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Dale or dales may refer to: Dale, an open valley in Scotland and northern England Dale AustraliaThe Dales, in the Indian OceanCanadaDale, OntarioEthiopiaDale, districtNorwayDale, the administrative centre of Vaksdal municipality, Hordaland county Dale, Sogn og Fjordane, the administrative centre of Fjaler municipality, Sogn og Fjordane county Dale Church, a church in Fjaler municipality, Sogn og Fjordane county Dale Church, a church in Luster municipality, Sogn og Fjordane county Dale Church, a church in Vaksdal municipality, Hordaland county Dale Church, a church in Norddal municipality, Møre og Romsdal countyPolandDale, Lesser Poland Voivodeship SwedenThe Dales, archaic English name for Dalarna provinceUnited KingdomDale, Cumbria, a hamlet in England Dale, England Dale, Wales Derbyshire Dales, England Yorkshire Dales, EnglandUnited StatesDale, Illinois Dale, Indiana Dale, Boone County, Indiana Dale, Kentucky, a defunct community since annexed to Fort Thomas Dale, Minnesota Dale, Nebraska Dale, Oklahoma Dale, Oregon Dale, Pennsylvania Dale, Berks County, Pennsylvania, an unincorporated community Dale, South Carolina, an unincorporated community Dale, Texas, an unincorporated community Dale, West Virginia Dale, Wisconsin Dale City, Virginia Dale County, Alabama Dale County School District in Alabama Dales, California Dale Dale Dale Gribble, a character on the animated series King of the Hill Dale Cooper, a character on the TV series Twin Peaks Dale Horvath, a character in the comic and TV series The Walking Dead Dale, a film about the life of Dale Earnhardt Dale, a city in J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional universe of Middle-earth The Dales, a BBC radio soap opera called Mrs Dale's Diary Dale, album by American rapper Pitbull released in 2015 The Dalelands, a geographical area in the fictional world of the Forgotten Realms Dale Bishop, the local sheriff of Bristol Cove and recurring character of Freeform's 2018 television showSiren.

Dale, one of the Chip'n' Dale animated chipmunks created by the Walt Disney Company Dale Dale on the Moon Dale of Norway, a textile company based in Dale, Vaksdal municipality, Norway The Dale, nickname for Rochdale A. F. C. Boy Scouts of America v. Dale, a First Amendment opinion from the US Supreme Court USS Dale, various ships Dale Electronics, Inc. of Columbus, Nebraska, USA, an electronic components manufacturer, acquired by Vishay Intertechnology in 1985 Dell, a small wooded valley Dell Vale, a wide river valley Dales pony The Dales Dalles


Amniocentesis is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections as well as for sex determination. In this procedure, a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus; the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities. The most common reason to have an amniocentesis performed is to determine whether a fetus has certain genetic disorders or a chromosomal abnormality, such as Down syndrome. Amniocentesis can diagnose these problems in the womb; these prenatal examinations can prove helpful to expectant guardians, as they allow for evaluating the fetal health status and the feasibility of treatment. An amniocentesis is performed when a woman is between 20 weeks gestation. Women who choose to have this test are those at increased risk for genetic and chromosomal problems, in part because the test is invasive and carries a small risk of miscarriage; this process can be used for prenatal sex discernment and hence this procedure has legal restrictions in some countries.

Several researchers worked on the development of amniocentesis for fetal sex determination in the 1950s. Between 1959 and 1967,a scientist developed the new technique of amniocentesis for clinical assessment of fetal wellbeing in utero, he presented his results at the William Blair-Bell Memorial Lecture at the RCOG in London in 1965 and was awarded an MD from the University of Manchester for this work. He described amniocentesis techniques, as well as other details about amniotic fluid, in the chapter "The Liquor Amnii" in the 1970 and 1977 editions of Scientific Foundations of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Up to the mid-1970s amniocentesis procedures were done'blind‘. Doctors Jens Bang and Allen Northeved from Denmark were the first to report amniocentesis done with the guide of an ultrasound in 1972. Chorionic villus sampling was first performed by Italian biologist Giuseppe Simoni in 1983. Real-time ultrasound is now used during all invasive procedures because it provides for the safety of the fetus and accuracy of results.

