Remich is a commune with town status in south-eastern Luxembourg with a population of 3,645 inhabitants as of 2018. It is the capital of the canton of Remich. Remich lies on the left bank of the Moselle river, which forms part of the border between Luxembourg and Germany; the commune is the smallest in Luxembourg by surface area. The Moselle valley is dominated by wine-making and many small wine-making towns, of which Remich is one of the most picturesque and frequented by tourists. In the 5th century, after the withdrawal of Roman troops, the Roman settlement of "Remacum" turned into "Remich". In the 8th century the King of the Franks, Pepin the Short ceded his crown estate "Hof Remich" to the Benedictine St. Maximin's Abbey in Trier and to Prüm Abbey. In 882, the Normans destroyed the settlement. Fragments of the medieval town fortifications from 952, such as the St. Nicolas gate, are still visible today; the town gate, it is dedicated to the patron saint of fishermen and sailors, is registered as a national monument today, as is the decanal church, whose rectangular tower is a former defensive tower from the 12th century.
In 1687 the town's fortifications were demolished by the army of Louis XIV. There are still guild symbols on some of the houses today. In 1866 the first bridge was built over the Moselle. After its destruction in World War II it was replaced first with a wooden construction in 1958 with the bridge that still stands today. Since its canalisation in 1964, it has been possible for boats to sail on the Moselle all year round. Remich annually holds a three-day-long celebration for Carnival. Remich is notable for two special events in addition to its Fuesend Karneval parades; the first of these is the Stréimännchen, the burning of a male effigy from the Remich bridge that crosses the Moselle River separating the Grand Duchy from Germany. The Stréimännchen symbolizes the burning away of winter; the other special event at the Remich Fuesend celebrations is the Buergbrennen or bonfire that closes the celebration. The communal council is composed as detailed below; the results are those of the most recent communal elections on 8 October 2017.
NB: The "Change" column refers to a party's number of seats gained/lost since the 2011 communal elections. Jacques Sitz Henri Kox Jeannot Belling Fernand Kons Jean-Auguste Neyen Joseph-Chrétien Gretsch Willibrorde Macher Mary Alfred Moes, American Roman Catholic nun, was born in Remich. Media related to Remich at Wikimedia Commons Website of the town of Remich
Frisange is a commune and town in southern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette; as of 2005, the town of Frisange, which lies in the north of the commune, has a population of 1,302. Other towns within the commune include Hellange. Frisange is twinned with: Saint-Julien-de-Coppel, Puy-de-Dôme, France Media related to Frisange at Wikimedia Commons
Contern is a commune and town in southern Luxembourg. It is located east of Luxembourg City; as of 2007, the town of Contern, which lies in the south-west of the commune, has a population of 1,083. Other towns within the commune include Medingen, Muhlbach and Oetrange. Media related to Contern at Wikimedia Commons
Luxembourgish, Letzeburgesch, or Luxembourgian is a West Germanic language, spoken in Luxembourg. About 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish worldwide. A variety of the Moselle Franconian dialect group, Luxembourgish has similarities with other varieties of High German and the wider group of West Germanic languages; the status of Luxembourgish as an official language in Luxembourg and the existence there of a regulatory body, has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of Standard German, its traditional Dachsprache. Luxembourgish belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages and is the primary example of a Moselle Franconian language. Luxembourgish is the national language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German. In Luxembourg, 50.9% of citizens can speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is spoken in the Arelerland region of Belgium and in small parts of Lorraine in France. In the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken.
The language is spoken by a few descendants of Luxembourg immigrants in the United States and Canada. Additionally, in the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken. Other Moselle Franconian dialects are spoken by ethnic Germans long settled in Transylvania, Romania. Moselle Franconian dialects outside the Luxembourg state border tend to have far fewer French loan words, these remain from the French Revolution. There are several distinct dialect forms of Luxembourgish including Areler, Kliärrwer, Stater, Veiner and Weelzer. Further small vocabulary differences may be seen between small villages. Increasing mobility of the population and the dissemination of the language through mass media such as radio and television are leading to a gradual standardisation towards a "Standard Luxembourgish" through the process of koineization. There is no distinct geographic boundary between the use of Luxembourgish and the use of other related High German dialects.
