Cawdor Barracks is a British Army installation located 6.3 miles east of St Davids, Pembrokeshire and 9.8 miles south west of Fishguard, Wales. It was an operational airfield between 1944 and 1992, being used by both the Royal Air Force and by Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm, before closing in 1992; the site was reactivated in 1995 by the British Army and became Cawdor Barracks, home to 14 Signal Regiment, the army's electronic warfare unit. The Royal Air Force station at Brawdy opened on 2 February 1944 as a satellite station for the heavy bomber aircraft of nearby RAF St Davids. On 1 January 1946 the station was handed over to the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy and became Royal Naval Air Station used as a Relief Landing Ground for RNAS Dale located near Milford Haven, it was commissioned as HMS Goldcrest on 4 September 1952 and in March 1953 the first Hawker Sea Hawk entered service with 806 Naval Air Squadron. From 1963 till 1971 Brawdy was home to Fairey Gannets and Hawker Hunters in the Airborne Early Warning and advanced flying training roles respectively.
The Royal Navy left in 1971 and the base was allocated to the Department of the Environment. In February 1974 the Royal Air Force returned to Brawdy with'D' Flight of No. 22 Squadron taking up residence with their Westland Whirlwind HAR.10 search and rescue helicopters. In September of the same year No. 229 Operational Conversion Unit the Tactical Weapons Unit, relocated with the Hawker Hunters after the closure of RAF Chivenor in Devon. By the late 1970s, the TWU operated British Aerospace Hawk T1A Squadron; as part of the rationalisation of advanced and tactical weapons training, flying ceased at Brawdy on 31 August 1992. A small number of RAF personnel remained including No. 202 Squadron and their Westland Sea Kings, which left in July 1994. Brawdy was transferred to the British Army in 1995 and became Cawdor Barracks, the army's main electronic warfare base; the name originated from the local Earls of Cawdor. Units based include: Royal Corps of Signals 14 Signal Regiment 223 Signal Squadron 226 Signal Squadron 237 Signal Squadron 245 Signal Squadron Operations Support Squadron Cawdor Barracks is home to the 14 Signal Regiment, the British Army's electronic warfare unit.
The Regiment remains on site and has a headquarters squadron and five signal squadrons, one of, based at RAF Digby. In November 2016, the Ministry of Defence announced that Cawdor Barracks would close in 2024; as of March 2019, a feasibility study on the future of the barracks was still being undertaken by the MOD. Jefford, C. G, MBE, BA, RAF. RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84037-141-2. Airliners.net Photo Gallery of Aircraft at RAF Brawdy Air Britain Photo Gallery of Aircraft at RAF Brawdy Ivor "Taff" Davies Photo Gallery of Aircraft at RAF Brawdy Jet Photos.net Photo Gallery of Aircraft at RAF Brawdy XE624.org - Home of the ex-RAF Brawdy Gate Guard Hunter FGA.9 United States Navy - NAVFAC Brawdy 1986 Phantom Aircrash Raf Brawdy RAF Brawdy, Wales 1985 ~ 1987 Air Shows
Dale Castle is a 13th-century castle located close to the village of Dale in Pembrokeshire, Wales. In 1910, part of the castle was removed and other parts were incorporated into a new private dwelling house, built in the style of a fortified manor house. Built after the Norman invasion of South Wales, the castle was built by the de Vales, descendants of a knight who had accompanied Robert fitz Martin on his invasion of north Pembrokeshire; the male line died out. The Walter family of Roch Castle took ownership, from whom Lucy Walter, mistress of King Charles II and mother of the Duke of Monmouth was descended, it was owned by the families of the Paynters and Lloyds. Little remains of the original medieval castle and what there is was remodelled and incorporated into the present modern house and farm in 1910. In an illustration dating from around 1810, a rectangular battlemented tower is visible with a range of buildings with a hipped roof running to the west. Another illustration, this time from the 1880s, shows these buildings to have had three storeys and the tower was still complete at the time.
