. Mōri Kōmatsumaru, jizamurai of Aki, retainer of Ashikaga shogunate. Died at only 9 years of age, succeeded by his uncle.
Mōri Motonari, arguably the most famous member of the clan. Expanded the clan's power to nearly all of the Chūgoku region. Mōri Takamoto, became head of the clan when his father "retired" but died young before his father, suspected assassination by poisoning. Mōri Terumoto, 1st daimyō of Hiroshima Domain, taken away from him after Battle of Sekigahara. Mōri Hidenari, 1st daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Tsunahiro, 2nd daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Yoshinari, 3rd daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Yoshihiro, 4th daimyō of Chōshū Domain, adopted from the Chōfu-Mōri branch family. Mōri Yoshimoto, 5th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Munehiro, 6th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Shigenari, 7th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Haruchika, 8th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Narifusa, 9th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Narihiro, 10th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Narimoto, 11th daimyō of Chōshū Domain. Mōri Naritō, 12th daimyō of Chōshū Doma
A regent is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated. The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is used. If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent governs due to one of these reasons, but may be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out; this was the case in the Kingdom of Finland and the Kingdom of Hungary, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I. In Iceland, the regent represented the King of Denmark as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, kings were elective, which led to a long interregnum.
In the interim, it was the Roman Catholic Primate who served as the regent, termed the "interrex". In the small republic of San Marino, the two Captains Regent, or Capitani Reggenti, are elected semi-annually as joint heads of state and of government. Famous regency periods include that of the Prince Regent George IV of the United Kingdom, giving rise to many terms such as Regency era and Regency architecture; this period lasted from 1811 to 1820, when his father George III was insane, though when used as a period label it covers a wider period. Philippe II, Duke of Orléans was Regent of France from the death of Louis XIV in 1715 until Louis XV came of age in 1723; the equivalent Greek term is epitropos. As of 2018, Liechtenstein is the only country with an active regency; the term regent may refer to positions lower than the ruler of a country. The term may be used in the governance of organisations as an equivalent of "director", held by all members of a governing board rather than just the equivalent of the chief executive.
Some university managers in North America are called regents and a management board for a college or university may be titled the "Board of Regents". In New York State, all activities related to public and private education and professional licensure are administered by the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York, the appointed members of which are called regents; the term "regent" is used for members of governing bodies of institutions such as the national banks of France and Belgium. In the Dutch Republic, the members of the ruling class, not formally hereditary but forming a de facto patrician class, were informally known collectively as regenten because they held positions as "regent" on the boards of town councils, as well as charitable and civic institutions; the regents group portrait, regentenstuk or regentessenstuk for female boards in Dutch "regents' piece", is a group portrait of the board of trustees, called regents or regentesses, of a charitable organization or guild.
This type of group portrait was popular in Dutch Golden Age painting during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the Dutch East Indies, a regent was a native prince allowed to rule de facto colonized'state' as a regentschap. In the successor state of Indonesia, the term regent is used in English to mean a bupati, the head of a kabupaten. Again in Belgium and France, Regent is the official title of a teacher in a lower secondary school, who does not require a college degree but is trained in a specialized école normale. In the Philippines the University of Santo Tomas, the Father Regent, who must be a Dominican priest and is also a teacher, serves as the institution's spiritual head, they form the Council of Regents that serves as the highest administrative council of the university. In the Society of Jesus, a regent is an individual training to be a Jesuit and who has completed his Novitiate and Philosophy studies, but has not yet progressed to Theology studies. A regent in the Jesuits is assigned to teach in a school or some other academic institution as part of the formation toward final vows.
List of regents Regency Acts Viceroy, an individual who, in a colony or province, exercised the power of a monarch on his behalf
The Shōgun was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868. The shogunate was their government. In most of this period, the shōguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a ceremonial formality; the shōguns held absolute power over territories through military means. An unusual situation occurred in the Kamakura period upon the death of the first shōgun, whereby the Hōjō clan's hereditary titles of shikken and tokusō dominated the shogunate as dictatorial positions, collectively known as the Regent Rule; the shōguns during this 134-year period met the same fate as the Emperor and were reduced to figurehead status until a coup d'état in 1333, when the shōgun was restored to power in the name of the Emperor. Shōgun is the short form of Sei-i Taishōgun, the individual governing the country at various times in the history of Japan, ending when Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished the office to Emperor Meiji in 1867; the tent symbolized the field commander but denoted that such an office was meant to be temporary.
