Institute for Science, Ethics and Innovation
For the term referring to Japanese immigrants, see Issei. The Institute for Science and Innovation is a research institute founded at the University of Manchester in 2007 with a mission to examine the role and moral responsibilities of science and innovation in the contemporary world. Chaired by the Nobel Laureate, John Sulston and directed by the bioethicist, John Harris, iSEI performs multi-disciplinary research across four broad areas: What is Science For? Who Owns Science? How Should Science be Used? and the Ethics of Emerging Technologies. Funded by a Wellcome Trust Biomedical Ethics Strategic Award, iSEI has embarked on a 5-year research programme on ‘The Human Body: Its Scope and Future’, starting in 2009; this work will follow five strands within iSEI’s existing research portfolio: • Human Biomaterials • Genethics • Reproduction • Enhancement • Methods in Bioethics In 2009, the Institute for Science and Innovation published the Manchester Manifesto, the signatories of which include Nobel laureates Joseph Stiglitz, John Sulston.
The manifesto raised questions about the ownership of science and the rationale for strict intellectual property rights and was reported in the British media, with articles in the Financial Times, The Times, The Guardian accompanied by interviews of the Nobel duo in the BBC's Today programme. The Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys welcomed aspects of the manifesto, but criticised the authors views as being "ill-informed and misleading", leading the authors to respond "it was not the purpose of the Manchester Manifesto to abolish intellectual property, nor yet its governance by laws. Institute for Science and Innovation University of Manchester
School of Mathematics, University of Manchester
The School of Mathematics at the University of Manchester is one of the largest mathematics departments in the United Kingdom, with around 80 academic staff and an undergraduate intake of 400 a year and another 200 postgraduate students. The school was formed in 2004 by the merger of the mathematics departments of University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. In July 2007 the school moved from the Mathematics Tower into a purpose-designed building – the first three floors of the Alan Turing Building – on Upper Brook Street; the current head of the school is Oliver Jensen. The school is divided for the purposes of teaching administration, into three groups: Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Probability and Statistics; the Manchester Institute for Mathematical Sciences is a unit of the school focusing on the organising of mathematical colloquia and conferences, research visitors. MIMS is headed by Nick Higham FRS, Director of Research.
Other high-profile mathematicians at Manchester include Sir Martin Taylor FRS and Jeff Paris Since its formation, the school has made some influential appointments including the topologist Viktor Buchstaber and model theorist Alex Wilkie FRS. Numerical analyst Jack Dongarra, famous as one of the authors of LINPACK, was appointed in 2007 as Turing Fellow. In the autumn of 2007 another corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Albert Shiryaev was appointed to a 20% chair. Shiryaev is famous for his work on financial mathematics; as might be expected from its size, the school has a wide range of research interests, including the traditionally pure areas of Algebra, Noncommutative geometry, Ergodic theory, Mathematical logic, Number theory and Topology. The school has a strong tradition in Numerical analysis and well established groups in Probability theory, Mathematical statistics. Manchester mathematicians have a long tradition of applying mathematics to industrial problems. Nowadays this involves not only the traditional applications in engineering and the physical sciences, but in the life sciences and the financial sector.
Some of the recent industrial partners include Qinetiq, Hewlett Packard, NAg, MathWorks, Philips Labs, Thales Underwater Systems, Rapiscan Systems and Schlumberger. The School of Mathematics entered research into three units of assessment. In Pure Mathematics 20% of submissions from 27 FTE category A staff were rated 4* and 40% 3*. In Applied Mathematics 25% of submissions from 28.8 FTE category A staff were rated 4* and 35%, 3*. And in Statistics and Operational Research, 20% of submissions from 10.9 FTE category A staff were rated 4* and 35%, 3*. At the time of merger the two departments that came together to form the school were of equal sizes and academic strengths, had a substantial record of collaboration including shared research seminar programmes and fourth year undergraduate and MSc programmes. Many famous mathematicians have worked at the precursor departments to the school. In 1885 Horace Lamb, famous for his contribution to fluid dynamics accepted a chair at the VUM and under his leadership the department grew rapidly.
