Tiger Stadium (Detroit)
Tiger Stadium known as Navin Field and Briggs Stadium, was a baseball park located in the Corktown neighborhood of Detroit, Michigan. It hosted the Detroit Tigers of Major League Baseball from 1912 to 1999, as well as the Detroit Lions of the National Football League from 1938 to 1974, it was declared a State of Michigan Historic Site in 1975 and has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1989. The stadium was nicknamed "The Corner" for its location on Trumbull Avenue; the last Detroit Tigers game at the stadium was held in September 1999. In the decade after the Tigers vacated the stadium, several rejected redevelopment and preservation efforts gave way to demolition; the stadium's demolition was completed on September 21, 2009, though the stadium's actual playing field remains at the corner where the stadium once stood. Since the spring of 2010, a volunteer group known as the Navin Field Grounds Crew has restored and maintained the field. A plan to redevelop the old Tiger Stadium site would retain the historic playing field for youth sports and ring the 10-acre property with new development has received final approval, funding.
In 1895, Detroit Tigers owner George Vanderbeck had a new ballpark built at the corner of Michigan and Trumbull Avenues. That stadium was called Bennett Park and featured a wooden grandstand with a wooden peaked roof in the outfield. At the time, some places in the outfield were only marked off with rope. In 1911, new Tigers owner Frank Navin ordered a new steel-and-concrete baseball park on the same site that would seat 23,000 to accommodate the growing numbers of fans. Navin Field opened on April 1912, the same day as the Boston Red Sox's Fenway Park. While constructed on the same site as Bennett Park, the diamond at Navin Field was rotated 90°, with home plate located in what had been left field at Bennett Park. Cleveland Naps player "Shoeless" Joe Jackson banned from baseball for life following the Black Sox Scandal, scored the first run at Navin Field on the opening day; the intimate configurations of both stadiums, both conducive to high-scoring games featuring home runs, prompted baseball writers to refer to them as "bandboxes" or "cigar boxes".
Over the years, expansion continued to accommodate more people. In 1935, following Navin's death, new owner Walter Briggs oversaw the expansion of Navin Field to a capacity of 36,000 by extending the upper deck to the foul poles and across right field. By 1938, the city had agreed to move Cherry Street, allowing left field to be double-decked and the now-renamed Briggs Stadium had a capacity of 53,000. In 1961, new owner John Fetzer took control of the stadium and gave it its final name: Tiger Stadium. Under this name, the stadium witnessed World Series titles in 1968 and 1984. A fire gutted the press box on the evening of February 1, 1977. In 1977, the Tigers sold the stadium to the city of Detroit, which leased it back to the Tigers; as part of this transfer, the green wooden seats were replaced with blue and orange plastic ones and the stadium's interior, green, was painted blue to match. In 1992, new owner Mike Ilitch began many cosmetic improvements to the ballpark with the addition of the Tiger Den and Tiger Plaza.
The Tiger Den was an area in the lower deck between first and third base that had padded seats and section waiters. The Tiger Plaza was constructed in the old players parking lot and consisted of many concessionaires and a gift shop. After the 1994 strike, plans were made to construct a new park, but many campaigned to save the old stadium. Plans to modify and maintain Tiger Stadium as the home of the Tigers, known as the Cochrane Plan, were supported by many in the community, but were never considered by the Tigers. Ground was broken for the new Comerica Park during the 1997 season. Tiger Stadium had a 125-foot tall flagpole in fair play, to the left of dead center field near the 440 foot mark; the same flag pole was to be brought to Comerica Park, but this never took place. A new flagpole in the spirit of Tiger Stadium's pole was positioned in fair play at Comerica Park until the left field fence was moved in closer prior to the 2003 season; the original Tiger Stadium flagpole, designed by Rudolph V. Herman at the request of W. O. "Spike" Briggs, is still in its original position on the now vacant site.
When the stadium closed, it was tied with Fenway Park as the oldest ballpark in Major League Baseball, the two parks having opened on the same date in 1912. Taking predecessor Bennett Field into account, Tiger Stadium was the oldest Major League Baseball site in use in 1999; the right field upper deck overhung the field by 10 feet, prompting the installation of spotlights above the warning track. When the park was expanded in 1936 and the second deck was added over the right field pavilion and bleachers, there was a limited amount of space between the right field fence and the street behind it. To fit as many seats as possible in the expansion, the second deck was extended over the fence by 10 feet; the overhang would "catch" some high arced fly balls and prevent the right fielder standing underneath it with his back to the fence from catching the ball, resulting in a home run for the batter, in what otherwise would have been a long out. Other batted balls would hit the facing of the overhang and bounce far back into right field.