The shōgun's officials were collectively the bakufu, were those who carried out the actual duties of administration, while the imperial court retained only nominal authority. In this context, the office of the shōgun had a status equivalent to that of a viceroy or governor-general, but in reality, shōguns dictated orders to everyone including the reigning Emperor. In contemporary terms, the role of the shōgun was equivalent to that of a generalissimo; the title of Sei-i Taishōgun was given to military commanders during the early Heian period for the duration of military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Ōtomo no Otomaro was the first Sei-i Taishōgun. The most famous of these shōguns was Sakanoue no Tamuramaro. In the Heian period, one more shōgun was appointed. Minamoto no Yoshinaka was named sei-i taishōgun during the Genpei War, only to be killed shortly thereafter by Minamoto no Yoshitsune. In the early 11th century, daimyō protected by samurai came to dominate internal Japanese politics.
Two of the most powerful families – the Taira and Minamoto – fought for control over the declining imperial court. The Taira family seized control from 1160 to 1185, but was defeated by the Minamoto in the Battle of Dan-no-ura. Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the central government and aristocracy and established a feudal system based in Kamakura in which the private military, the samurai, gained some political powers while the Emperor and the aristocracy remained the de jure rulers. In 1192, Yoritomo was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun by the Emperor and the political system he developed with a succession of shōguns as the head became known as a shogunate. Yoritomo's wife's family, the Hōjō, seized power from the Kamakura shōguns; when Yoritomo's sons and heirs were assassinated, the shōgun himself became a hereditary figurehead. Real power rested with the Hōjō regents; the Kamakura shogunate lasted for 150 years, from 1192 to 1333. In 1274 and 1281, the Mongol Empire launched invasions against Japan.
An attempt by Emperor Go-Daigo to restore imperial rule in the Kenmu Restoration in 1331 was unsuccessful, but weakened the shogunate and led to its eventual downfall. The end of the Kamakura shogunate came when Kamakura fell in 1333, the Hōjō Regency was destroyed. Two imperial families – the senior Northern Court and the junior Southern Court – had a claim to the throne; the problem was solved with the intercession of the Kamakura shogunate, who had the two lines alternate. This lasted until 1331, when Emperor Go-Daigo tried to overthrow the shogunate to stop the alternation; as a result, Daigo was exiled. Around 1334 -- 1336, Ashikaga Takauji helped; the fight against the shogunate left the Emperor with too many people claiming a limited supply of land. Takauji turned against the Emperor when the discontent about the distribution of land grew great enough. In 1336 Daigo was banished again, in favor of a new Emperor. During the Kenmu Restoration, after the fall of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, another short-lived shōgun arose.
Prince Moriyoshi, son of Go-Daigo, was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun. However, Prince Moriyoshi was put under house arrest and, in 1335, killed by Ashikaga Tadayoshi. In 1338, Ashikaga Takauji, like Minamoto no Yoritomo, a descendant of the Minamoto princes, was awarded the title of sei-i taishōgun and established the Ashikaga shogunate, which lasted until 1573; the Ashikaga had their headquarters in the Muromachi district of Kyoto, the time during which they ruled is known as the Muromachi period. While the title of Shōgun went into abeyance due to technical reasons, Oda Nobunaga and his successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who obtained the position of Imperial Regent, gained far greater power than any of their predecessors had. Hideyoshi is considered by many historians to be among Japan's greatest rulers. Tokugawa Ieyasu seized power and established a government at Edo in 1600, he received the title sei-i taishōgun in 1603, after he forged a family tree to show he was of Minamoto descent.