Early in pregnancy, amniocentesis is used for diagnosis of chromosomal and other fetal problems such as: Down syndrome known as Trisomy 21 Trisomy 13 Trisomy 18 Sex chromosome aneuploidies known as sex chromosome anomalies Fragile X Neural tube defects by alpha-fetoprotein levels. Rare, inherited metabolic disorders Amniocentesis can predict fetal lung maturity, inversely correlated to the risk of infant respiratory distress syndrome. Fetal lung maturity can be tested by sampling the amount of surfactant in the amniotic fluid in pregnancies greater than 30 weeks. Several tests are available, including the lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio, the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, or the surfactant/albumin ratio. For the L/S ratio, if the result is less than 2:1, the fetal lungs may be surfactant deficient; the presence of PG indicates fetal lung maturity. For the S/A ratio, the result is given as mg of surfactant per gm of protein. An S/A ratio <35 indicates immature lungs, 35-55 is indeterminate, >55 indicates mature surfactant production.

Amniocentesis can detect infections via decreased glucose level, a Gram stain showing bacteria, or abnormal differential count of white blood cells. Amniocentesis can be used to diagnose Rh incompatibility, a condition when the mother has Rh-negative blood and the fetus has Rh-positive blood. Early detection is important to treat the mother with Rh immune globulin and to treat her baby for hemolytic anemia. Polyhydramnios, or the accumulation of amniotic fluids which leads to increase risk of cesarean section, can be relieved via decompression amniocentesis. Amniocentesis can be used to diagnose potential causes of polyhydramnios. An emerging indication for amniocentesis is in the management of preterm rupture of membranes where measurement of certain amniotic fluid inflammatory markers may be helpful. If amniotic fluid IL-6, a marker of inflammation, is elevated, the fetus is at high risk and delivery should be considered. Amniocentesis is performed between the 20th week of pregnancy; the term "early amniocentesis" is sometimes used to describe use of the process between weeks 11 and 13.

Complications of amniocentesis include preterm labor and delivery, respiratory distress, postural deformities, fetal trauma and alloimmunisation of the mother. Studies from the 1970s estimated the risk of amniocentesis-related miscarriage at around 1 in 200. Three more recent studies from 2000-2006 estimated the procedure-related pregnancy loss at 0.6-0.86%. A more recent study has indicated this may be much lower as low as 1 in 1,600. Unlike the previous studies, the number in this study only reflects the loss that resulted from amniocentesis complications and excluded the cases when parents decided for an abortion following the test results. In contrast to amniocentesis, the risk of miscarriage from chorionic villus sampling is believed to be 1 in 100, although CVS may be done up to four weeks earlier, may be preferable if the possibility of genetic defects is thought to be higher. Amniotic fluid embolism has been described as a possible. Additional risks include amniotic fluid bleeding; these two are of particular importance because they can lead to spontaneous abortion in pregnant patients.

The prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities can have social drawbacks as technology changes the way people think

Nick Margerrison

Nick Margerrison is a radio presenter who used to present the weekend overnight show on LBC 97.3. Nick Margerrison went to the University of Essex, it was there he started his career in radio at University Radio Essex where he rose to the position of Station Manager and helped to secure the station's first FM Radio licence, albeit a short term'restricted service licence'. This coincided with University Radio Essex being granted a low-power AM licence, awarded on a trial basis to the station ahead of their adoption in the future on other student radio and hospital radio stations. From there he went on to work professionally in local radio starting on Oak FM in Loughborough and moving on to The Bay in Lancaster, he joined Hallam FM in South Yorkshire in April 2001 and remained there until May 2007. In that time he presented the overnight show and the afternoon show before taking over the late night phone in slot in 2003.'Nick at Night' was a topical late night talk show that received successful RAJAR listening figures.'Nick at Night' deviated from traditional radio phone-ins in that it operated an exclusive "no-screening" policy on callers.