Like other older baseball stadiums such as Fenway Park and Wrigley Field, Tiger Stadium offered "obstructed view" seats, some of which were directly behind a steel support column.
The end zone is the scoring area on the field, according to gridiron-based codes of football. It is the area between the end goal line bounded by the sidelines. There are two end zones, it is bordered on all sides by a white line indicating its beginning and end points, with orange, square pylons placed at each of the four corners as a visual aid. Canadian rule books use the terms goal area and dead line instead of end zone and end line but the latter terms are the more common in colloquial Canadian English. Unlike sports like association football and ice hockey which require the ball/puck to pass over the goal line to count as a score, both Canadian and American football need any part of the ball to break the vertical plane of the outer edge of the goal line. A similar concept exists in both rugby football codes; the difference between rugby and gridiron-based codes is that in rugby, the ball must be touched to the ground in the in-goal area to count as a try, whereas in the gridiron-based games possessing the ball in or over the end zone is sufficient to count as a touchdown.
Ultimate frisbee uses an end zone scoring area. Scores in this sport are counted; the end zones were invented as a result of the creation of the forward pass. Prior to this, the goal line and end line were the same, players scored a touchdown by leaving the field of play through that line. Goal posts were placed on the goal line, any kicks that did not result in field goals but left the field through the end lines were recorded as touchbacks. In the earliest days of the forward pass, the pass had to be caught in-bounds and could not be thrown across the goal line; this made it difficult to pass the ball when close to one's own goal line, since dropping back to pass or kick would result in a safety. Thus, in 1912, the end zone was introduced in American football. In an era when professional football was still in its early years and college football dominated the game, the resulting enlargement of the field was constrained by fact that many college teams were playing in well-developed stadiums, complete with stands and other structures at the ends of the fields, thereby making any substantial enlargement of the field unfeasible at many schools.
A compromise was reached: 12 yards of end zone were added to each end of the field, but in return, the playing field was shortened from 110 yards to 100, resulting in the physical size of the field being only longer than before. Goal posts were kept on the goal lines, but after they began to interfere with play, they moved back to the end lines in 1927, where they have remained in college football since; the National Football League moved the goal posts up to the goal line again in 1933 back again to the end line in 1974. As with many other aspects of gridiron football, Canadian football adopted the forward pass and end zones much than American football; the forward pass and end zones were adopted in 1929. In Canada, college football never reached a level of prominence comparable to U. S. college football, professional football was still in its infancy in the 1920s. As a result, Canadian football was still being played in rudimentary facilities in the late 1920s. A further consideration was that the Canadian Rugby Union wanted to reduce the prominence of single points in the game.
Therefore, the CRU appended 25-yard end zones to the ends of the existing 110-yard field, creating a much larger field of play. Since moving the goal posts back 25 yards would have made the scoring of field goals excessively difficult, since the CRU did not want to reduce the prominence of field goals, the goal posts were left on the goal line where they remain today. However, the rules governing the scoring of singles were changed: teams were required to either kick the ball out of bounds through the end zone or force the opposition to down a kicked ball in their own end zone in order to be awarded a point. By 1986, at which point CFL stadiums were becoming bigger and comparable in development to their American counterparts in an effort to stay financially competitive, the CFL reduced the depth of the end zone to 20 yards. A team scores a touchdown by entering its opponent's end zone while carrying the ball or catching the ball while being within the end zone. If the ball is carried by a player, it is considered a score when any part of the ball is directly above or beyond any part of the goal line between the pylons.