The Tokugawa shogunate lasted until 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned as shōgun and abdicated his authority to Emperor Meiji. Ieyasu set a precedent in 1605 when he retired as shōgun in favour of his son Tokugawa Hidetada, though he maintained power from b
The Matsunaga clan is a Japanese samurai clan who are descended from the Fujiwara clan. The lineage of Matsunaga Danjo Hisahide strengthen the Matsunaga clan's claim to Fujiwara lineage through Hisahide's nephew, Tadatoshi Naito. Tadatoshi Naito's mother was Naito Sadafusa, from the Naito clan; the Naito clan are descended from Fujiwara no Hidesato. Tadatoshi Naito would serve as lord of Yagi castle. Hisahide's granddaughter, Matsunaga Teitoku (松永貞徳} strengthened the Matsunaga clan's link to the Fujiwara clan, her mother was the older sister of Fujiwara Seika. Teitoku's cousin was Tadatoshi Naito. Other sources suggest that the Matsunaga clan may have descended from the Minamoto clan and may be the descendants of Takenouchi no Sukune, it was a powerful clan in the Mikawa Province. Matsunaga Heiza'emon served Matsudaira Kiyoyasu, the 7th head of the Matsudaira clan and grandfather of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Heiza'emon's son, Genzo served Ieyasu; the Matsunagas in this clan used the tsuta mon as their family crest.
Descendants of this clan continued to serve the Tokugawa Bakufu. Other Japanese people, who used the Matsunaga name, originated from this area; some emigrated to United States and Brazil in the late 1800s. Spark Matsunaga may be a descendant of this clan; the Matsunaga clan that follows the lineage of Matsunaga Danjo Hisahide is the most famous in Japan. Hisahida was the daimyō of the Yamato Province during the Sengoku period, he was born in the year of 1508 and shares the same roots with the Fujiwara clan as the Matsunaga clan in the Mikawa Province. They both used the same tsuta-mon as their family crest. In Japan, when people think of the Matsunaga clan, it is Hisahide they are referring to. Hisahide served as the main retainer for Miyoshi Nagayoshi of the Miyoshi clan in the Yamato Province, he served as retainer for the Oda clan. Hisahide’s actual title was Danjo Shohitsu, positioned under the vice minister of Danjo with the Senior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade, he would become the daimyō of the Yamato Province.
Hisahide committed seppuku after Oda Nobunaga besieged him at Shigisan Castle in 1577. Both of his sons and Hisamichi committed seppuku during the siege. Hisamichi, the heir of Hisahide, had a son named Hikobe'e Kazumaru, he opened a pawnshop and became a wealthy merchant. Hikobe's descendant became retainers of the Saga Domain, they include Matsunaga Munetomo as a retainer of the Saga Domain and Matsunaga Shouemon as a retainer of Kashima Domain, a branched domain of the Saga Domain. There was another Matsunaga clan, started by Kuen, a Buddhist monk who claimed himself as a younger brother of Matsunaga Hisahide, their family crest is the pattern based on Japanese ginger and similar patterns but not the ivy ones which had given from the Ryuzoji clan, one of the warlords that dominated the area. The following are descendants of Hisahide: Matsunaga Munetomo Matsunaga Shouemon Matsunaga Masatoshi - Lieutenant General of the Imperial Army and Order of Second Class Baron. Matsunaga Toh - Chairman of the 45th House of Representative with Matsunaga family roots in Karatsu, Saga.
Matsunaga Hikaru - the Liberal Democratic Party politician who served as finance minister from 27 January to 30 July 1998. Matsunaga Sadaichi - Vice Admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy, he adopted the Matsunaga name after marrying the daughter of Izuyo Matsunaga. His son is granddaughter, Mari. Matsunaga Ichiro - Imperial Navy Captain and the father of Mari. Matsunaga Mari - founder of i-mode mobile service in Japan. Mari is serving as board of director for Rohto Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. and Seiko Epson Corporation. Other Danjo Hisahide descendants are spread across Saga and Fukuoka Prefectures; some descendants moved from Kyushu to the Saitama Prefecture with others immigrating to the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The Villainous Matsunaga Hisahide The Puppet Government of Ashikaga Yoshiteru The strange fate of the Hiragumo kettle Matsunaga family from Saga Truth of Sengoku document Matsunaga Hisahide
The Takeda clan was a Japanese clan active from the late Heian period until the late 16th century. The clan was based in Kai Province in present-day Yamanashi Prefecture; the clan was known for their honorable actions under the rule of Takeda Shingen, one of the most famous rulers of the period. Four diamonds Four diamonds surrounded by a solid ring Two cranes bowing their heads together A centipede Hanabishi Fūrinkazan The Tai character Nobushige, Nobuyoshi, Harunobu, Katsuyori The Takeda were descendants of Emperor Seiwa and are a branch of the Minamoto clan, by Minamoto no Yoshimitsu, brother to the Chinjufu-shōgun Minamoto no Yoshiie. Minamoto no Yoshikiyo, son of Yoshimitsu, was the first to take the name of Takeda. In the 12th century, at the end of the Heian period, the Takeda family controlled Kai Province. Along with a number of other families, they aided their cousin Minamoto no Yoritomo against the Taira clan in the Genpei War; when Minamoto no Yoritomo was first defeated at Ishibashiyama, Takeda Nobuyoshi was applied for help and the Takeda sent an army of 25,000 men to support Yoritomo.