Thus a wide variety of controversial viewpoints were given air-time. Margerrison challenged callers to reconsider their viewpoints, offered his own thoughts on the subjects of the day. On 23 October 2007 he was appointed as the Late Night Presenter for Kerrang! 105.2 radio in place of Tim Shaw who moved to present the station's breakfast show. The Kerrang! radio show was called'The Night Before' and he presented it with a co-host, Amy Jones. His producer, Alex Baker had a significant on air role; the show had a different structure to his previous show'Nick at Night' in that it contained music and interviews, but it followed the same "no-screening" policy on callers. A typical The Night Before interviewee came from a fringe perspective. Examples include, David Icke, Ivan Stang, Alex Jones, Bret Hart, Alan Moore, Rodney Orpheus and Peter H. Gilmore. On 23 June 2009, Kerrang! Radio stated in an e-mail to'Freq Club' members that Margerrison would be leaving the station "we can’t escape the fact that the economy at the moment is screwed and like every other business we have had to make some tough decisions".

Margerrison has filmed two series of the chat show called'Esoteria' for Controversial TV, which broadcasts on Sky channel 200. Its main focus was the more eccentric guests, he presents the overnight show on London speech station LBC 97.3 from 10 September 2009, taking over from Anthony Davis. Who moved to weeknights; as of 23 March 2012, Nick has been dropped from the schedule of LBC 97.3 in an announcement made by James Rea, LBC Controller. He could be heard presenting evenings on the Bay in North Lancs & South Cumbria; as is the host of TV programme'LateNightLive'. Nick is working at TopMedTalk from their studios in West London; this is a specialised narrow-casting project targeted at an international audience of medical professionals. Nick has his own podcasts which sees Nick returning to his broadcasting roots and featuring an eclectic array of guests and topics. Nick Margerrison is an ordained and practising Discordian but professes to be an atheist. Margerrison's blog - Straight From The Nicholarse biog on Kerrang!

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Tübingen–Sigmaringen railway

The Tübingen Hbf–Sigmaringen railway is a main line railway in the German State of Baden-Württemberg. It runs from Tübingen to Sigmaringen, it is single track and non-electrified, but it is equipped for the operation of tilting trains. Deutsche Bahn calls the Zollernalb line the Zollern-Alb-Bahn 1 to distinguish it from the Zollern-Alb-Bahn 2, the trunk line of the Hohenzollerische Landesbahn; the line starts at 320 metres above sea level, when it leaves Tübingen Central Station to the west, with some services from Stuttgart running on from the Neckar-Alb Railway, swings to the south along the valley of Steinlach, which it follows to Bodelshausen. In Hechingen, the station is located north of the city and above the station of the Hohenzollerische Landesbahn. After leaving Hechingen station, the Zollernalb Railway runs around the town to the south and continues to run to the southwest to Balingen, where it reaches a height of 517 m. South of Balingen the line runs to the southeast, up the valley of the Eyach and overcomes a long climb of 1 in 45, reaching the highest point of the line of about 730 metres before Albstadt-Ebingen.

On the climb is the largest bridge on the line, the 77.35 metre-long viaduct in Albstadt-Lautlingen. The line continues down the Schmeie river, which it crosses and, after passing through two tunnels reaches the valley of the Danube at Inzigkofen, where it joins the Danube Valley Railway. After crossing the river, the line reaches Sigmaringen station at 574 m above sea level; the Zollernalb line, running from Tübingen to Sigmaringen via Hechingen known as the Hohenzollern Railway, was built during the fourth period of construction of the Royal Württemberg State Railways from 1867 to 1878. A treaty signed on 3 March 1865 dealt with the issues between Württemberg and Prussia, because the line crossed Prussia’s Hohenzollern Province; the first section between Tübingen and Hechingen was opened to traffic on 29 June 1869. The inauguration of the line between Hechingen and Balingen was delayed to 1 August 1874 by the Franco-Prussian War; the remaining section to Sigmaringen was opened on 1 July 1878.