In addition, a two-point conversion may be scored after a touchdown by similar means. In Ultimate Frisbee, a goal is scored by completing a pass into the end zone; the end zone in American football is 10 yards long by 53 1⁄3 yards wide. Each corner is marked with a pylon. A full-sized end zone in Canadian football is 20 yards long by 65 yards wide. Prior to the 1980s, the Canadian end zone was 25 yards long; the first stadium to use the 20 yard long end zone was B. C. Place in Vancouver, completed in 1983; the floor of B. C. Place was too short to accommodate a field 160
The Dayton Triangles were an original franchise of the American Professional Football Association in 1920. The Triangles were based in Dayton and took their nickname from their home field, Triangle Park, located at the confluence of the Great Miami and Stillwater Rivers in north Dayton, they were the longest-lasting traveling team in the NFL, the last such "road team" until the Dallas Texans in 1952, coincidentally, descended from the Dayton franchise. The original Dayton Triangles members first began playing together as basketball players at St. Mary's College, now the University of Dayton, from 1908 until 1912. After graduation, the players organized a basketball team of alumni and other local athletes, they went by the name of the St. Mary's Cadets; the Cadets claimed the title of "World Basketball Champions" by defeating the Buffalo German Ramblers. In the fall of 1913, the St. Marys Cadets organized a football team; the team was coached by Louis Clark. Al Mahrt was elected team captain; the team won the Dayton City Championship.
They won the Southern Ohio Championship by defeating the Cincinnati Celts 27 to 0 at Redland Park. The team won a second city championship despite injuries to Al Mahrt and Babe Zimmerman. In 1915 the team changed its name to the Dayton Gym-Cadets after their presumed sponsors, the Dayton Gymnastic Club; that season saw Al Marhrt take over as the team's coach. The team only lost one game that season, to the Columbus Panhandles, they won their third city championship. The team was reorganized in 1916 as a recreational football team from among the employees of three downtown Dayton factories: the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, the Dayton Metal Products Company, the Domestic Engineering Company. Carl Storck, who served as treasurer of the NFL and as acting league president from 1939 to 1941, co-sponsored the Dayton Cadets and used players recruited from the three factories to fill out the team roster. Storck would become the team's manager, while Bud Talbott, a Walter Camp All-American tackle and team captain at Yale University, was named the team's coach.
The team's name was changed to the Dayton Triangles that season. In 1916, the Triangles went 9–1, defeating teams from Cincinnati, Detroit and Pittsburgh; the Canton Bulldogs, with the legendary Jim Thorpe in the line-up, claimed the "Ohio League" Championship after their win over the Massillon Tigers. The Triangles challenged the Bulldogs to a game on December 10, 1916; the following season saw the Triangles move into Triangle Park. The team's 1917 campaign was successful; the team went 6–0–2 that season. The Triangles gave up only 13 to their opponents. In 1918 saw the United States entry in World War I, as well as a devastating Spanish flu pandemic. While the Triangles lost players to military service, they had many kept home with regular jobs in industries deemed essential to the war effort and, along with the few other teams still playing, far less competition for the talent pool; this allowed the Triangles to keep a team on the field and beat what few representative teams remained. They claimed an Ohio League Championship.
The Triangle player-coach that season was Earle "Greasy" Neale. During their championship run, the Triangles defeated future NFL teams, the Toledo Maroons, Hammond Pros, Columbus Panhandles and Detroit Heralds; the Triangles went 8–0–0 in 1918, one of two known teams to have collected a perfect record of more than five games that year, the other being the Buffalo Niagaras, whose 6–0–0 record was collected as a result of playing only teams from Buffalo and who built their team on many of the players left out of work because of the Ohio League teams' suspension. In 1919, they followed up their championship with a season record of 4–2–1. At the first meetings held on August 20, 1920 and September 17, 1920 at Ralph Hay's Hupmobile dealership located in Canton, the Triangles were represented by their manager Carl Storck as they became charter members of the new league called the American Professional Football Association, until 1922 when it was renamed the National Football League. During the latter meeting, Jim Thorpe was unanimously elected as new league's president.
At this meeting, a membership fee of $100 per team was established, however George Halas stated that none of the charter teams paid it. On October 3, 1920, the Triangles won what could be considered the first APFA/NFL game, with a 14–0 defeat of the Columbus Panhandles at Triangle Park; the high point of the Triangles' 1920 season was a 20–20 tie at Triangle Park with Thorpe's Canton Bulldogs. Trailing the Triangles, 20–14, Thorpe nailed two late field goals to tie the score. Six games into the season, the Triangles remained undefeated but in the final three games lost twice to eventual league champion, the Akron Pros, ending 1920 with a 5–2–2 mark. In 1922, the other teams in the NFL were recruiting and signing top college players from around the country; this marked a decline in the team's performance, the Triangles ceased being competitive in the NFL. Because of their poor showing on the field, the Triangles were not able to draw crowds for home games: Triangle Park, with a seating capacity of 5,000 saw that many fans.