Newman wrote:'His lecture courses were numerous, his books provide a record of his methods. Many of his students were engineers, they found in him a sympathetic guide, one who understood their difficulties and shared their interest in applications of mathematics to mechanics.'In 1907 famous analyst and number theorist John Edensor Littlewood was appointed to the Richardson Lectureship which he held for three years. During 1912–1913 the pioneer of weather forecasting and numerical analysis Lewis Fry Richardson worked at Manchester College of Science and Technology. Number theorist Louis J. Mordell joined the College in 1920. During this time he discovered the result for which he is best known, namely the finite basis theorem, which proved a conjecture of Henri Poincaré. Mordell went on to become Fielden Reader in Pure Mathematics at VUM in 1922 and held the Fielden Chair in 1923. Mordell built up the department, offering posts to a number of outstanding mathematicians, forced from posts on the continent of Europe.
He brought in Reinhold Baer, G. Billing, Paul Erdős, Chao Ko, Kurt Mahler, Beniamino Segre, he recruited J. A. Todd, Patrick du Val, Harold Davenport, L. C. Young, invited distinguished visitors. Although Manchester was to be known as the birthplace of the electronic computer, Douglas Hartree made an earlier contribution building a differential analyser in 1933; the machine was used for ballistics calculations as well calculating railway timetables. Mordell was succeeded by the famous topologist and cryptanalyst Max Newman in 1945 who, as head of department, transformed it into a centre of international renown. Undergraduate numbers increased from eight per year to 40 and 60. In 1948 Newman recruited Alan Turing as Reader in the department, he worked there until his death in 1954, completing some of his profound work on the foundations of computer science including Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Newman retired in 1964. From 1949 to 1960 M. S. Bartlett held the first chair in mathematical statistics at VUM, he is known for his contribution to the analysis of data with spatial and temporal
University of Manchester
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century; the main campus is south of Manchester city centre on Oxford Road. In 2016/17, the university had 40,490 students and 10,400 staff, making it the second largest university in the UK, the largest single-site university; the university had a consolidated income of £1 billion in 2017–18, of which £298.7 million was from research grants and contracts. It has the fourth-largest endowment of any university in the UK, after the universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh, it is a member of the worldwide Universities Research Association, the Russell Group of British research universities and the N8 Group. For 2018–19, the University of Manchester was ranked 29th in the world and 6th in the UK by QS World University Rankings.
In 2017 it was ranked 38th in the world and 6th in the UK by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 55th in the world and 8th in the UK by Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 59th in the world by U. S. News and World Report. Manchester was ranked 15th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 5th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework; the university owns and operates major cultural assets such as the Manchester Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library and Jodrell Bank Observatory and its Grade I listed Lovell Telescope. The University of Manchester has 25 Nobel laureates among its past and present students and staff, the fourth-highest number of any single university in the United Kingdom. Four Nobel laureates are among its staff – more than any other British university; the University of Manchester traces its roots to the formation of the Mechanics' Institute in 1824, its heritage is linked to Manchester's pride in being the world's first industrial city.
The English chemist John Dalton, together with Manchester businessmen and industrialists, established the Mechanics' Institute to ensure that workers could learn the basic principles of science. John Owens, a textile merchant, left a bequest of £96,942 in 1846 to found a college to educate men on non-sectarian lines, his trustees established Owens College in 1851 in a house on the corner of Quay Street and Byrom Street, the home of the philanthropist Richard Cobden, subsequently housed Manchester County Court. The locomotive designer, Charles Beyer became a governor of the college and was the largest single donor to the college extension fund, which raised the money to move to a new site and construct the main building now known as the John Owens building, he campaigned and helped fund the engineering chair, the first applied science department in the north of England. He left the college the equivalent of £10 million in his will in 1876, at a time when it was in great financial difficulty.
