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Dakodonou

Dakodonou or Dakodonu or Dako Donu was an early king of the Kingdom of Dahomey, in present-day Benin, ruling from around 1620 until 1645. Oral tradition recounts that Dakodonu was the son of Do-Aklin, the founder of the royal dynasty of Dahomey, the father to Houegbadja considered the founder of the Kingdom of Dahomey. In addition, it is said that Dakodonu killed a local chieftain and founded the capital city upon the site. However, some recent historical analysis contends that Dakodonu was added into the royal line in the 18th century to legitimize the ruling dynasty over the indigenous inhabitants of the Abomey plateau. Oral tradition holds that a succession struggle in Allada resulted in Do-Aklin moving a large population onto the Abomey plateau, an area settled by the Gedevi; when Do-Aklin died, Dakodonu became the leader of the group and was given permission by the Gedevi chiefs to settle on the plateau. Dakodonu requested additional land for settlement from a prominent Gedevi chief named Dan.

To this request, the chief responded "Should I open up my belly and build you a house in it." The tradition contends that Dakodonu killed Dan on the spot and ordered that his new palace be built on the site and derived the kingdom's name from the incident: Dan=chief, xo=Belly, me=Inside of. From this beginning, Dakodonu began establishing the basic structure of the Dahomey kingdom and is reported to have conquered two additional villages. Oral tradition of the ruling lineage of the kingdom says that Dakodonu's son Houegbadja considered the first king of Dahomey, took over after Dakodonu's reign. Dahomey historian Edna Bay argues that Dakodonu was himself a Gedevi, the local population of the area, that he was added into the royal lineage story by Agaja in order to establish the legitimate rule of the Kingdom over the local population. Evidence of this is suggested through the fact that the head priest of the kingdom, the agasunon in Fon, was always from the lineage of Dakodonu. In addition, oral tradition of lineages not associated with the ruling group claim that Houegbadja was an adopted son of Dakodonu.

Dakodonu's inclusion in royal lists was a means of creating recognition for the local population in a powerful position and legitimating the rule of the Fon kingdom over the territory. In addition, Monroe contends that the story of the founding, the killing of Dan, is not based on a single incident and Bay contends that Dahomey meaning In the belly of Dan is a false etymology; as an early king of Dahomey, the reign of Dakodonu coincided with some significant construction projects including the start of the Royal Palaces of Abomey, although the structures were replaced by construction by Houegbadja, Agongointo-Zoungoudo Underground Town. Vodun History of the Kingdom of Dahomey

Treaty of Tordesillas

The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed at Tordesillas in Spain on June 7, 1494, authenticated at Setúbal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa. This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde islands and the islands entered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage, named in the treaty as Cipangu and Antilia; the lands to the east would belong to the lands to the west to Castile. The treaty was signed by Spain, 2 July 1494, by Portugal, 5 September 1494; the other side of the world was divided a few decades by the Treaty of Zaragoza, signed on 22 April 1529, which specified the antimeridian to the line of demarcation specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Originals of both treaties are kept at the General Archive of the Indies in Spain and at the Torre do Tombo National Archive in Portugal; this treaty would be observed well by Spain and Portugal, despite considerable ignorance as to the geography of the New World.

Those countries ignored the treaty those that became Protestant after the Protestant Reformation. The treaty was included by UNESCO in 2007 in its Memory of the World Programme; the Treaty of Tordesillas was intended to solve the dispute, created following the return of Christopher Columbus and his crew, who had sailed for the Crown of Castile. On his way back to Spain he first reached Lisbon, in Portugal. There he asked for another meeting with King John II to show him the newly discovered lands. After learning of the Castilian-sponsored voyage, the Portuguese King sent a threatening letter to the Catholic Monarchs stating that by the Treaty of Alcáçovas signed in 1479 and confirmed in 1481 with the papal bull Æterni regis, that granted all lands south of the Canary Islands to Portugal, all of the lands discovered by Columbus belonged, in fact, to Portugal; the Portuguese King stated that he was making arrangements for a fleet to depart shortly and take possession of the new lands. After reading the letter the Catholic Monarchs knew they did not have any military power in the Atlantic to match the Portuguese, so they pursued a diplomatic way out.

