Dallas County, Texas
Dallas County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,368,139, it is the ninth-most populous in the United States. Its county seat is Dallas, Texas' third-largest city and the ninth-largest city in the United States; the county was founded in 1846 and was named for George Mifflin Dallas, the 11th Vice President of the United States under U. S. President James K. Polk. Dallas County is included in the TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 909 square miles, of which 873 square miles is land and 36 square miles is water. Collin County Rockwall County Kaufman County Ellis County Tarrant County Denton County As of the 2015 Texas population estimate program, the population of the county was 2,541,528: non-Hispanic whites, 713,835; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,368,139 people, 807,621 households, 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile.
There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi. The racial makeup of the county was 53.54 White, 22.30% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 5.15% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 14.04% from other races, 2.70% from two or more races. 38.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 807,621 households out of which 35.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.90% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.90% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.34. As of the 2010 census, there were about 8.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the wider county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 34.40% from 25 to 44, 18.90% from 45 to 64, 8.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was US$43,324, the median income for a family was $49,062. Males had a median income of $34,988 versus $29,539 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,603. About 10.60% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.00% of those under age 18 and 10.50% of those age 65 or over. Dallas County, like all counties in Texas, is governed by a Commissioners Court; this court consists of the county judge, elected county-wide, four commissioners who are elected by the voters in each of four precincts. The Commissioners Court is the policy-making body for the county; the Commissioners Court sets the county tax rate, adopts the budget, appoints boards and commissions, approves grants and personnel actions, oversees the administration of county government. Each commissioner supervises a Road and Bridge District.
The Commissioners Court approves the budget and sets the tax rate for the hospital district, charged with the responsibility for providing acute medical care for citizens who otherwise would not receive adequate medical services. The Parkland Health & Hospital System operates the Parkland Memorial Hospital and various health centers; the Commissioners Court meets the first and third Tuesday at the Commissioners Courtroom located in the Dallas County Administration Building at 411 Elm St. corner of Elm and Houston streets. The building was the headquarters of the Texas School Book Depository Company until 1970. Assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot President John F. Kennedy from a window located on the sixth floor which today houses the Sixth Floor Museum dedicated to the late president's memory. Acts of the commissioners court are known as'court orders'; these orders include setting county policies and procedures, issuing contracts, authorizing expenditures, managing county resources and departments.
Most the commissioners court sets the annual tax rate and the budget for Dallas County government and the courts. The commissioners set the tax rate and budget for the Dallas County Hospital District which operates Parkland Hospital; the commissioners court has direct control over all county offices and departments not otherwise administered by a county elected official. Those departments include Dallas County Elections and Human Services, Facilities Management and Open Space Program, I. T. Services, Homeland Security and Emergency Services, among others. Through their budget making powers, the commissioners exercise indirect control over the District Attorney's office, District Clerk, County Clerk and County Treasurer; the commissioners set the budget for each of the District and Justice courts. Dallas County employs a commissioners court administrator, responsible for the day-to-day management of the commissioners court and implementing the Dallas County Master Plan and the directives of the commissioners court.
The current commissioners court administrator is Darryl Martin, hired by the commissioners in 2008. Dallas Count
Calhoun County, Arkansas
Calhoun County is a county located in the south central part of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,368; the county seat is Hampton. Calhoun County is Arkansas's 55th county, formed on December 6, 1850, named for John C. Calhoun, a Vice President of the United States; the county is part of AR Micropolitan Statistical Area. This area was developed for plantation agriculture, based on large gangs of slave workers; the population was majority enslaved African Americans before the American Civil War. After the Reconstruction era, there was increasing white violence against blacks as the minority attempted to assert dominance over the freedmen. From 1877 to 1950, whites lynched 10 African Americans in the county in the decades around the turn of the century. Several other counties in the state had higher rates of such murders. In September 1892, what became known as the "Hampton Race War", or the Calhoun County Race War, broke out across the southern part of the county.
In 1891 the Democratic-dominated state legislature had passed laws to make voter registration more difficult for illiterate people both black and white, which disenfranchised many of the poorer residents. But tensions were rising in this period, the economy was poor. Whites resented that freedmen would work for lower wages if they knew the latter men had a choice. Whitecappers called night riders, were poor white farmers and workers who acted as vigilantes, attacking various residents to enforce their moral views, they met in secret societies to patrol both white communities. Their reasons were economic; the African Americans resented these attacks. Newspapers printed rumors of armed blacks planning attacks against whites, as was typical in tense times, inflaming existing tensions. There was violence associated with the September election; some newspapers reported that a white man named Unsill, an ex-convict Republican, led 42 armed blacks to the polls, "where they demanded to vote." Accounts of this period are contradictory, but agree that major events seemed to take place within several days, beginning about September 17, while incidents were reported over the month of September.