Takeda Nobumitsu, helped the Hōjō during the Jōkyū War and in reward received the governorship of Aki Province. Until the Sengoku period, the Takeda were shugo of Kai and Wakasa provinces. Prior to the Sengoku period, the Takeda helped to suppress the Rebellion of Uesugi Zenshū. Uesugi Zenshū was the kanrei chief advisor to Ashikaga Mochiuji, an enemy of the central Ashikaga shogunate and the Kantō kubō governor-general of the Kantō region. Mochiuji, lord of the Uesugi clan, made a reprisal against the Takeda clan in 1415; this reprisal began a rivalry between the Uesugi and Takeda clans which would last 150 years until the destruction of the Takeda clan at the end of the Sengoku period. While this rivalry existed, the Takeda and the Uesugi still had a huge amount of respect for one another. Takeda Harunobu succeeded his father Nobutora in 1540 and became shugo lord of Kai Province in present-day Yamanashi Prefecture. In this period the Takeda began to expand from their base in Kai Province. In 1559, Harunobu changed his name to the better-known Takeda Shingen.
He faced the Hōjō clan a number of times, most of his expansion was to the north, where he fought his most famous battles against Uesugi Kenshin. This series of regional skirmishes is known as the Battles of Kawanakajima; the battles began in 1553, the best known and severest among them was fought on September 10, 1561. Shingen is famous for his tactical genius, innovations, though some historians have argued that his tactics were not impressive nor revolutionary. Shingen is most famous for his use of the cavalry charge at the Battle of Mikatagahara; the strength of Shingen's new tactic became so famous that the Takeda army came to be known as the kiba gundan, or'mounted army'. Up until the mid-16th century and Shingen's rise to power, mounted samurai were archers. There was a trend at this time towards larger infantry-based armies, including a large number of foot archers. In order to defeat these missile troops, Shingen transformed his samurai from archers to lancers. Shingen died in on May 1573, at age 53 from illness.
His son Takeda Katsuyori succeeded Shingen though the nominal head of the family was his grandson Takeda Nobukatsu, Katsuyori continued Shingen's aggressive expansion plan south and westward and was successful achieving the largest extent of Takeda rule, however he was defeated in the Battle of Nagashino in 1575 by Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu. After Nagashino, the Takeda clan fell into sharp decline as it had lost many of its most notable samurai during the battle. Katsuyori's position within the clan became precarious; the campaign saw most of the Takeda followers abandoning Katsuyori and the other Takeda family members to their fate. The clan was eliminated, although descendants of the Takeda clan would take prominent positions in the Tokugawa shogunate, established in 1603. Takeda is a common family name in modern Japan, though it is unlikely that everyone with the Takeda name is descended from this noble house. In fact, most of the real descendants of the Takeda had a different name when they created a cadet branch.
During the Tokugawa period, several daimyō families were direct descendants of the Takeda. In 1868, these daimyō families were: The Matsumae, descendants of Takeda Kuninobu, were daimyō of Matsumae, the only feudal fief of Hokkaidō; the Nanbu, descendants of Takeda Mitsuyuki, great-grandson of Takeda Yoshikiyo, established himself at Nambu and took that name. The Nambu were daimyō of Shichinohe and Hachinohe; the Yanagisawa, descendants of Takeda Nobuyoshi, were daimyō of Kurokawa and Mikkaichi. The Gotō, descendants of Takeda Nobuhiro, were daimyō of Gotō; the Ogasawara are a cadet branch of the Takeda, by Takeda Nagakiyo, great-grandson of Takeda Yoshikiyo, the first to take the name of Ogasawara. His descendants were shugo of Shinano and Hida Pro
The Ashikaga shogunate known as the Muromachi shogunate, was a dynasty originating from one of the plethora of Japanese daimyō which governed Japan from 1338 to 1573, the year in which Oda Nobunaga deposed Ashikaga Yoshiaki. The heads of government were the shōgun; each was a member of the Ashikaga clan. This period is known as the Muromachi period, it gets its name from the Muromachi district of Kyoto. The third shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, established his residence on Muromachi Street; this residence, constructed in 1379, is nicknamed "Flower Palace" because of the abundance of flowers in its landscaping. During the preceding Kamakura period, the Hōjō clan enjoyed absolute power in the governing of Japan; this monopoly of power, as well as the lack of a reward of lands after the defeat of the Mongol invasions, led to simmering resentment among Hōjō vassals. In 1333, the Emperor Go-Daigo ordered local governing vassals to oppose Hōjō rule, in favor of Imperial restoration, in the Kenmu Restoration.