On 4 May 1493 Pope Alexander VI, an Aragonese from Valencia by birth, decreed in the bull Inter caetera that all lands west of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Castile, although territory under Catholic rule as of Christmas 1492 would remain untouched. The bull did not mention Portugal or its lands, so Portugal could not claim newly discovered lands if they were east of the line. Another bull, Dudum siquidem, entitled Extension of the Apostolic Grant and Donation of the Indies and dated 25 September 1493, gave all mainlands and islands, "at one time or still belonging to India" to Spain if east of the line; the Portuguese King John II was not pleased with that arrangement, feeling that it gave him far too little land—it prevented him from possessing India, his near term goal. By 1493 Portuguese explorers had reached the southern tip of the Cape of Good Hope; the Portuguese were unlikely to go to war over the islands encountered by Columbus, but the explicit mention of India was a major issue.

As the Pope had not made changes, the Portuguese king opened direct negotiations with the Catholic Monarchs, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, to move the line to the west and allow him to claim newly discovered lands east of the line. In the bargain, John accepted Inter caetera as the starting point of discussion with Ferdinand and Isabella, but had the boundary line moved 270 leagues west, protecting the Portuguese route down the coast of Africa and giving the Portuguese rights to lands that now constitute the Eastern quarter of Brazil; as one scholar assessed the results, "both sides must have known that so vague a boundary could not be fixed, each thought that the other was deceived, diplomatic triumph for Portugal, confirming to the Portuguese not only the true route to India, but most of the South Atlantic". The treaty countered the bulls of Alexander VI but was subsequently sanctioned by Pope Julius II by means of the bull Ea quae pro bono pacis of 24 January 1506. Though the treaty was negotiated without consulting the Pope, a few sources call the resulting line the "Papal Line of Demarcation".

Little of the newly divided area had been seen by Europeans, as it was only divided via the treaty. Castile gained lands including most of the Americas; the easternmost part of current Brazil was granted to Portugal when in 1500 Pedro Álvares Cabral landed there while he was en route to India. Some historians contend that the Portuguese knew of the South American bulge that makes up most of Brazil before this time, so his landing in Brazil was not an accident. One scholar points to Cabral's landing on the Brazilian coast 12 degrees farther south than the expected Cape São Roque, such that "the likelihood of making such a landfall as a result of freak weather or navigational error was remote; the line was not enforced—the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the me

Inca architecture

Incan architecture is the most significant pre-Columbian architecture in South America. The Incas inherited an architectural legacy from Tiwanaku, founded in the 2nd century B. C. E. in present-day Bolivia. A core characteristic of the architectural style was to use the topography and existing materials of the land as part of the design; the capital of the Inca empire, still contains many fine examples of Inca architecture, although many walls of Inca masonry have been incorporated into Spanish Colonial structures. The famous royal estate of Machu Picchu is a surviving example of Inca architecture. Other significant sites include Ollantaytambo; the Incas developed an extensive road system spanning most of the western length of the continent and placed their distinctive architecture along the way, thereby visually asserting their imperial rule along the frontier. Inca buildings were made out of dirt set in mortar; the material used in the Inca buildings depended on the region, for instance, in the coast they used large rectangular adobe blocks while in the Andes they used local stones.

The most common shape in Inca architecture was the rectangular building without any internal walls and roofed with wooden beams and thatch. There were several variations of this basic design, including gabled roofs, rooms with one or two of the long sides opened and rooms that shared a long wall. Rectangular buildings were used for quite different functions in all Inca buildings, from humble houses to palaces and temples. So, there are some examples of curved walls on Inca buildings in regions outside the central area of the empire. Two-story buildings were infrequent. Wall apertures, including doors and windows had a trapezoidal shape. Other kinds of decoration were scarce; the most common composite form in Inca architecture was the kancha, a rectangular enclosure housing three or more rectangular buildings placed symmetrically around a central courtyard. Kancha units served different purposes as they formed the basis of simple dwellings as well as of temples and palaces. A testimony of the importance of these compounds in Inca architecture is that the central part of the Inca capital of Cusco consisted of large kancha, including Qurikancha and the Inca palaces.