An estimated five to eight African Americans were killed during the violence, with one or more described as lynched. At least two whites were killed in these encounters. Among the dead was a black man murdered by two whites. Due to such violence, social oppression, economic problems, mechanization of agriculture, many African Americans and whites left the county in the first half of the 20th century. Population declined in every census after 1920 through 1970, as may be seen in the table in the Demographics section below. African Americans left in the Great Migration to northern and midwestern industrial cities for work before World War II. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 632 square miles, of which 629 square miles is land and 3.8 square miles is water. Future Interstate 69 U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 167 U. S. Highway 278 Highway 160 Dallas County Cleveland County Bradley County Union County Ouachita County As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 5,744 people, 2,317 households, 1,628 families residing in the county.
The population density was 9 people per square mile. There were 3,012 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.51% White, 23.38% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.03% Asian, 0.92% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 1.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,317 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.60% were married couples living together, 11.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.70% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 16.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.70 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,438, the median income for a family was $34,647. Males had a median income of $30,353 versus $17,452 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,555. About 13.20% of families and 16.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.90% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over. Public education for elementary and secondary school students is provided by the Hampton School District, which leads to graduation from Hampton High School. Hampton Thornton Harrell Tinsman Note: Unlike most counties, Calhoun County has numbered townships instead of named townships. Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Grant County, Arkansas
Grant County is a county in the U. S. state of Arkansas. Its population was 17,853 at the 2010 United States Census; the county seat is Sheridan. Grant County is included in the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area. Formed on February 4, 1869, Grant County is named for former U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant, it is dry county. Robert W. Glover, a Missionary Baptist pastor who served in both houses of the Arkansas Legislature from Sheridan, introduced in 1909 the resolution calling for the establishment of four state agricultural colleges, his brother, David Delano Glover, a Methodist, was a state representative in the 1907 session and a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1929 to 1935, having been unseated in 1934 by Grant County native John Little McClellan who at the time was practicing law in Camden. McClellan went on to become Arkansas's longest serving U. S. senator. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 633 square miles, of which 632 square miles is land and 1.1 square miles is water.
Grant County is considered part of the Arkansas Timberlands geographical area. U. S. Highway 167 U. S. Highway 270 Highway 35 Highway 46 Saline County Pulaski County Jefferson County Cleveland County Dallas County Hot Spring County As of the 2000 census, there were 16,464 people, 4,241 households, 4,780 families residing in the county; the population density was 26 people per square mile. There were 6,960 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.55% White, 2.47% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.64% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. 1.15% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,241 households out of which 35.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.70% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.40% were non-families. 20.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.90% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 29.60% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 12.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,182, the median income for a family was $42,901. Males had a median income of $31,842 versus $22,098 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,547. About 7.80% of families and 10.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.50% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over. Leola Prattsville Sheridan Poyen Tull Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships.
Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research. Each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications; the townships of Grant County are listed below. Grant County is home to Jenkins' Ferry Battleground State Park. List of dry counties in Arkansas List of counties in Arkansas List of lakes in Grant County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Grant County, Arkansas
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
U.S. Route 167
U. S. Route 167 runs for 500 miles from Ash Flat, Arkansas at U. S. Route 62/US Route 412 to Abbeville, Louisiana at Louisiana Highway 14, it goes through the cities of Little Rock, Alexandria and Lafayette, Louisiana. Some of the highway's route parallels Interstate 49 in Louisiana. Between Junction City, AR and Ruston, LA, U. S. 167 runs concurrent with U. S. 63. U. S. Highway 167 in Louisiana runs 241.05 miles in a north–south direction from the national southern terminus at Louisiana Highway 14 Business in Abbeville to the Arkansas state line at Junction City. The route cuts through the center of Louisiana for its entire length and passes through two of the state's metropolitan areas and Alexandria. Between those cities, US 167 ranges in character from an urban freeway to a traveled two-lane collector. During this stretch, it overlaps the southern 23 miles of Interstate 49 from Lafayette through Opelousas before making a diversion through rural Evangeline Parish to serve the small city of Ville Platte.
US 167 follows a combination of I-49 and the Pineville Expressway through Alexandria and Pineville, crossing the Red River via the twin-span Purple Heart Memorial Bridge. US 167 remains a surface four-lane highway through northern Louisiana and is the primary north–south route through Winnfield and Ruston; the northern portion of the route, beginning at the I-20 interchange in Ruston carries the first 35 miles of US 63. On its southern end, US 167 began near Colfax, Louisiana when designated as one of the original numbered U. S. Highways in 1926. However, the route was extended to Abbeville in 1949 over a number of existing state highways, more than doubling its length within Louisiana. Since that time, US 167 has experienced several alignment shifts as freeways were constructed in its two urban areas. More all but 40 miles of the route was widened to four lanes as part of the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development TIMED program. From the south, US 167 begins at an intersection with LA 14 Bus. in the Vermilion Parish city of Abbeville, located in southern Louisiana.
The route heads north on Park Avenue, an undivided four-lane thoroughfare, crosses mainline LA 14. US 167 travels due north from Abbeville and becomes a divided four-lane highway on a wide right-of-way upon entering rural surroundings; the highway will repeat this pattern throughout the majority of its distance in Louisiana. Passing through Maurice, US 167 has a brief concurrency with LA 92; the highway curves to the northeast and crosses into Lafayette Parish. US 167 enters the suburban outgrowth of Lafayette and crosses the city limits just beyond a junction with LA 733; the highway, locally known as Johnston Street, becomes a busy commercial corridor near the Acadiana Mall and intersects several major thoroughfares on the southwest side of town, including LA 3073 and LA 3025. Nearing the downtown area, US 167 passes the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, located at a junction with US 90 Bus./LA 182. The route turns northwest onto the Evangeline Thruway, a one-way pair, overlaps US 90 for about ten blocks.
