Progressive Field is a baseball park located in the downtown area of Cleveland, United States. It is the field of the Cleveland Indians of Major League Baseball and, together with Quicken Loans Arena, is part of the Gateway Sports. It was ranked as Major League Baseballs best ballpark in a 2008 Sports Illustrated fan opinion poll, the ballpark opened as Jacobs Field in 1994 to replace Cleveland Stadium, which the team had shared with the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League. Since 2008, the facility has been named for Progressive Corporation, based in the Cleveland suburb of Mayfield, the previous name came from team owners Richard and David Jacobs, who had acquired naming rights when the facility opened. The ballpark is often referred to as The Jake, based on its original name. When it opened, the seating capacity was 42,865 people. Modifications over the years resulted in several changes to the capacity. After the 2014 and 2015 seasons, the facility was renovated in two phases, which upgraded and reconfigured several areas of the park and reduced seating capacity.
As of 2017, seating capacity is listed at 35,051 people, though additional fans can be accommodated through standing room areas and temporary seating. Since moving to Progressive Field, the Indians have won eight Central Division titles and have hosted games in nine seasons. Progressive Field is one of the few facilities in history to host the Major League Baseball All-Star Game and games of the World Series in the same season. The Indians have hosted games of the American League Championship Series in five seasons and have advanced to the World Series three times at the park, the Cleveland Indians previously played home games at Cleveland Stadium, which they shared with the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League. The Indians first played at the stadium, which seated nearly 80,000 people for baseball, for the 1932 and 1933 seasons, but returned to smaller League Park for most games in 1934. From 1936 to 1946, they played weekend and holiday games at Cleveland Stadium, Cleveland Stadium was the largest stadium in the American League during its tenure as a baseball facility and was the largest stadium in Major League Baseball for all but a few seasons.
Later that year, committee leaders met to re-evaluate these plans, the eventual site of the stadium, the location of the Central Market, was acquired in December 1985. In April 1986, designs for the new stadium were agreed upon and about a year later, construction started in January 1992, and by May of that year, the concrete construction had been poured. The installation of seating was completed in October 1993, the remaining $84 million was raised by the sin tax. An open house was held April 1,1994, and the following day, the first official game was held April 4
Brookings, South Dakota
Brookings is a city in Brookings County, South Dakota, United States. Brookings is the fourth largest city in South Dakota, with a population of 22,056 at the 2010 census and it is the county seat of Brookings County, and home to South Dakota State University, the largest institution of higher education in the state. The county and city were named after one of South Dakotas pioneer promoters, Wilmot Brookings. Brookings set out for the Dakota Territory in June 1857 and he arrived at Sioux Falls on August 27,1857, and became one of the first settlers there. He and his group represented the Western Town Company, after a time in Sioux Falls, Brookings and a companion set out for the Yankton area to locate a town in an area that was soon to be ceded by the Native Americans. This trip was begun in January 1858, and the two encountered a blizzard that froze Brookings feet which both had to be amputated. He rose to a position in the Territory, once being a member of the Squatter Territorial Legislature.
Brookings became appointed superintendent of a road that was to be built from the Minnesota state line west to the Missouri River about 30 miles north of Ft. Pierre. It was during the construction of road that Brookings came into contact with land that was part of this county at the time. Because of his drive to settle the Dakota Territory, Brookings County and city were named for a pioneer promoter. Wilmot W. Brookings made settlement of this area a real possibility for many people, the first real town that was organized in Brookings County was Medary in 1857. Along with Sioux Falls and Flandreau, Medary was one of the first three European settlements to be established in South Dakota, in 1857, the men put up quarters in preparation to live out the winter in Medary. Many other settlers moved into the area in 1858, but in the spring of that year, a large group of Yankton and Yanktonnia Indians drove the settlers from the area, and Medary remained nearly abandoned for the next 11 years. In 1869, a group of 10 Norwegian pioneers moved west into the Dakota Territory and resettled the area of Medary, the county of Brookings was formally organized in Medary in the cabin of Martin Trygstad on July 3,1871.