The construction period of nine years can be explained by the fact that many engineering structures had to be built and the line suffered from difficult ground conditions, requiring a total of 32 bridges. The steep section between Balingen and Ebingen was built on an embankment in order to avoid landslides as a result of poor soil conditions on the escarpment; the total length of the Tübingen–Sigmaringen line was 87.505 km, of which 40.409 km lay in Hohenzollern Prussian territory. The construction costs amounted to 23,316,753.12 marks. Under the treaty, the maintenance of the entire line was the sole responsibility of the Royal Württemberg Railway. In 1922, the Zollernalb Railway between Tübingen and Sigmaringen had a total of 22 stations served by passenger trains, including a station called Zollern for the royal visitors to the Hohenzollern Castle. Over the next several decades the less frequented stations were closed. During 1997, modern diesel multiple units with strong acceleration were introduced on the line and Engstlatt station was reopened and a new station called Albstadt-Ebingen West was opened.

In the early 1980s, the old Albstadt-Laufen station, some distance from the town was replaced by a station in the town. The former station is now an operating station used as a crossing loop on the single track line; the upgrading of the Zollernalb Railway for the operation of tilting trains, completed in 2001, included the construction of new platforms and underpasses at the stations of Dußlingen, Mössingen and Albstadt-Ebingen. Until early 1971, Deutsche Bundesbahn passenger services were operated by P 8 steam locomotives based in Tübingen in double traction because of the grades, hauling three and four axle Umbau-Wagens or Silberling carriages, class 64 locomotives were used. Freight traffic was dominated by class 50 locomotives, which hauled a few passenger services until 1975. With the end of steam locomotives on the Zollernalb Railway, operations were taken over by class 215 and class 211/212 diesel locomotives and Uerdingen railbuses. In 1988, the majority of passenger services were changed to operate with class 628.2 diesel multiple units, which were new.

Uerdingen railbus and class 627.0 diesel multiple units were used on individual scheduled services until 1997. Class 215 diesel locomotives were used only for a few passenger services and were becoming less and less used for freight transport; the last scheduled locomotive-hauled service on the line between Tübingen and Sigmaringen operated on 31 May 1997. In subsequent years, locomotive-hauled trains were used for extended periods as a replacement for tilting trains that could not be operated. In the summer of 1997, Hohenzollerischen Landesbahn took over the operation of all Regionalbahn services on the Zollernalb Railway, using Regio Shuttle RS1 diesel railcars. Express services remain the responsibility of Deutsche Bahn and its subsidiary DB ZugBus Regionalverkehr Alb-Bodensee, which uses class 611 tilting trains, operating as Interregio-Express services. Three services operate on the Zollernalb Railway at two-hourly intervals during the daytime: IRE Stuttgart–Tübingen–Heching

Viracopos International Airport

Viracopos/Campinas International Airport is an international airport serving the municipality of Campinas, in the São Paulo State. On 6 January 1987, the airport name was normalized to its present form, it is named after the neighborhood. It is operated by Aeroportos Brasil Viracopos; the IATA airport code of Viracopos is VCP and the specific city code of Campinas is CPQ. Sometimes both codes are used as one although there is a distinction between them in airline reservation systems: VCP, together with CGH and GRU, is part of the multiple airport system set around the city of São Paulo. An airline that files services with the code VCP has flights displayed when passengers or travel agents request service from São Paulo, whereas flights filed with the code CPQ are displayed as service from Campinas, not São Paulo. A similar example is New York City, in which the airport codes LGA, JFK, EWR are used for the same city, although Newark is located in a different city and state. There are two versions of the origin of the name Viracopos, which means "turn glasses" in Portuguese and can be metaphorically understood as drinking a large amount of an alcoholic beverage at once.