Soon, the combination of poor home gates and the lure of $2,500 guarantees to play at larger venues (like Wrigley F
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Hershey is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Derry Township, Dauphin County, United States. Hershey's chocolates are made in Hershey, founded by candy magnate Milton S. Hershey; the community is located 14 miles east of Harrisburg and is part of the Harrisburg−Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area. Hershey has no legal status as an incorporated municipality, all its municipal services are provided by Derry Township; the population was 14,257 at the 2010 census. It is popularly called "Chocolatetown, USA". Hershey is referred to as "The Sweetest Place on Earth". Hershey is located in southeastern Dauphin County, in the center and eastern parts of Derry Township, it is bordered by Campbelltown. To the west is the borough of Hummelstown. Over half the population of Derry Township is within the Hershey CDP. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Hershey CDP has a total area of 14.4 square miles, of which 14.4 square miles is land and 0.058 square miles, or 0.41%, is water.
As of the 2010 census, there were 14,257 people living there. Hershey was made up of 83.5% White, 6.6% Asian, 6.2% African American, 3.5% in other categories. 3.4 % identify as Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,771 people, 5,451 households, 3,297 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 886.5 people per square mile. There were 5,887 housing units at an average density of 408.7/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 91.07% White, 2.12% African American, 0.06% Native American, 4.87% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.49% from other races, 1.38% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino were 1.55% of the population. There were 5,451 households, out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.9% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.86.
In the CDP, the population was spread out, with 20.3% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 23.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $45,098, the median income for a family was $63,385. Males had a median income of $42,013 versus $31,086 for females; the per capita for the CDP was $28,487. About 3.8% of families and 6.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.9% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over. U. S. Route 422 runs through the center of Hershey, U. S. Route 322 passes south of the center; the two highways merge at the western end of Hershey, at an interchange with Pennsylvania Route 39. US 422 leads east 43 miles to Reading, while US 322 leads southeast 28 miles to Ephrata and west 15 miles to Harrisburg, the state capital. Route 39 provides access to Hersheypark and Chocolate World, located in the northern part of the CDP, continues north 6 miles to Interstate 81 at Skyline View.
Hershey is accessible via Harrisburg International Airport 12 miles to the southwest. Amtrak's Keystone Service provides frequent rail service to the nearby towns of Middletown and Elizabethtown Amtrak Station, as well as its eastern end in Philadelphia. CAT and LT provide bus service. From 1944 to 1981, Hershey had its own small general aviation airport on the front lawn of the Milton Hershey Middle School. Hershey has a humid continental climate, as is common in Pennsylvania. Temperatures can reach up to 95 °F in the summer, fall below 20 °F in the winter. Derry Township School District – public school Hershey High School The Vista School – a state approved, private school for autistic students aged 3 to 21 years. Milton Hershey School – a private philanthropic school founded in 1909 by chocolate magnate Milton Hershey to serve poor children. Serves children from pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. Penn State College of Medicine – Medical school affiliated with the Hershey Medical Center Hershey was once home to the Hershey Wildcats of the A-League, a professional soccer team.
The team folded after the 2001 season when its owners decided that it would not be successful financially. The Wildcats were named after a popular roller-coaster in Hersheypark. Hershey was home to the Hershey Impact over the NPSL indoor soccer league. National Basketball Association player Wilt Chamberlain scored 100 points for the Philadelphia Warriors in a regular season game played at Hersheypark Arena in 1962. Elizabethtown College hosted the 2015 NCAA Division III Wrestling Championships at the Giant Center. Christian Pulisic, the 20-year-old American soccer player who plays for Chelsea F. C. of England's Premier League and United States men's national soccer team, is from here. The community is home to The Hershey Company, which makes the well-known Hershey Bar and Hershey's Kisses and is the parent company of the H. B. Reese Candy Company, manufacturer of Reese's Peanut Butter Cups. Hershey's Chocolate World is a factory store and virtual tour ride of The Hershey Company; the original Hershey Chocolate Factory, located downtown along Chocolate Avenue, was closed in 2012
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
History of the Baltimore Colts
The Indianapolis Colts professional American football franchise was based in Baltimore, Maryland, as the Baltimore Colts from 1953 to 1984. The team was named for Baltimore's history of horse racing, it was the second incarnation of the Baltimore Colts, the first having played for three years in the All-America Football Conference and one in the National Football League. The 1953–83 Baltimore Colts team played its home games at Memorial Stadium; the Baltimore Colts were one of the first NFL teams to have cheerleaders, a marching band and a team "fight song". The Baltimore Colts were named after Baltimore's 142-year-old annual "Preakness Stakes", a premier thoroughbred horse racing event, second jewel of the famous "Triple Crown" championship series of the sport run at the historic Pimlico Race Course since 1873; this third, most famous Baltimore Colts pro football franchise was created in 1953, but can trace its history much earlier than that, to before the NFL itself began in 1920: its earliest predecessor was the old Dayton Triangles, a founding member of the reorganized and renamed National Football League of 1922, created in 1913.