Spoken Luxembourgish is hard to understand for speakers of German who are not familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects. However, they can read the language to some degree. For those Germans familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects, it is easy to understand and speak Luxembourgish as far as the everyday vocabulary is concerned. However, the large number of French loanwords in Luxembourgish may hamper communication about certain topics, or with certain speakers. There is no intelligibility between Luxembourgish and French or any of the Romance dialects spoken in the adjacent parts of Belgium and France. Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, President of the Christian Social People's Party of Luxembourg 1995–2003, was active in promoting the language beyond Luxembourg's borders. A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, going back to the middle of the 19th century. There was no recognised system, until the adoption of the "OLO" on 5 June 1946; this orthography provided a system for speakers of all varieties of Luxembourgish to transcribe words the way they pronounced them, rather than imposing a single, standard spelling for the words of the language.
The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography. New principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords. Fiireje, rééjelen, shwèzt, veinejer bültê, âprê, ssistém This proposed orthography, so different from existing "foreign" standards that people were familiar with, did not enjoy widespread approval. A more successful standard emerged from the work of the committee of specialists charged with the task of creating the Luxemburger Wörterbuch, published in 5 volumes between 1950 and 1977; the orthographic conventions adopted in this decades-long project, set out in Bruch, provided the basis of the standard orthography that became official on 10 October 1975. Modifications to this standard were proposed by the Conseil permanent de la langue luxembourgeoise and adopted in the spelling reform of 30 July 1999. A detailed explanation of current practice for Luxembourgish can be found in Lulling; the Luxembourgish alphabet consists of the 26 Latin letters plus three letters with diacritics: "é", "ä", "ë".
In loanwords from French and Standard German, other diacritics are preserved: French: Boîte, Enquête, Piqûre, etc. German: blöd, Bühn, etc. Like many other varieties of Western High German, Luxembourgish has a rule of final n-deletion in certain contexts; the effects of this rule are indicated in writing, therefore must be taken into account when spelling words and morphemes ending in ⟨n⟩ or ⟨nn⟩. For example: wann ech ginn "when I go", but wa mer ginn "when we go" fënnefandrësseg "thirty-five", but fënnefavéierzeg "forty-five"; the consonant inventory of Luxembourgish is quite similar to that of Standard German. /p͡f/ occurs only in loanwords from Standard German. Just as among many native German-speakers, it tends to be simplified to word-initia
Communes of Luxembourg
Luxembourg's 102 Communes conform to LAU Level 2 and are the country's lowest administrative divisions. Communes rank below cantons in Luxembourg's hierarchy of administrative subdivisions. Communes are re-arranged, being merged or divided as demanded by demographic change over time. Unlike the cantons, which have remained unchanged since their creation, the identity of the communes has not become ingrained within the geographical sensations of the average Luxembourger; the cantons are responsible for the ceremonial and statistical aspects of government, while the communes provide local government services. The municipal system was adopted when Luxembourg was annexed into the French département of Forêts in 1795. Despite ownership passing to the Netherlands, this system was maintained until it was introduced upon independence in 1843; the province of Luxembourg, which now constitutes part of Belgium, was part of Luxembourg prior to 1839 when it possessed a low degree of sovereignty. Due to Luxembourg's incorporation into the main country by its occupying powers, the modern municipal system in Luxembourg is less than two centuries old.
Luxembourg has three official languages: French and the national language Luxembourgish. Some government websites offer English versions The communes have no legislative control over matters relating to the national interest, which reside with the Chamber of Deputies. Below this level, they have wide-ranging powers; the communes provide public education, maintain the local road network and other infrastructure, ensure basic public health, provide most social security. Communes have discretionary powers for comprehensive health care within their borders, land-use planning, funds for cultural activities, provision of care to the elderly, providing a sufficient supply of water and electricity. There are 102 communes in the 12 cantons; the 12 communes with city status are Diekirch, Dudelange, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Remich, Rumelange and Wiltz. Since the country's creation in 1839, eight communes have changed their name and thirty-nine communes have been merged, resulting in the 102 communes that exist today.
These defunct communes are listed in the table below. The municipal system was created during the French occupation to mirror the systems employed in the rest of the French Republic; these were overhauled in 1823, but the system itself was retained until independence, granted under the 1839 Treaty of London. The law regulating their creation and organisation dates to 24 February 1843, enshrined in the Luxembourgian constitution promulgated on 17 October 1868. Upon independence, there were 120 communes. A series of mergers and partitions between 1849 and 1891 increased this number to 130. Most of these were brought about by asymmetrical population growth, as population growth in the south caused the balance of population in the country to shift. For instance, some of the communes born in that era include Rumelange and Walferdange. In the pattern of Nordstad and Schieren were separated from Ettelbruck. Since the end of the First World War, during which Luxembourg was occupied by Germany, the number of communes has dropped steadily.