The original boundaries of the county extended to two miles south of Flandreau, until the legislature relocated the boundaries of the county to the current location on January 8,1873. Two other small settlements and Fountain, appeared in the Brookings County area around this time. All three settlements hoped that they would be the town by which the railroad would decide to lay tracks through as it moved westward. As it turned out, none of the three towns were chosen to be passed through by the railroad
Aquatic timing system
Aquatic timing systems are designed to automate the process of timing and scoring in competitive swimming and other aquatic sports, including diving, water polo, and synchronised swimming. These systems are used in the training of athletes. Prior to the 1950s, competitive swimmers relied on the sound of a pistol to start their races. Unfortunately, these analog watches could not record times accurately beyond one tenth of a second, the invention of automatic timing systems brought more accuracy and credibility to aquatic sports. Image Gallery Fully automatic time Scoreboards The Not So Bad Ol Days, history - Swimming and Sports Timekeeping, Omega SA. About Our Company, Colorado Time Systems, olympic Swimming Controversies and Scandals, About. com
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution. It is divided into 100 smaller cent units, the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. The U. S. dollar was originally commodity money of silver as enacted by the Coinage Act of 1792 which determined the dollar to be 371 4/16 grain pure or 416 grain standard silver, the currency most used in international transactions, it is the worlds primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean, the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while the country mints its own coins, or accepts U. S. coins that can be used as payment in U. S. dollars. After Nixon shock of 1971, USD became fiat currency, Article I, Section 8 of the U. S.
Constitution provides that the Congress has the power To coin money, laws implementing this power are currently codified at 31 U. S. C. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars should be issued and these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as legal tender in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar, the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins and these other coins are more fully described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the Statements are currently being expressed in U. S. dollars, the U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States. The word dollar is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution, dollars is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales.
In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act, Section 20 of the act provided, That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units. And that all accounts in the offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation. In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States, unlike the Spanish milled dollar the U. S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the form is significantly more common
State legislature (United States)
A state legislature in the United States is the legislative body of any of the 50 U. S. states. The formal name varies from state to state, in 25 states, the legislature is simply called the Legislature, or the State Legislature, while in 19 states, the legislature is called the General Assembly. In Massachusetts and New Hampshire, the legislature is called the General Court, while North Dakota, every state except Nebraska has a bicameral legislature, meaning that the legislature consists of two separate legislative chambers or houses. In each case the smaller chamber is called the Senate and is referred to as the upper house. This chamber typically, but not always, has the power to confirm appointments made by the governor. Members of the chamber represent more citizens and usually serve for longer terms than members of the larger chamber. In 41 states, the chamber is called the House of Representatives. Five states designate the larger chamber the Assembly and three states call it the House of Delegates, members of the larger chamber usually serve for terms of two years.
The larger chamber customarily has the power to initiate taxing legislation. In 1964, the United States Supreme Court announced the one man, one vote standard, Nebraska originally had a bicameral legislature like the other states, but the lower house was abolished following a referendum, effective with the 1936 elections. The remaining unicameral legislature is called the Nebraska Legislature, but its members continue to be called senators, as a legislative branch of government, a legislature generally performs state duties for a state in the same way that the United States Congress performs national duties at the national level. During a legislative session, the legislature considers matters introduced by its members or submitted by the governor and other special interest organizations often lobby the legislature to obtain beneficial legislation, defeat unfavorably perceived measures, or influence other legislative action. A legislature approves the operating and capital budgets, which may begin as a legislative proposal or a submission by the governor.