This short stretch represents the only non-freeway six-lane portion of US 167 in Louisiana. On the north side of town, the highway passes through a cloverleaf interchange with I-10 at exit 103, connecting with Baton Rouge to the east and Lake Charles to the west; this interchange marks the southern terminus of I-49. US 167 utilizes the alignment of I-49 for the next 23 miles; the freeway carries six lanes of traffic but narrows to four through lanes. The highway crosses from Lafayette into Carencro at exit 2, which connects to LA 98. Carencro proper is served by exit 4, connecting with LA 726. North of Carencro, I-49/US 167 intersects the parallel LA 182 before crossing into St. Landry Parish. In St. Landry Parish, the freeway cuts through the adjacent communities of Sunset and Grand Coteau, served by exit 11 to LA 93. Further north, the route skirts the eastern edge of the city of Opelousas, accessed by exit 18 to LA 31 and exit 19 to US 190. US 167 departs from the alignment of I-49 at the next exit and heads west through a point known as Nuba and a junction with LA 10 and LA 182.
Narrowing to an undivided two-lane highway, US 167 travels northwest, overlapping LA 10 into Evangeline Parish. Here, the highway enters the city of Ville Platte and diverges onto the one-way pair of LaSalle and Main Streets through the center of town. During this stretch, US 167 intersects and overlaps LA 29. After narrowing to two lanes again, US 167 turns due north at the western edge of Ville Platte and separates from LA 10; the highway passes to the east of Millers Lake and through an area known as Bayou Chicot, where it intersects LA 106. A few miles US 167 reaches a T-intersection with LA 13 in Turkey Creek. US 167 turns north to continue the path of LA 13 and travels several miles through a sparsely populated area. US 167 crosses into Rapides Parish just north of Clearwater and crosses under I-49 at exit 61. Soon afterward, it reaches a T-intersection with US 71 near Meeker and departs from the last stretch of two-lane pavement along its route. US 167 turns northwest and follows the alignment of US 71 alongside the Union Pacific Railroad line for the next 13 miles through Lecompte and Chambers.
In Chambers, the highway passes the Louisiana State University at Alexandria, located about four miles south of the Alexandria city limits. Upon entering
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U. S. federal government, after the President of the United States, ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The Vice President is an officer in the legislative branch, as President of the Senate. In this capacity, the Vice President presides over Senate deliberations, but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote; the Vice President presides over joint sessions of Congress. The Vice President is indirectly elected together with the President to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Whenever a vice president had succeeded to the presidency or had died or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.
The Vice President is a statutory member of the National Security Council, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President organises the vice president's official functions; the role of the vice presidency has changed since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, is now seen as an integral part of a president's administration; as the Vice President's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted. The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; the modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.
Mike Pence of Indiana is the current Vice President of the United States. He assumed office on January 20, 2017. No mention of an office of vice president was made at the 1787 Constitutional Convention until near the end, when an 11-member committee on "Leftover Business" proposed a method of electing the chief executive. Delegates had considered the selection of the Senate's presiding officer, deciding that, "The Senate shall choose its own President," and had agreed that this official would be designated the executive's immediate successor, they had considered the mode of election of the executive but had not reached consensus. This all changed on September 4, when the committee recommended that the nation's chief executive be elected by an Electoral College, with each state having a number of presidential electors equal to the sum of that state's allocation of representatives and senators; the proposed presidential election process called for each state to choose members of the electoral college, who would use their discretion to select the candidates they individually viewed as best qualified.
Recognizing that loyalty to one's individual state outweighed loyalty to the new federation, the Constitution's framers assumed that individual electors would be inclined to choose a candidate from their own state over one from another. So they created the office of vice president and required that electors vote for two candidates, requiring that at least one of their votes must be for a candidate from outside the elector's state, believing that this second vote could be cast for a candidate of national character. Additionally, to guard against the possibility that some electors might strategically throw away their second vote in order to bolster their favorite son's chance of winning, it was specified that the first runner-up presidential candidate would become vice president. Creating this new office imposed a political cost on strategically discarded electoral votes, incentivizing electors to make their choices for president without resort to electoral gamesmanship and to cast their second ballot accordingly.
The resultant method of electing the president and vice president, spelled out in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, allocated to each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of its Senate and House of Representatives membership. Each elector was allowed to vote for two people for president, but could not differentiate between their first and second choice for the presidency; the person receiving the greatest number of votes would be president, while the individual who received the next largest number of votes became vice president. If there were a tie for first or for second place, or if no one won a majority of votes, the president and vice president would be selected by means of contingent elections protocols stated in the clause; the emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated election campaigns during the 1790s soon frustrated this original plan. In the election of 1796, Federalist John Adams won the presidency, but his bitter rival, Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson came second and became vice president.
Thus, the president and vice president were from opposing parties.