The best preserved examples of kancha are found at Ollantaytambo, an Inca settlement located along the Urubamba River. Inca architecture is known for its fine masonry, which features cut and shaped stones fitted without mortar. However, despite this fame, most Inca buildings were made out of fieldstone and adobe as described above. In the 1940s, American archaeologist John H. Rowe classified Inca fine masonry in two types: coursed, which features rectangular shaped stones, polygonal, which features blocks of irregular shape. Forty years Peruvian architect Santiago Agurto established four subtypes by dividing the categories identified by Rowe: Cellular polygonal masonry: with small blocks Ashlar polygonal masonry: with large stones Encased coursed masonry: in which stone blocks are not aligned Sedimentary coursed masonry: in which stones are laid out in horizontal rows The first two types were used on important buildings or perimeter walls while the last two were employed on terrace walls and river canalization.

According to Graziano Gasparini and Luise Margolies, Inca stonemasonry was inspired by the architecture of Tiwanaku, an archaeological site in modern Bolivia built several centuries before the Inca Empire. They argue that according to ethnohistorical accounts the Incas were impressed by these monuments and employed large numbers of stoneworkers from nearby regions in the construction of their own buildings. In addition to these references, they identified some formal similarities between Tiwanaku and Inca architecture including the use of cut and polished stone blocks, as well as of double jambs. A problem with this hypothesis is the question of how was expertise preserved in the three hundred years between the collapse of Tiwanaku and the appearance of the Inca Empire and its architecture; as a solution, John Hyslop has argued that the Tiahuanaco stonemasonry tradition was preserved in the Lake Titicaca region in sites such as Tanka Tanka, which features walls resembling Inca polygonal masonry.

A second major influence on Inca architecture came from the Wari culture, a civilization contemporary to Tiwanaku. According to Ann Kendall, the Huari introduced their tradition of building rectangular enclosures in the Cusco region, which formed a model for the development of the Inca kancha. There is evidence that such traditions were preserved in the Cusco region after the decline of the Wari as is attested by the enclosures found at sites such as Choquequirao, 28 kilometers southeast of the Inca capital. Water engineer Ken Wright estimates; the Inca built their cities with locally available materials including limestone or granite. To cut these hard rocks the Inca used stone, bronze or copper tools splitting the stones along the natural fracture lines. Without the wheel the stones were rolled up with wood beams on earth ramps. Extraordinary manp

Lagoon Creek Pumping Station

Lagoon Creek Pumping Station is a heritage-listed pumping station at Buckle Street, Moreton Bay Region, Australia. It was built from 1913 to 1947, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 24 January 2003. The former railway water supply pumping station was built in 1913 on a waterhole on Lagoon Creek at Caboolture, it was the third pump site drawing water from this source to supply tanks at the Caboolture railway station replenishing the stock of steam locomotives. The facility was developed in stages from the opening of the North Coast railway line until 1947 and its use was discontinued in 1968 when the use of steam locomotives on the line ceased. Progress throughout the world during the 19th century was facilitated by the development of industrial technologies those associated with the use of steam power; the introduction of a railway transport system, able to move large quantities of goods and materials reliably and cheaply and could carry passengers and mail was a key component in the development of a modern economic and social structure.

In Australia, the linking of resources with trade outlets over large distances and the reliable provision of goods and services to new settlements was a vital factor in the settlement of the country. At the time the only alternative form of transport to rail was bullock dray. Proximity or otherwise to a railway line dictated the success or failure of a budding township; the construction of the North Coast railway line to Caboolture was the catalyst for its growth and development as the principal centre of the district. At the separation of Queensland from New South Wales in 1859, Queensland had no railway system and only one good road, which linked Brisbane and Ipswich; the first railway line was laid between Ipswich and Toowoomba between 1864 and 1867. Laying new lines was expensive because of the distances and difficult terrain involved so priority was given to lines that connected inland resources with ports. Queensland railways were at first a series of parallel lines rather than a network and urban centres along the coast were linked comparatively late and little by little.