At the time of the remodelling in 1910, the tower seems to have been reduced in height and both the tower and buildings seem to have lost their roofs. The back wall of the buildings was removed and the front wall became part of the forecourt of the house; the south wing of the current structure was the central block of the medieval castle, 19.5 metres east-north-east to west-south-west by 17 metres, with walls 2.4 metres thick. Owned now by the Lloyd Philipps family and their trusts, they have sold much of the remaining non-core estate land holdings, including the island of Skokholm; the castle is not open to the public
Hundred (county division)
A hundred is an administrative division, geographically part of a larger region. It was used in England, some parts of the United States, Southern Schleswig, Finland and Norway, it is still used in other places, including South Australia, The Northern Territory. Other terms for the hundred in English and other languages include wapentake, herad, hérað, härad or hundare, Satakunta or kihlakunta and cantref. In Ireland, a similar subdivision of counties is referred to as a barony, a hundred is a subdivision of a large townland; the use of "hundred" for a division of a county has what the OED describes as an "exceedingly obscure" etymology. It may once have referred to an area of 100 hides, though a "hide" is not a specific area: instead it was conceptually the amount of land required to support a family. Alternatively it may have been based on the area liable to provide 100 men under arms, or because it was an area settled by 100 men at arms. There was an equivalent traditional Germanic system, in Old High German a huntari, a division of a gau, but the OED believes that the link between the two is not established.
In England a hundred was the division of a shire for military and judicial purposes under the common law, which could have varying extent of common feudal ownership, from complete suzerainty to minor royal or ecclesiastical prerogatives and rights of ownership. Until the introduction of districts by the Local Government Act 1894, hundreds were the only used assessment unit intermediate in size between the parish, with its various administrative functions, the county, with its formal, ceremonial functions; the term "hundred" is first recorded in the laws of Edmund I as a measure of land and the area served by a hundred court. In the Midlands, they covered an area of about 100 hides, but this did not apply in the south; the Hundred Ordinance, which dates to the middle of the century, provided that the court was to meet monthly, thieves were to be pursued by all the leading men of the district. The name of the hundred was that of its meeting-place. During Norman times, the hundred would pay geld based on the number of hides.
To assess how much everyone had to pay, a clerk and a knight were sent by the king to each county. There would be two knights from each hundred. After it was determined what geld had to be paid, the bailiff and knights of the hundred were responsible for getting the money to the sheriff, the sheriff for getting it to the Exchequer. Above the hundred was the shire, under the control of a sheriff. Hundred boundaries were independent of both parish and county boundaries, although aligned, meaning that a hundred could be split between counties, or a parish could be split between hundreds. Exceptionally, in the counties of Kent and Sussex, there was a sub-division intermediate in size between the hundred and the shire: several hundreds were grouped together to form lathes in Kent and rapes in Sussex. At the time of the Norman conquest of England, Kent was divided into seven lathes and Sussex into four rapes; the system of hundreds was not as stable as the system of counties being established at the time, lists differ on how many hundreds a county had.
In many parts of the country, the Domesday Book contained a radically different set of hundreds from that which became established. The numbers of hundreds in each county varied widely. Leicestershire had six, whereas Devon, nearly three times the size, had 32. Over time, the principal functions of the hundred became the administration of law and the keeping of the peace. By the 12th century, the hundred court was held twelve times a year; this was increased to fortnightly, although an ordinance of 1234 reduced the frequency to once every three weeks. In some hundreds, courts were held at a fixed place; the main duty of the hundred court was the maintenance of the frankpledge system. The court was formed of freemen. According to a 13th-century statute, freeholders did not have to attend their lord's manorial courts, thus any suits involving them would be heard in a hundred court. For serious crimes, the hundred was under the jurisdiction of the Crown. However, many hundreds came into private hands, with the lordship of the hundred being attached to the principal manor of the area and becoming hereditary.
Helen Cam estimated that before the Conquest, over 130 hundreds were in private hands. Where a hundred was under a lord, a steward, acting as a judge and the chief official of the lord of the manor, was appointed in place of a sheriff; the importance of the hundred courts declined from the 17th century, most of their powers were extinguished with the establishment of county courts in 1867. The remaining duty of the inhabitants of a hundred to make good damages caused by riot was ended by the Riot Act 1886, when the cost was transferred to the county police rate
Pembrokeshire is a county in the southwest of Wales. It is bordered by Carmarthenshire to the east, Ceredigion to the northeast, the sea everywhere else; the county is home to Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, the only national park in the United Kingdom established because of the coastline. Industry is nowadays focused on agriculture and gas, tourism. Mining and fishing were important activities; the county has a diverse geography with a wide range of geological features and wildlife. Its prehistory and modern history have been extensively studied, from tribal occupation, through Roman times, to Welsh and Flemish influences. Pembrokeshire County Council's headquarters are in the county town of Haverfordwest; the council has a majority of Independent members, but the county's representatives in both the Welsh and Westminster Parliaments are Conservative. Pembrokeshire's population was 122,439 at the 2011 census, an increase of 7.2 per cent from the 2001 figure of 114,131. Ethnically, the county is 99 per cent white and, for historical reasons, Welsh is more spoken in the north of the county than in the south.