Under the terms of Article V of the U. S, under Article II, state legislatures choose the manner of appointing the states presidential electors. Formerly, state legislatures appointed the U. S, Senators from their respective states until the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913 required the direct election of Senators by the states voters. Generally, the bodies and their committees use either Masons Manual of Legislative Procedure or an amended form thereof. During official meetings, a parliamentarian is available to ensure that legislation. The lawmaking process begins with the introduction of a bill in either the House of Representatives or the Senate, bills may be introduced in either house, sometimes with the exception of bills increasing or decreasing revenue, which must originate in the House of Representatives
Such signs warn of traffic congestion, incidents, roadwork zones, or speed limits on a specific highway segment. In urban areas, VMS are used within parking guidance and information systems to guide drivers to car parking spaces. They may ask vehicles to take alternative routes, limit travel speed, vMSs were deployed at least as early as the 1950s on the New Jersey Turnpike. The New Jersey Turnpike Authority replaced those signs with more flexible electronic signs between 2010 and 2016, the current VMS systems are largely deployed on freeways, trunk highways, or in work zones. Since the late 1990s, the most common used in new installations for variable message signs are LED displays. In recent years, some newer LED variable message signs have the ability to display colored text, dot-matrix variable message signs are divided into three subgroups, character matrix, row matrix, and full matrix. In a character matrix VMS, each character is given its own matrix with equal spacing between them, typically with two or three rows of characters.
In a full matrix VMS, the sign is a single large dot matrix display, allowing the display of different fonts. Overhead variable message signs are available in three form factors, front access, rear access, and walk-in. In a front access variable message sign, maintenance is performed by lifting the sign open from the front, most smaller VMS are of the front access form factor, and are typically installed today on major arterials. The walk-in form factor is a recent introduction, where maintenance on the sign is performed from the inside of the sign. A key advantage of the form factor is that lane closures are generally not required to perform maintenance on the sign. Most of the largest VMS units installed today are walk-in units, the NJ Turnpike Authority counts five unique types of variable message signs under its jurisdiction, at least one of which has been replaced by newer signs. They are, REDUCE SPEED neon signs, electronic VMS, signs with remotely controlled messages displayed on them, the messages are sent from the State Traffic Management Center, updating the signs automatically.
Variable speed limit signs - used for varying the speed limits within work zones. A portable VMS has much the same characteristics as a fixed electronic VMS, early models required an operator to be physically present when programming a message, whereas newer models may be reprogrammed remotely via a wired or wireless network or cellphone connection. A complete message on a panel generally includes a statement indicating incident, roadwork. A location statement indicating where the incident is located, a statement indicating lane closure, etc
A shot clock is used in some sports to quicken the pace of the game. It is normally associated with basketball, but is used in snooker, pro lacrosse, water polo, korfball. It is analogous with the clock used in American and Canadian football. In basketball, the clock is a timer designed to increase the games pace. The offensive team must attempt a goal with the ball leaving the players hand before the shot clock expires. The WNBA had a 30-second clock originally, since 2006 the limit is 24 seconds, the NBA had problems attracting fans before the shot clocks inception. This was due to running out the clock once they were leading in a game, without the shot clock. If one team chose to stall, the team would often commit fouls to get the ball back following the free throw. Very low-scoring games with many fouls were common, which bored fans, the most extreme case occurred on November 22,1950, when the Fort Wayne Pistons defeated the Minneapolis Lakers by a record-low score of 19–18, including 3–1 in the fourth quarter.
The Pistons held the ball for minutes at a time without shooting in order to limit the impact of the Lakers dominant George Mikan, the Pistons performance led the St. Paul Dispatch to write gave pro basketball a great black eye. NBA President Maurice Podoloff said, In our game, with the number of stars we have, a few weeks after the Pistons/Lakers game, the Rochester Royals and Indianapolis Olympians played a six-overtime game with only one shot in each overtime. The NBA tried several rule changes in the early 1950s to speed up the game, according to Biasone, I looked at the box scores from the games I enjoyed, games where they didnt screw around and stall. I noticed each team took about 60 shots and that meant 120 shots per game. So I took 2,880 seconds and divided that by 120 shots, the result was 24 seconds per shot. Biasone and Ferris convinced the NBA to adopt it for the 1954–55 season, Syracuse Nationals General Manager Leo Ferris has emerged in the discussion as one of those involved in the creation and development of the shot clock.