A line along the coast north of Brisbane was surveyed in 1882 and approved in 1884. Those surveying a new railway line took into account terrain, soil type, the presence of existing settlements and resources and proximity to a suitable water supply. A good supply of clean water was necessary to supply steam locomotives. Water had to be replenished at 30 -- 40 miles intervals, a procedure. Watering stops were established at intervals along the line. In urban areas the town water supply was used, but where one did not exist other suitable sources were identified; the availability of a good and plentiful supply at Lagoon Creek was instrumental in the choice of Caboolture as a railway station. When the line was first surveyed, it was thought that Morayfield might be chosen as it was a settlement of some size, but the water supply was unsuitable and on 19 April 1884 a water reserve of 130 hectares on the north of Lagoon Creek was proclaimed. A pump house was built at the northern end of the Caboolture railyards to draw water from Lagoon Creek.

A pipe was laid to a nearby waterhole and water was pumped to elevated tanks in the main railway yard from which the locomotives were supplied. The section of railway between Northgate and Caboolture was opened in 1888 and the section to Gympie in 1891; the boiler supplied to provide steam power for the pumps had been part of one of the earliest steam locomotives to operate in Queensland, an A10 class locomotive, made by Neilson & Co of Glasgow and imported in 1867. The boiler was adapted to drive the pump at Lagoon Creek. However, by 1902, the creeks in the Caboolture district had fallen a result of the severe and widespread drought of the late 1890s and early 1900s. By June 1902, it was estimated that, with a weekly consumption of about 60,000 imperial gallons, there was only about six or seven weeks supply remaining in the lagoon; the railway's Chief Engineer, William Pagan, proposed that the pipeline be extended to a larger lagoon further down the creek. To avoid the necessity of resuming land, the pipes were laid along streets to the new site at the termination of a street and a new pump house was built on the bank of the lagoon.

The boiler installed at the new site was a vertical Smith and Faulkner boiler, installed in July 1902 at the previous site and operated a Worthington pump. Considerable problems were experienced with this boiler and within a few months, the recycled A10 boiler had replaced it; the lagoon was estimated to have an unfailing supply and the new site was in use by early 1903. Although the drought broke in 1903 so that the water supply increased, the demand for water increased along with the volume of traffic on the line; the major regional centre of Rockhampton was linked to Brisbane and branch lines were constructed, including the important Kilcoey branch line in 1913. As a result of the increased demand improvements were carried out at Lagoon Creek pumping station. A small concrete weir 300 metres downstream was constructed to increase the capacity of the lagoon; the pumping equipment was upgraded and the station relocated to the eastern side of the lagoon. New pipes were laid and a boiler from a B15 locomotive was installed at the site.

The old boiler at the previous site was sold to WF Suffolk on 14 November 1913. It was stripped of useful components but the shell was left on site. At some point it fell into the lagoon where it stayed until raised in 2000. In the 1930s 1.6 million litres of water were pumped weekly from the creek

Peng Pai

Peng Pai born in Haifeng, Guangdong Province, was a pioneer of the Chinese agrarian movement and peasants' rights activist, a prominent revolutionary, one of the leaders of Chinese Communist Party at its earlier stage. Peng Pai was one of the few Chinese intellectuals who were aware in the early 1920s that peasantry and land issues caused the most critical problems for Chinese society, he believed that the success of any revolution in China must depend on the peasants as its base foundation. Peng Pai was born on October 22, 1896, into an elite Hokkien speaking landlord family and an heir to great wealth; the Peng family, with about thirty members, owning lands cultivated by peasant tenants who, with their families, numbered more than 1,500. Peng Pai’s sociopolitical views were influenced by his mother, Zhou Feng. Zhou Feng came from an impoverished family. At the age of eighteen, she was sold by her parents as a concubine to Peng Pai’s father Peng Xin. At that time, Peng Xin had two sons by his first wife.