To counter this revolt, the Kamakura shogunate ordered Ashikaga Takauji to quash the uprising. For reasons that are unclear because Ashikaga was the de facto leader of the powerless Minamoto clan, while the Hōjō clan were from the Taira clan the Minamoto had defeated, Ashikaga turned against Kamakura, fought on behalf of the Imperial court. After the successful overthrow of the Kamakura regime in 1336, Ashikaga Takauji set up his own military government in Kyoto. After Ashikaga Takauji established himself as the shōgun, a dispute arose with Emperor Go-Daigo on the subject of how to govern the country; that dispute led Takauji to cause Prince Yutahito, the second son of Emperor Go-Fushimi, to be installed as Emperor Kōmyō. Go-Daigō fled, Japan was divided between a northern imperial court, a southern imperial court; this period of "Northern and Southern Courts" continued for 56 years, until 1392, when the South Court gave up during the reign of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. The Ashikaga shogunate was the weakest of the three Japanese military governments.
Unlike its predecessor, the Kamakura shogunate, or its successor, the Tokugawa shogunate, when Ashikaga Takauji established his government he had little personal territory with which to support his rule. The Ashikaga shogunate was thus reliant on the prestige and personal authority of its shōgun; the centralized master-vassal system used in the Kamakura system was replaced with the de-centralized daimyōs system, because of the lack of direct territories, the military power of the shōgun depended on the loyalty of the daimyō. On the other hand, the Imperial court was no longer a credible threat to military rule; the failure of the Kenmu Restoration had rendered the court weak and subservient, a situation the Ashikaga Takauji reinforced by establishing within close proximity of the Emperor at Kyoto. The authority of the local daimyō expanded from its Kamakura times. In addition to military and policing responsibilities, the shogunate appointed shugos now absorbed the justice and taxation powers of the local Imperial governors, while the government holdings in each province were absorbed into the personal holdings of the daimyō or their vassals.
The loss of both political clout and economic base deprived the Imperial court of much of its power, which were assumed by the Ashikaga shōgun. This situation reached its peak under the rule of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. After Yoshimitsu however, the structural weakness of the Ashikaga shogunate were exposed by numerous succession troubles and early deaths; this became more acute after the Ōnin War, after which the shogunate itself became reduced to little more than a local political force in Kyoto. The Ashikaga shogunate's foreign relations policy choices were played out in evolving contacts with Joseon on the Korean Peninsula and with imperial China; as the daimyō feuded among themselves in the pursuit of power in the Ōnin War, that loyalty grew strained, until it erupted into open warfare in the late Muromachi period known as the Sengoku period. When the shōgun Ashikaga Yoshiteru was assassinated in 1565, an ambitious daimyō, Oda Nobunaga, seized the opportunity and installed Yoshiteru's brother Yoshiaki as the 15th Ashikaga shōgun.