Along with Danny Biasone and Emil Barboni, a scout for the Nats, who loved mathematics, ended up dividing the number of seconds in a 48-minute game by the average number of shots taken in a game to get to the 24-second time limit per possession. While he and Biasone often share in the credit for the shot clock, when it was first introduced by the NBA, the 24-second shot clock made players so nervous that it hardly came into play, as players were taking fewer than 20 seconds to shoot. According to Syracuse star Dolph Schayes, We thought we had to take quick shots – a pass, but as the game went on, we saw the inherent genius in Dannys 24 seconds – you could work the ball around for a good shot
Hard Rock Stadium
Hard Rock Stadium is a multipurpose football stadium located in Miami Gardens, Florida, a suburb north of Miami. It is the stadium of the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League. The facility hosts the Orange Bowl, a college football bowl game. It was the home to the Florida Marlins of Major League Baseball from 1993 to 2011. The stadium has hosted five Super Bowls, the 2010 Pro Bowl, two World Series, four BCS National Championship Games, the round of the 2009 World Baseball Classic. The stadium will host Super Bowl LIV in 2020, for their first 21 seasons, the Miami Dolphins played at the Orange Bowl. Joe Robbie, the founder, led the financing campaign to build a new home for the team. He believed it was only a matter of time before a Major League Baseball team came to South Florida, at his request, the stadium was built so only minimal renovations would be necessary to ready it for a baseball team. Most notably, the field was somewhat wider than is normally the case for an NFL stadium.
The wide field makes it fairly easy to convert the stadium for soccer. Because of this decision, the first row of seats is 90 ft from the sideline in a football configuration. This resulted in an intimate venue for football compared to other football facilities built around this time. At the time it opened in 1987, the stadium was located in an area within Miami-Dade County. Miami Gardens was incorporated on May 13,2003, the first preseason game for the Dolphins was played on August 16,1987 against the Chicago Bears. The first regular game was scheduled for September 27, a week 3 game against the New York Giants. The first regular season NFL game played there was a 42–0 Dolphins victory over the Kansas City Chiefs on October 11,1987, the game was in the middle of the 1987 NFL strike, and was played with replacement players. The stadium hosted its first Monday Night Football game on December 7 of that year, in addition to the Super Bowl, several other playoff games have been played in the stadium, including the 1992 AFC Championship Game, which the Dolphins lost to the Buffalo Bills, 29–10.
The Dolphins are 5–3 in playoff games held here, losing the most recent one in January 2009, the team is unbeaten here against the Minnesota Vikings, San Diego Chargers, Los Angeles/St
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of letters, numbers or a combination of both, ticker symbol refers to the symbols that were printed on the ticker tape of a ticker tape machine. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market, for example, AAPL is for Apple Inc. OODH is for Orion DHC, Inc. and HD is for Home Depot, a stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, and is a way to uniquely identify that stock. The symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, the allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are typically between 1 and 4 letters and represent the name where possible. In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA, while in Asia, numbers are often used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts.
For example, the bank HSBCs stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005, symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a spelling of the company XON as its ticker symbol. The symbol of the firm after the merger was XOM, symbols are sometimes reused, in the US the single-letter symbols are particularly sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V that had previously used by Vivendi which had delisted. To fully qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known, on many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security. This is often done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker, although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent, generally limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes, the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number.
An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO6166, Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants. The ISIN identifies the security, not the exchange on which it trades, for instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, and is priced in five different currencies, it has the same ISIN on each, though not the same ticker symbol. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, and another identifier, following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still widely referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN, in the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poors to bring a national standard to investing
The Jacksonville Jaguars are an American professional football franchise based in Jacksonville, Florida. The Jaguars compete in the National Football League as a club of the American Football Conference South division. The team plays its games at EverBank Field. The Jaguars and the Carolina Panthers joined the NFL as expansion teams for the 1995 season, since their inception, the Jaguars have won division championships in 1998 and 1999 and have qualified for the playoffs six times, most recently in 2007. From their inception until 2011, the Jacksonville Jaguars majority owner was Wayne Weaver, the team was purchased by Pakistani-born businessman Shahid Khan for an estimated $770 million. In 2015, Forbes estimated the value at $1.48 billion. In 1989, the ownership group Touchdown Jacksonville. The group initially included future Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Jacksonville developer Tom Petway, in 1991, the NFL announced plans to add two expansion teams in 1994, its first expansion since the 1976 addition of the Seattle Seahawks and the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.