Pai’s mother had three sons of her own: Peng Hanyuan, Peng Pai, Peng Shu. Hanyuan and Shu actively joined and assisted Pai in the peasant movement launched and led by Pai. All three brothers lost their lives for this cause, they are honored as "Revolutionary Martyrs" by the People’s Republic of China. In 1916, as a student in the local Haifeng County High School, Peng Pai became rebellious, he protested against the local gentry’s plan to placate a hostile official by building a statue of this local warlord. Peng Pai went to Japan in 1917 and studied politico-economics after admitted into the Waseda University, Tokyo. There he experienced several historical events of "Aftermath of World War I" that forever changed China and Sino-Japan relations, he witnessed the "Rice Riot" of 1918 in Japan, was influenced by impact of the 1917's Russian Revolution. In consequence, Peng Pai converted from a Christian to a Socialist, he believed that only socialism, only complete social and economic revolution in the creation of a socialist system, could ensure China’s survival.

Peng Pai finished his study in Japan and returned to his hometown Haifeng in the summer of 1921. He was appointed as the Commissioner of the Education Bureau of Haifeng County in October, he created new schools, revised the curriculums, recruited young teachers and principals with pro-socialist ideals. He organized a May Day celebration parade to the county seat involving his students and "many boys and girls of wealthy families" in 1922. In the summer of 1922, Peng Pai was dismissed from the Education Commissioner position because of his organizing the May Day parade. Soon after he left that position, Peng Pai launched and led the peasant revolution movement in Haifeng, he advocated socialism by editing a journal Red Heart Weekly and using a gramophone to play music and songs to gather the villagers and try to convince them to form peasant organizations. To politically awaken peasants and encourage them to fight for their own rights and to liberate themselves from social injustice, Peng Pai burned all the title deeds of his inherited lands in public, announced to his peasants that the lands they were cultivating henceforth belonged to them.

After such unusual and sincere efforts, he succeeded in forming the first countywide Peasant Association in China, the Haifeng County Peasant Association. The association campaigned for lower rents, led anti-landlord boycotts, organized welfare activities, he was elected the Association President on New Year’s Day in 1923. By that time, the Association claimed its membership of about 20,000 families covering 100,000 persons, or one-quarter of the population of the entire county. In 1924, Peng Pai became a member of Kuomintang as individuals and served as the Secretary of Peasant Department of KMT Central Committee, as the KMT-CCP Alliance had been formed since 1923; the KMT was led by Sun Yat-sen and carried out the policies of "alliance with Soviet Russia, cooperation with the Communists, assistance to peasant and worker movements". Based on Peng Pai’s idea and suggestion, the KMT Central Committee decided to set up Guangzhou Peasant Movement Training Institute to train young idealists who went out to educate the masses in rural China.

Peng Pai was the director of the 1st and 5th terms of the PMTI, while Mao Zedong was the director of the 6th term. Peng Pai finished his famous Report on the Haifeng Peasant Movement there and published it in The Chinese Peasants in 1926. On April 12, 1927, Chiang Kai-shek and his right wing in the KMT launched the historic incident of "Party purge" or "Shanghai massacre of April 12 Coup". Many prominent Communist and left wing members of the KMT along with tens thousands of the masses suspected pro-CCP were imprisoned or slaughtered. Peng Pai was elected as a member of the CCP Central Committee on the 5th National Congress held in Wuhan during April and May, he was appointed as a member of the CCP Front Committee led by Zhou Enlai for organizing and directing the Nanchang Uprising launched on August 1 of that year. He was elected as an alternate-member of CCP Politburo on the August 7th Emergency Meeting of the party. Peng Pai returned to Guangdong following the Nachang Uprising troops, established the Hai-Lu-Feng Soviet Worker-Peasant-Soldier Government and Territory Base after successful organizing and launching an armed uprising in Haifeng and Lufeng counties in mid November.