The county town is Haverfordwest. Other towns include Pembroke, Pembroke Dock, Milford Haven, Tenby, Narberth and Newport. In the west of the county, St Davids is the United Kingdom's smallest city in terms of both size and population. Saundersfoot is the most populous village in Pembrokeshire. Less than 4 per cent of the county, according to CORINE, is green urban. See List of places in Pembrokeshire for a comprehensive list of settlements in Pembrokeshire. There are three weather stations in Pembrokeshire: at Tenby, Milford Haven and Penycwm, all on the coast. Milford Haven enjoys a mild climate and Tenby shows a similar range of temperatures throughout the year, while at Penycwm, on the west coast and 100m above sea level, temperatures are lower. Pembrokeshire, featured twice in the 2016 wettest places in Wales at Whitechurch in the north of the county and Scolton Country Park, near Haverfordwest. Orielton was the tenth driest place in Wales in 2016; the county has on average the highest coastal winter temperatures in Wales due to its proximity to the warm Atlantic Ocean.
Inland, average temperatures tend to fall 0.5 °C for each 100 metres increase in height. The air pollution rating of Pembrokeshire is "Good", the lowest rating; the rocks in the county were formed between 290 million years ago. More recent rock formations were eroded when sea levels rose 80 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous Period. Around 60 million years ago, the Pembrokeshire landmass emerged through a combination of uplift and falling sea levels; the landscape was subject to considerable change as a result of ice ages. While Pembrokeshire is not a seismically active area, in August 1892 there was a series of pronounced activities over a six-day period; the Pembrokeshire coastline includes sandy beaches. The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, the only park in the UK established because of its coastline, occupies more than a third of the county; the park contains the Pembrokeshire Coast Path, a near-continuous 186-mile long-distance trail from Amroth, by the Carmarthenshire border in the southeast, to St Dogmaels just down the River Teifi estuary from Cardigan, Ceredigion, in the north.
The National Trust owns 60 miles of Pembrokeshire's coast. Nowhere in the county is more than 10 miles from tidal water; the large estuary and natural harbour of Milford Haven cuts deep into the coast. Since 1975, the estuary has been bridged by the Cleddau Bridge, a toll bridge carrying the A477 between Neyland and Pembroke Dock. Large bays are Fishguard Bay, St Bride's Bay and western Carmarthen Bay. There are several small islands off the Pembrokeshire coast, the largest of which are Ramsey, Skokholm and Caldey. There are many known shipwrecks off the Pembrokeshire coast with many more undiscovered. A Viking wreck off The Smalls has protected status; the county has six lifeboat stations, the earliest of, established in 1822. Pembrokeshire's diverse range of geological features was a key factor in the establishment of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park and a number of sites of special scientific interest. In the north of the county are the Preseli Hills, a wide stretch of high moorland supporting sheep farming and some forestry, with many prehistoric sites and the probable source of the bluestones used in the construction of the inner circle of Stonehenge in England.
The highest point is Foel Cwmcerwyn at 1,759 feet, the highest point in Pembrokeshire. Elsewhere in the county most of the land is used for farming, compared with 60 per cent for Wales as a whole. Pembrokeshire has a number of seasonal seabird breeding sites, including for razorbill, guillemot
United Kingdom census, 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194; the 2001 UK census was organised by the Office for National Statistics in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Detailed results by region, council area and output area are available from their respective websites. Similar to previous UK censuses, the 2001 census was organised by the three statistical agencies, ONS, GROS, NISRA, coordinated at the national level by the Office for National Statistics; the Orders in Council to conduct the census, specifying the people and information to be included in the census, were made under the authority of the Census Act 1920 in Great Britain, the Census Act 1969 in Northern Ireland. In England and Wales these regulations were made by the Census Order 2000, in Scotland by the Census Order 2000, in Northern Ireland by the Census Order 2000.