According to the first version, in the beginning of the 20th century, during an annual fair, there was a misunderstanding between the parish priest and the residents of the neighborhood. This resulted in excessive drinking and quarrels, in which the festival booths were torn down, or overturned, during the confusion; the name "Viracopos" was used by the priest in sermons to refer to the event. Another version says that, on the site of the present airport there had been a bar where herders had met to exchange views and drink. So "Viracopos" was first the name of the district and of the airport. Viracopos's origin can be traced to a simple airfield near Campinas built during the 1932 Constitutionalist Revolution in São Paulo. During the 1950s it started being used by cargo companies. In 1960 it was improved with a 3,240 m runway, long enough to accommodate the first generation of intercontinental jet planes such as the Boeing 707, de Havilland Comet, Vickers VC10, Convair 990, Douglas DC-8, received its first international flight.

Furthermore, Viracopos served as an alternate airport for Rio de Janeiro-Galeão International Airport and São Paulo airports because it closes due to bad weather conditions. Soon airlines such as Varig, VASP and Real established services to Viracopos. After 1960, Viracopos became the international airport for São Paulo, because the runway of São Paulo-Congonhas Airport was too short to accommodate intercontinental jet planes. In practice, the distance of nearly 100 km from Viracopos to São Paulo made it inconvenient for passengers and airlines; as a result, direct international passenger service was limited, because most international passengers opted to fly instead to Rio de Janeiro-Galeão International Airport and connect to Congonhas Airport, located close to downtown. At that time, Viracopos appeared on the Guinness Book of Records as the furthest airport from the city it served; the position of international airport of São Paulo was lost in 1985 with the opening of Guarulhos International Airport and Viracopos entered into a decade of stagnation, with all international and most domestic flights transferred to Guarulhos and Congonhas.

However, recognizing the strategic importance of Viracopos for the economy, the airport administrator in 1995 started to implement a master plan of renovations aiming at the building of a new airport, focusing its efforts on the segment of cargo transportation. The first phase was completed in the first half of 2004, when the airport received new passenger departure and arrival lounges, public areas, commercial concessions and a new cargo terminal; the second phase of the passenger terminal expansion project was completed in 2005 and a new control tower was built and processing facilities for the cargo terminal expanded, the passenger terminal was revamped. A third phase of expansion, which would build a second runway by 2013, was projected. However, since the airport was conceded in 2012, the deadline for the new runway was postponed until 2018. Being the second busiest cargo airport in Brazil, Viracopos has 77,000 square meters of cargo terminals, 1,700 square meters for animal cargo, 1,480 cubic meters of refrigerated space.

As a major import/export hub, Viracopos enjoys'express lanes' for courier traffic which are exceptionally quick and unbureaucratic by Brazilian standards. The region of Campinas, like most of the interior of the state of São Paulo, is one of the most prosperous in Brazil, with an impressive economic output, its local domestic passenger traffic, combined with the intense domestic and international cargo traffic that serves São Paulo, is large enough to make Viracopos a busy airport. In fact, between 2008 and 2010 passenger traffic grew, from 1.02 million in 2008 to 7.5 million in 2011. The airport can handle 7 million passengers/year; the number of flights offered has increased since Azul Brazilian Airlines made Viracopos its main hub. Following a decision made on 26 April 2011 by the Federal Government for private companies being granted concessions to operate some Infraero airports, on 6 February 2012, the administration of the airport was conceded, for 30 years, to the Cons

William Nicholas Selig

William Nicholas Selig was a pioneer of the American motion picture industry. In 1896 he created one of Selig Polyscope Company of Chicago. By 1908, he established one of the first major studios in Los Angeles. Selig was raised in Chicago in a Bohemian-Polish immigrant family. Young William attended primary school there. After starting as a furniture upholsterer, he worked as a vaudeville performer and produced a traveling minstrel show in San Francisco while still in his late teens. One of the actors was Bert Williams. In 1894, Selig saw Thomas Edison's Kinetoscope at an exhibition in Texas, he returned to Chicago, opened a small photography studio and began investigating how he might make his own moving pictures without paying a patent fee to Edison's company. Selig found a metalworker who had unwittingly repaired a Lumière brothers motion picture camera and, with his help, developed a working system. In 1896, Selig founded the Selig Polyscope Company in Chicago, one of the first motion picture studios in America.