Because of the link to the ancient Dayton Triangles, the Baltimore Colts can arguably claim to have played and won, on October 3, 1920, what could be considered the first A. P. F. A./N. F. L. Professional football game, with a 14-0 defeat of the rival Columbus Panhandles at Triangle Park in Dayton, Ohio; the team went through the following changes: Dayton Triangles pro football team relocated to New York City to the Borough of Brooklyn, New York and was renamed Brooklyn Dodgers in 1930. Changed name to Brooklyn Tigers in 1944. In the same year, the Boston Yanks are founded. Merged with Boston Yanks in 1945 as the World War II-era war-time "The Yanks". Brooklyn franchise canceled in 1945 by the League and the team's players were given to the Boston Yanks, as a parallel team, the is founded by the Tigers' former owner, Dan Topping. Miami Seahawks of the A. A. F. C. are folded and replaced in the Conference's second season by a new franchise in Baltimore given the name of the "Colts" after a name selection contest among the new Baltimore fans.
The Colts joined the reorganized NFL. in 1950, following the merger of the A. A. F. C. With the older league, along with the addition of teams San Francisco 49ers and the Cleveland Browns; this second Baltimore Colts franchise was dissolved by the NFL for financial reasons after only the one 1950 season on January 18, 1951. Boston Yanks were canceled upon request of the team owner for tax purposes; the owner was given a new franchise for New York City in 1949, now named the New York Bulldogs. The name was changed to the New York Yanks the following season in 1950; the Yanks absorbed much of the previous football Yankees' roster the next year. New York Yanks of the NFL were canceled after the one 1951 season and replaced in 1952 by the Dallas Texans, with the first expansion of the League into high school and collegiate football-crazy Texas and first into the southern part of the United States. Texans owner returned the team leadership to the League ownership of the NFL during mid-season; the Texans become a "road" team halfway through the 1952 season with no "home base", playing only "away" games and folded after the one 1952 season.
Dallas Texans franchise was sold to Baltimore civic and sports interests led by Carroll Rosenbloom on January 23, 1953, where a new team was established resurrecting the previous well-liked "Colts" nickname, they however replaced the old AAFC/NFL team colors of silver and green with the Texans' team colors of blue and white. As the result of a fan contest in Baltimore, won by Charles Evans of Middle River in suburban eastern Baltimore County, the team was renamed the "Baltimore Colts". On September 7, 1947, wearing the green and silver uniforms, the Colts, under Head Coach Cecil Isbell, won their initial All-America Football Conference game in the A. A. F. C.'s second season, 16–7, over the Brooklyn Dodgers. Home site for the new AAFC games in "The Monumental City" was the old 1922 Municipal Stadium on the north side of 33rd Street boulevard in northeast Baltimore renovated and rebuilt with an upper tier added the following year for use by the new American League of major league baseball's relocated franchise, the Baltimore Orioles).
The football team concluded its inaugural season before a record Baltimore crowd of 51,583 by losing to the New York Yankees, 21–7. The Colts finished with a 2–11–1 record, good for a fourth-place finish in the Eastern Division of the A. A. F. C; the Colts completed the 1948 season with a 7–8 record, tying the Buffalo Bills for the division title. The Colts compiled a 1–11 mark in their third season of 1949. Y. A. Tittle to gain additional hall of fame status a decade with the NFL's New York Giants was the Colts starting quarterback. After four years of inter-league rivalry and player contract raiding, the A. A. F. C. and N. F. L. Merged in 1950, the Colts joined the reorganized new NFL, along with the San Francisco 49ers and the Cleveland Browns. After posting a 1–11 record for the second consecuti