The census was administered through self-completion forms, in most cases delivered by enumerators to households and communal establishments in the three weeks before census night on 29 April. For the first time return by post was used as the main collection method, with enumerators following up in person where the forms were not returned; the postal response rate was 88% in England and Wales, 91% in Scotland, 92% in Northern Ireland. A total of 81,000 field staff were employed across the UK; the census was conducted at the height of the foot-and-mouth crisis, which led to extra precautions being adopted by the field staff, suggestions that the census may have to be postponed. However, it was reported that the disease outbreak did not affect the effectiveness of the collection process; the census was estimated to cost £259m over its 13-year cycle from the start of planning in 1993 to the delivery of final results in 2006. Printing of the 30 million census forms was subcontracted to Polestar Group, processing of the returned census forms was subcontracted to Lockheed Martin in a contract worth £54m.
The forms were scanned into digital format read with OMR and OCR, with manual entry where the automatic process could not read the forms. The forms were pulped and recycled, the digital copies printed onto microfilm for storage and release after 100 years. Once the data were returned to the statistics agencies it underwent further processing to ensure consistency and to impute missing values; the overall response rate for the census, the proportion of the population who were included on a census form, was estimated to be 94% in England and Wales, 96.1% in Scotland and 95.2% in Northern Ireland. This was due to a number of factors: households with no response, households excluding residents from their returns, addresses not included in the enumeration. In Manchester for example 25,000 people from 14,000 addresses were not enumerated because the address database was two years out of date; the Local Authority with the lowest response was Kensington and Chelsea with 64%. Hackney had the next lowest response at 72%.
Out of all local authorities, the ten lowest response rates were all in London. The results still represent 100 per cent of the population, because some individuals not completing their forms were instead identified by census enumerators, through the use of cross-matching with a follow-up survey; the results from the 2001 census were produced using a methodology known as the One Number Census. This was an attempt to adjust the census counts and impute answers to allow for estimated under-enumeration measured by the Census Coverage Survey, resulting in a single set of population estimates. Although the 1851 census had included a question about religion on a separate response sheet, whose completion was not compulsory, the 2001 census was the first in Great Britain to ask about the religion of respondents on the main census form. An amendment to the 1920 Census Act was passed by Parliament to allow the question to be asked, to allow the response to this question to be optional; the inclusion of the question enabled the Jedi census phenomenon to take place in the United Kingdom.
In England and Wales 390,127 people stated their religion as Jedi. The percentages of religious affiliations were: Christian: 72.0% Muslim: 3% Hindu: 1% Sikh: 0.6% Jewish: 0.5% Buddhist: 0.3% Any other religion: 0.3%15% declared themselves of no religion and 8% did not respond to the question. After the 2001 census it became clear that the statistics for those adhering to the Neopagan group of religions were inaccurately recorded; this was caused by a dilution of statistics, with some adherents entering "Pagan" and others entering their individual religions such as "Wiccan" or "Druid", which fall under the umbrella term of "Pagan", leaving a significant number of people unaccounted for. The situation was worsened when the Heathenism statistics were grouped in with Atheism by the Office for National Statistics; the Pagan Federation and the "PaganDash" campaign lobbied for a separate tickbox for Paganism on the 2011 census, but were unsuccessful. The census ethnic groups included White, Asian or Asian British, Black or Black British (
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, the processes by which they change over time. Geology can include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, the processes that have shaped that structure, it provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, to describe the histories of those rocks. By combining these tools, geologists are able to chronicle the geological history of the Earth as a whole, to demonstrate the age of the Earth. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, the Earth's past climates. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work, rock description, geophysical techniques, chemical analysis, physical experiments, numerical modelling.
In practical terms, geology is important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, evaluating water resources, understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, providing insights into past climate change. Geology is a major academic discipline, it plays an important role in geotechnical engineering; the majority of geological data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These fall into one of two categories: rock and unlithified material; the majority of research in geology is associated with the study of rock, as rock provides the primary record of the majority of the geologic history of the Earth. There are three major types of rock: igneous and metamorphic; the rock cycle illustrates the relationships among them. When a rock solidifies or crystallizes from melt, it is an igneous rock; this rock can be weathered and eroded redeposited and lithified into a sedimentary rock. It can be turned into a metamorphic rock by heat and pressure that change its mineral content, resulting in a characteristic fabric.