He was the President of the Hai-Lu-Feng So

Louis Mbanefo

Sir Louis Nwachukwu Mbanefo Kt is noted as the first lawyer from the East of Nigeria. He was born in Onitsha, Eastern Nigeria, obtained his education in the United Kingdom at a time when it was rare to have a person of his ethnic persuasion pursuing higher education, much less professional training at the bar, he was an intelligent and diligent man who applied himself with single-minded dedication to his profession. Between 1925 and 1932 he attended the Methodist Boys High School in Lagos and subsequently the prestigious Kings College in Lagos, modelled on Eton and Harrow Colleges and where he was a keen cricketer and footballer, he was admitted to the University College London, where he studied Law, graduating with Upper Second Class Honours in 1935. He was called to the Bar at the Middle Temple, shortly after graduating from university, he was admitted to King's College, where he obtained a further degree in the Humanities in 1937. Mbanefo returned home to Nigeria and set up practice in his hometown of Onitsha, the first recorded lawyer in the area.

By virtue of this status, he developed an successful practice, with clientele sourced from his kinsmen who were an resourceful breed of wealthy traders and as a result of the frequent land disputes arising as a matter of course in the territory. It is reputed that while such disputes had been settled by Tribal warfare, they were now being resolved in the arena of the Law Courts by an indigenous and competent gladiator – as Mbanefo undoubtedly was, he became an invaluable asset in the new dispensation. His practice covered a huge area the East and North of the country, he made several notable appearances in landmark cases before the Regional Court, Supreme Court and West African Court of Appeal, reports of appearances before the Privy council are as yet unconfirmed. Mbanefo entered politics and was elected into the Eastern Region Parliament in 1950, where he distinguished himself as an excellent orator and lawmaker; the pull of the legal profession was strong and Mbanefo returned after only a two-year stint in politics.

This time he was called to the Bench, as Justice of the Supreme Court of Nigeria in 1952, with his first posting being to Warri in the Mid-West of Nigeria, where he sat as Resident judge. He was seconded back to the Eastern Region as Chief Justice in 1961 and in 1962, he reached the peak of his judicial career when he was appointed to the International Court of Justice, as an ad hoc Judge, a position he occupied till 1966, when he returned to his post as Chief Justice of the Eastern Region. His appointment to the ICJ involved sitting on South-Western Africa Cases i.e. Liberia v South Africa and Ethiopia v South Africa, his ICJ stint spanned over four years. In the cases between South Africa and Liberia and Ethiopia the decision under consideration by the ICJ, was the applications by the governments of Ethiopia and Liberia in respect of the Mandate held by the Union of South Africa over the peoples of South West Africa and more as to whether South Africa had properly exercised its mandate or whether it should be condemned for having failed to properly exercise this mandate – by its illegal treatment of the said people.

The decision of the Court was that South Africa be condemned for failing to properly exercise the said mandate. Sir Louis Mbanefo's contributions were succinct and knowledgeable – on the whole ethos and principle of the Mandate system- regarding the administrative and reporting obligations of nations and his crucial finding was that, whilst the Administrative reporting and monitoring duties ceased on the dissolution of the League of Nations, the moral obligations of the Mandate state continued beyond the dissolution of the League and such an obligation was binding on the Union of South Africa; this was the defining moment of his career and an indelible legacy to International law In 1961 he was Knighted by the Queen and assumed the title which he proudly answered until his death: Sir Louis Mbanefo, Kt. Upon the outbreak of the Nigerian Civil War, he was appointed Chief Justice of Biafra and Ambassador Plenipotentiary, he was involved in the peace talks with the Nigerian Government and worked towards a diplomatic resolution of the crisis.

He remained in Biafra till the end, after the Biafran leader fled, leaving Sir Louis and Major-General Philip Effiong to take the noble step of ending the war, the surrender being signed by Major-General Philip Effiong. History will judge Sir Louis and Major-General Philip Effiong as men of sterling courage and integrity who rather than prolong the suffering of Biafra negotiated an end to hostilities. Upon the cessation of the war, Sir Louis resigned his appointment to the bench on principle, but this was not accepted by the Nigerian Government for some time, he dedicated his years to charity and church work, serving variously as president of the Christian Council of Nigeria, Chancellor of the Niger Diocese – a position he had held since 1946, President of the Anglican Consultative Council from 1972 and a Fellow of the University of London. Sir Louis died in 1977, in many people's view without his country having had the full value of his knowledge and ability as a jurist and statesman. Mbanefo was a towering