Announced its bid for a team, and Jacksonville was ultimately chosen as one of five finalists, along with Charlotte, St. Louis, Jacksonville was considered the least likely expansion candidate for several reasons. The Jacksonville metropolitan area and television market were smaller than those of every team in the league. There were 635,000 people in Jacksonville proper according to the 1990 census, the Gator Bowl was outdated, and the ownership group struggled to negotiate a lease with the city. The troubled negotiations over the Gator Bowl lease led the group to withdraw from the NFL expansion bidding in July 1993. Charlotte was awarded the first franchise – the Carolina Panthers – in October 1993, the naming of the second expansion city was delayed a month. Most pundits speculated that the delay was made to allow St. Louis to shore up its bid, at the time, St. Louis was considered the favorite for the second franchise, with Baltimores three bids considered strong. However, in a move, the NFL owners voted 26–2 in favor of awarding the 30th franchise to Jacksonville.
After the Gator Bowl game on December 31,1993, the old stadium was demolished and replaced with a reinforced concrete superstructure. All that remained of the old stadium was the west upper concourse, in January 1994 Wayne Weaver chose Tom Coughlin as the first-ever head coach of the Jaguars. While he had previously had success with Boston College, many at the time believed his hiring was a risky move
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
Austin is the capital of the U. S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. It is the 11th-most populous city in the U. S. and it is the fastest growing large city in the United States and the second most populous capital city after Phoenix, Arizona. As of the U. S. Census Bureaus July 1,2015 estimate and it is the cultural and economic center of the Austin–Round Rock metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 2,056,405 as of July 1,2016. In the 1830s, pioneers began to settle the area in central Austin along the Colorado River, in 1839, the site was officially chosen to replace Houston as the new capital of the Republic of Texas and was incorporated under the name Waterloo. Shortly thereafter, the name was changed to Austin in honor of Stephen F. Austin, the Father of Texas and the republics first secretary of state. The city subsequently grew throughout the 19th century and became a center for government and education with the construction of the Texas State Capitol and the University of Texas at Austin.
After a lull in growth from the Great Depression, Austin resumed its development into a city and, by the 1980s, it emerged as a center for technology. A number of Fortune 500 companies have headquarters or regional offices in Austin, including Amazon. com, cisco, eBay, Google, IBM, Oracle Corporation, Texas Instruments, 3M, and Whole Foods Market. Dells worldwide headquarters is located in nearby Round Rock, a suburb of Austin, residents of Austin are known as Austinites. They include a mix of government employees, college students, high-tech workers, blue-collar workers. The city adopted Silicon Hills as a nickname in the 1990s due to an influx of technology. In the late 1800s, Austin was known as the City of the Violet Crown because of the glow of light across the hills just after sunset. Even today, many Austin businesses use the term Violet Crown in their name, Austin is known as a clean-air city for its stringent no-smoking ordinances that apply to all public places and buildings, including restaurants and bars.
The FBI ranked Austin as the second-safest major city in the U. S. for the year 2012, U. S. News & World Report named Austin the best place to live in the U. S. in 2017. Austin, Travis County and Williamson County have been the site of habitation since at least 9200 BC. When settlers arrived from Europe, the Tonkawa tribe inhabited the area, the Comanches and Lipan Apaches were known to travel through the area. Spanish colonists, including the Espinosa-Olivares-Aguirre expedition, traveled through the area for centuries, in 1730, three missions from East Texas were combined and reestablished as one mission on the south side of the Colorado River, in what is now Zilker Park, in Austin. The mission was in area for only about seven months