All three types may melt again, when this happens, new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once more solidify. To study all three types of rock, geologists evaluate the minerals; each mineral has distinct physical properties, there are many tests to determine each of them. The specimens can be tested for: Luster: Measurement of the amount of light reflected from the surface. Luster is broken into nonmetallic. Color: Minerals are grouped by their color. Diagnostic but impurities can change a mineral’s color. Streak: Performed by scratching the sample on a porcelain plate; the color of the streak can help name the mineral. Hardness: The resistance of a mineral to scratch. Breakage pattern: A mineral can either show fracture or cleavage, the former being breakage of uneven surfaces and the latter a breakage along spaced parallel planes. Specific gravity: the weight of a specific volume of a mineral. Effervescence: Involves dripping hydrochloric acid on the mineral to test for fizzing. Magnetism: Involves using a magnet to test for magnetism.
Taste: Minerals can have a distinctive taste, like halite. Smell: Minerals can have a distinctive odor. For example, sulfur smells like rotten eggs. Geologists study unlithified materials, which come from more recent deposits; these materials are superficial deposits. This study is known as Quaternary geology, after the Quaternary period of geologic history. However, unlithified material does not only include sediments. Magmas and lavas are the original unlithified source of all igneous rocks; the active flow of molten rock is studied in volcanology, igneous petrology aims to determine the history of igneous rocks from their final crystallization to their original molten source. In the 1960s, it was discovered that the Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust and rigid uppermost portion of the upper mantle, is separated into tectonic plates that move across the plastically deforming, upper mantle, called the asthenosphere; this theory is supported by several types of observations, including seafloor spreading and the global distribution of mountain terrain and seismicity.
There is an intimate coupling between the movement of the plates on the surface and the convection of the mantle. Thus, oceanic plates and the adjoining mantle convection currents always move in the same direction – because the oceanic lithosphere is the rigid upper thermal boundary layer of the convecting mantle; this coupling between rigid plates moving on the surface of the Earth and the convecting mantle is called plate tectonics. The development of plate tectonics has provided a physical basis for many observations of the solid Earth. Long linear regions of geologic features are explained as plate boundaries. For example: Mid-ocean ridges, high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist, are seen as divergent boundaries, where two plates move apart. Arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes are theorized as convergent boundaries, where one plate subducts, or moves, under another. Transform boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault system, resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes.
Plate tectonics has provided a mechan
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, its half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodist, the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked. Ideologically, the Victorian era witnessed resistance to the rationalism that defined the Georgian period and an increasing turn towards romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, arts.
Domestically, the political agenda was liberal, with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform, industrial reform, the widening of the franchise. There were unprecedented demographic changes: the population of England and Wales doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotland's population rose from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Ireland's population decreased from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901 due to emigration and the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrated from Great Britain to the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia; the two main political parties during the era remained the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, Lord Salisbury; the unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the Victorian era in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement in Ireland.
In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837—after the death of her uncle, William IV—until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors; the term'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era. The era has been understood in a more extensive sense as a period that possessed sensibilities and characteristics distinct from the periods adjacent to it, in which case it is sometimes dated to begin before Victoria's accession—typically from the passage of or agitation for the Reform Act 1832, which introduced a wide-ranging change to the electoral system of England and Wales. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have been defences of it.
Michael Sadleir was insistent that "in truth the Victorian period is three periods, not one". He distinguished early Victorianism – the and politically unsettled period from 1837 to 1850 – and late Victorianism, with its new waves of aestheticism and imperialism, from the Victorian heyday: mid-Victorianism, 1851 to 1879, he saw the latter period as characterised by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic prudery, complacency – what G. M. Trevelyan called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". In 1832, after much political agitation, the Reform Act was passed on the third attempt; the Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales. Minor reforms followed in 1835 and 1836. On 20 June 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV, her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, but within two years he had resigned, the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.
In the same year, a seizure of British opium exports to China prompted the First Opium War against the Qing dynasty, British imperial India initiated the First Anglo-Afghan War—one of the first major conflicts of the Great Game between Britain and Russia. In 1840, Queen Victoria married her German cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, it proved a happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand; the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 ended the First Opium War and gave Britain control over Hong Kong Island. However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan. In 1845, the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration. Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. In 1853, Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War against Russia.
The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status