He began making actuality shorts and industrial films for Chicago businesses. In 1909, Selig was the first producer to expand filmmaking operations to the West Coast, where he set up studio facilities in the Edendale area of Los Angeles with director Francis Boggs. Southern California's weather allowed outdoor filming for most of the year and offered varied geography and settings which could stand in for far-flung locations around the world. Los Angeles seemed to offer geographical isolation from Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company, a cartel which Selig reluctantly joined; the Sergeant, a Western short shot in Yosemite and produced and directed by Boggs for the Selig Polyscope Company was released in September 1910. In 1911, Boggs was murdered by a Japanese gardener employed by the company. Selig was wounded in the arm while trying to defend him. Selig produced a thousand movies and was responsible for developing new film talent such as Roscoe Arbuckle along with early cowboy western stars Gilbert M. "Bronco Billy" Anderson and Tom Mix.

He popularized the cliffhanger format through the serial The Adventures of Kathlyn. The Spoilers, a western set in Alaska. Is cited as his greatest success. In 1915, the United States Supreme Court nullified all of Edison's MPPC patents, breaking the cartel and allowing increased competition. In 1916, Selig sued George Fabyan on the grounds that profits from forthcoming films of Shakespeare's works, along with a film on "The Life of Shakespeare", would be damaged by Fabyan's assertion that Francis Bacon was the real author of Shakespeare's work, a popular claim at the time, he had obtained an injunction stopping the publication of a book by Fabyan on the subject, in which Fabyan promoted the discovery of ciphers in Shakespeare's plays, identified in his private laboratory Fabyan Villa. Selig was hoping to capitalize on the celebrations organized for the upcoming 300th anniversary of Shakespeare's death, scheduled for April 1916. A Cook County Circuit Court judge, Richard Tuthill, found against Shakespeare.

He determined that the ciphers identified by Fabyan's analyst Elizabeth Wells Gallup were authentic and that Francis Bacon was therefore the author of the works. Damages of $5,000 were awarded to Fabyan for the interference with the publication of the book. In the ensuing uproar, Tuthill rescinded his decision, another judge, Judge Frederick A. Smith, dismissed the ruling, it was suggested by the press that the case was concocted by both parties for publicity, since Selig and Fabyan were known to be old friends. An official of the Selig Company was quoted as saying, about the initial loss of the case, "Isn't that sad; that will be about nine million columns of publicity, won't it?" At great expense, Selig created a zoo in East Los Angeles, stocked with hundreds of animals he had collected for his studio's jungle pictures and cliffhangers. He moved his studio there. Meanwhile, World War I began cutting into profits from Selig Polyscope's extensive European operations and, as the war ended, the film industry moved towards more expensively produced full-length feature films.

Under these circumstances, Selig Polyscope was unable to compete and closed in 1918. Nonetheless, Selig had great hopes for the zoo. Over thirty years before Walt Disney built Disneyland, Selig made plans to expand it into a major amusement park and resort called Selig Zoo Park, with many mechanical rides, a hotel, a large swimming area and restaurants, believing thousands of visitors a day would flock to the location; as head zookeeper he hired Cy DeVry, director of the Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago. However, only a single carousel was built and the crowds never came. A business which ten years earlier had been one of the most prolific and known movie studios in the world had, in effect, become a struggling zoo on the other side of downtown Los Angeles from Hollywood's booming post-World War I film industry. Although for a time he was able to rent space on the lot for wild animal "location" shooting and other projects, this side of the business dwindled into an animal rental service. Selig did some work as an independent producer and expedition promoter into the 1930s, but lost the zoo and his assets during the Great Depression.

He became a literary agent, re-selling story rights to film properties he had produced or acquired years before. William Selig died on July 15, 1948, his ashes were stored in the Hall of Memory Columbarium at the Chapel of the Pines Crematory in Los Angeles. For his contributions to