However, Yoshiaki was only a puppet of Nobunaga. The Ashikaga shogunate was destroyed in 1573 when Nobunaga drove Ashikaga Yoshiaki out of Kyoto. Yoshiaki fled to Shikoku. Afterwards, he received protection from the Mōri clan in western Japan. Toyotomi Hideyoshi requested that Yoshiaki accept him as an adopted son and the 16th Ashikaga shōgun, but Yoshiaki refused; the Ashikaga family survived the 16th century, a branch of it became the daimyō family of the Kitsuregawa domain. The shogunal residence known as the "Flower Palace", was in Kyoto on the block now bounded by Karasuma Street, Imadegawa Street, Muromachi Street, Kamidachiuri Street; the location is commemorated by a stone marker at the southwest corner, the Kanbai-kan of Dōshisha University contains relics and excavations of the area. Ashikaga Takauji, ruled 1338–1357 Ashikaga Yoshiakira, r. 1359–1368 Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, r. 1368–1394 Ashikaga Yoshimochi, r. 1395–1423 Ashikaga Yoshikazu, r. 1423–1425 Ashikaga Yoshinori, r. 1429–1441 Ashikaga Yoshikatsu, r.
1442–1443 Ashikaga Yoshimasa, r. 1449–1473 Ashikaga Yoshihisa, r. 1474–1489 Ashikaga Yoshitane, r. 1490–1493, 1508–1521 Ashikaga Yoshizumi, r. 1494–1508 Ashikaga Yoshiharu, r. 1521–1546 Ashikaga Yoshiteru
The Oda clan was a family of Japanese daimyōs who were to become an important political force in the unification of Japan in the mid-16th century. Though they had the climax of their fame under Oda Nobunaga and fell from the spotlight soon after, several branches of the family continued as daimyō houses until the Meiji Restoration; the Oda family in the time of Nobunaga claimed descent from the Taira clan, by Taira no Chikazane, a grandson of Taira no Shigemori. Taira no Chikazane took its name, his descendants, great vassals of the Shiba clan, shugo of Echizen and other provinces, followed the latter to Owari Province and received Inuyama Castle in 1435. This castle was built by Shiba Yoshitake who entrusted its safety to the Oda family; the Oda had been shugo-dai for several generations. In 1452, after the death of Shiba Yoshitake the vassals of the Shiba, like the Oda in Owari Province and the Asakura clan in Echizen Province, refused the succession of Shiba Yoshitoshi and supported Shiba Yoshikado, began to divide the large domains of their suzerains among themselves, had become independent in the domains, confided to them.
In 1475, the Oda had occupied the greater portion of Owari Province, but the Shiba would continue to try to regain authority until Shiba Yoshikane, who had to leave Owari. The other famous castle of the Oda is Kiyosu Castle, built between 1394 and 1427 by Shiba Yoshishige who entrusted the castle to the Oda clan, named Oda Toshisada vice-governor of the province. Toshisada had four sons; the fourth son, who lived in Katsubata Castle, was the father of Nobuhide and the grandfather of Oda Nobunaga. Nobuhide took Nagoya Castle in 1525, built Furuwatari Castle. Oda Nobutomo held Kiyosu Castle, but he was besieged and killed in 1555 by his nephew Oda Nobunaga who operated from Nagoya Castle; this led to the family being divided into several branches, until the branch led by Oda Nobunaga eclipsed the others and unified its control over Owari. Turning to neighboring rivals, it one by one achieved dominance over the Imagawa, Azai and other clans, until Nobunaga held control over central Japan. However, Nobunaga's plans for national domination were thwarted when he fell victim to the treachery of his vassal Akechi Mitsuhide who killed him at the Incident at Honnō-ji in the summer of 1582.
The Oda remained titular overlords of central Japan for a short time, before being surpassed by the family of one of Nobunaga's chief generals, Hashiba Hideyoshi. Though the Oda were eclipsed by Toyotomi Hideyoshi following Nobunaga's death, it is not known that the Oda continued to be a presence in Japanese politics. One branch of the family became hatamoto retainers to the Tokugawa shōgun, while other branches became minor daimyō lords; as of the end of the Edo period, these included Tendō Domain, Yanagimoto han, Kaiju han, Kaibara han. During the reign of the daimyō Nobutoshi, the Oda of Tendō Domain were signatories to the pact that created the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei. Descendants of the Oda Clan can be found throughout Japan in the south and southwest. Oda Chikazane Oda Nobuhide Oda Nobuhiro Oda Nobunaga Oda Nobuyuki Oda Nobukane Oda Nagamasu Oda Nobuharu Oda Nobuzumi Oda Nobutada Oda Nobutaka Oda Nobukatsu Hashiba Hidekatsu Oda Katsunaga Oda Hidekatsu Oda Hidenobu Oda Nobutoshi Information on the Oda clan's background This article incorporates text from OpenHistory