In 1920, Luxembourg City was expanded. Another wave of mergers took place in the 1970s when sparsely-populated areas in the north and west of the country were merged to form Lac de la Haute-Sûre, Wincrange. 2006 saw the creation of Kiischpelt and Tandel from four smaller communes, further reducing them to just 116. 2012 saw the creation of Käerjeng, Vallée de l'Ernz and Parc Hosingen from smaller communes, the merger of Clervaux, Esch-sur-Sûre and Schengen into adjacent ones. Eschweiler was merged into Wiltz in 2015. Following the mergers of Boevange-sur-Attert and Tuntange into the new commune of Helperknapp, the merger of Septfontaines and Hobschied into the new commune of Habscht, the merger of Rosport and Mompach into Rosport-Mompach in 2018, there are now only 102 communes. Category:Lists of communes of Luxembourg Statec. Recueil de statistiques par commune 2003. Luxembourg City: Statec. ISBN 2-87988-053-X. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2006-07-18. / "Archives of Mémorial A".
Service central de législation. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2006-07-18
Dalheim Ricciacum is the site of a Gallo-Roman vicus at Dalheim in south eastern Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Founded during the reign of the Emperor Augustus, the site was at a strategic point on the Via Agrippa, the main Roman road from the Mediterranean to the Rhine; the well-preserved theatre dating from the 2nd century AD could accommodate 3,500 people. The site was first excavated by the Société Archéologique around 1850 under Antoine Namur. Thousands of objects were discovered and described in three reports. More systematic excavations were carried out by the National Museum of History and Art over a 30-year period starting in the 1980s, it appears that the settlement grew until by the 3rd century AD it covered an area of about 25 hectares. In addition to the theatre there were private houses and large public buildings including a hostel, several temples and baths. There were two large cemeteries; the findings indicate the population consisted of merchants. One of the more important finds was a magnificent temple measuring 28 by 19 metres.
It dates from Emperor Hadrian's reign, about 130 AD. Important dates in connection with the Vicus Ricciacum are: 58-50 BC: Conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar 18–17 BC: Construction of the highway from the Mediterranean to the Rhine by Marcus Agrippa and the founding of Vicus Ricciacum 70–71 AD: reallocation of the settlement area 275–276: Germanic invasion, the first violent destruction of the vicus 353–355: Germanic invasion, renewed destruction of the vicus 407: beginning of the Barbarian invasions, final destruction of the Roman settlementThe name Ricciacum survived into the 10th century in the name of pagus of Rizzigau; the eagle monument commemorates the old Roman town Ricciacum and is the symbol of Dalheim. The huge stone blocks forming the solid base of the monument were excavated in the 19th century, not far from their present location; the blocks no doubt date back to Roman times. They may have been removed from the Roman theatre in order to serve as the foundations of a burgus or defensive watchtower.
The monument itself was built by the Archaeological Society of Luxembourg. On 28 May 1855, the groundbreaking ceremony was held in the presence of William III of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg; the memorial commemorates the presence of the Romans on Dalheim's Petzel plateau. Standing on a globe, the eagle seems to be looking in the direction of Trier while its body is facing Metz, symbolizing the old road from Metz to Trier. Not everyone agrees. Charles Marie Ternes maintains there is little to support the association, based on the Tabula Peutingeriana map which bears the inscriptions: DIVODVRO MEDIOMATRICORVM-CARANVSCA XLII CARANVSCA-RICCIACO X RICCIACO-AVG. TRESVIRORVM Xmeaning: Metz-Caranusca 42 miles Caranusca-Ricciacum 10 miles Ricciacum-Trier 10 milesUnfortunately, the Tabula Peutingeriana was copied, not reliably, by 13th century monks from a Roman original. Ternes argues that Caranusca and Ricciacum could well be situated on the Roman road from Metz to Trier on the south side of the Moselle and that, in any case, there appear to be errors in the calculations.
Whatever the case, the label Ricciacum has now been adopted to describe the site at Dalheim
Weiler-la-Tour is a commune and small town in southern Luxembourg. It is located south-east of Luxembourg City; the commune's administrative centre is Hassel. As of 2005, the town of Weiler-la-Tour, which lies in the south of the commune, has a population of 477. Other towns within the commune include Syren. Media related to Weiler-la-Tour at Wikimedia Commons