Beyer funded the total cost of construction of the Beyer building to house the biology and geology departments. His will funded Engineering chairs and the Beyer Professor of Applied mathematics; the university has a rich German heritage. The Owens College Extension Movement based their plans after a tour of German universities and polytechnics. Manchester mill owner, Thomas Ashton, chairman of the extension movement had studied at Heidelberg University. Sir Henry Roscoe studied at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen and they collaborated for many years on research projects. Roscoe promoted the German style of research led teaching that became the role model for the redbrick universities. Charles Beyer studied at Dresden Academy Polytechnic. There were many Germans on the staff, including Carl Schorlemmer, Britain's first chair in organic chemistry, Arthur Schuster, professor of Physics. There was a German chapel on the campus. In 1873 the college moved to new premises on Oxford Road, Chorlton-on-Medlock and from 1880 it was a constituent college of the federal Victoria University.
The university was established and granted a Royal Charter in 1880 becoming England's first civic university. By 1905, the institutions were active forces; the Municipal College of Technology, forerunner of UMIST, was the Victoria University of Manchester's Faculty of Technology while continuing in parallel as a technical college offering advanced courses of study. Although UMIST achieved independent university status in 1955, the universities continued to work together. However, in the late-20th century, formal connections between the university and UMIST diminished and in 1994 most of the remaining institutional ties were severed as new legislation allowed UMIST to become an autonomous university with powers to award its own degrees. A decade the development was reversed; the Victoria University of Manchester and the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology agreed to merge into a single institution in March 2003. Before the merger, Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST counted 23 Nobel Prize winners amongst their former staff and students, with two further Nobel laureates being subsequently added.
Manchester has traditionally been strong in the sciences. Notable scientists as
Old Trafford is a football stadium in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester and the home of Manchester United. With a capacity of 74,994, it is the largest club football stadium in the United Kingdom, the eleventh-largest in Europe, it is about 0.5 miles from the adjacent tram stop. Nicknamed "The Theatre of Dreams" by Bobby Charlton, Old Trafford has been United's home ground since 1910, although from 1941 to 1949 the club shared Maine Road with local rivals Manchester City as a result of Second World War bomb damage. Old Trafford underwent several expansions in the 1990s, 2000s, including the addition of extra tiers to the North and East Stands returning the stadium to its original capacity of 80,000. Future expansion is to involve the addition of a second tier to the South Stand, which would raise the capacity to around 88,000; the stadium's record attendance was recorded in 1939, when 76,962 spectators watched the FA Cup semi-final between Wolverhampton Wanderers and Grimsby Town. Old Trafford has hosted FA Cup semi-finals, England fixtures, matches at the 1966 World Cup and Euro 96 and the 2003 Champions League Final, as well as rugby league's annual Super League Grand Final and the final of two Rugby League World Cups.
It hosted football matches at the 2012 Summer Olympics, including women's international football for the first time in its history. Before 1902, Manchester United were known as Newton Heath, during which time they first played their football matches at North Road and Bank Street in Clayton. However, both grounds were blighted by wretched conditions, the pitches ranging from gravel to marsh, while Bank Street suffered from clouds of fumes from its neighbouring factories. Therefore, following the club's rescue from near-bankruptcy and renaming, the new chairman John Henry Davies decided in 1909 that the Bank Street ground was not fit for a team that had won the First Division and FA Cup, so he donated funds for the construction of a new stadium. Not one to spend money frivolously, Davies scouted around Manchester for an appropriate site, before settling on a patch of land adjacent to the Bridgewater Canal, just off the north end of the Warwick Road in Old Trafford. Designed by Scottish architect Archibald Leitch, who designed several other stadia, the ground was designed with a capacity of 100,000 spectators and featured seating in the south stand under cover, while the remaining three stands were left as terraces and uncovered.
Including the purchase of the land, the construction of the stadium was to have cost £60,000 all told. However, as costs began to rise, to reach the intended capacity would have cost an extra £30,000 over the original estimate and, at the suggestion of club secretary J. J. Bentley, the capacity was reduced to 80,000. At a time when transfer fees were still around the £1,000 mark, the cost of construction only served to reinforce the club's "Moneybags United" epithet, with which they had been tarred since Davies had taken over as chairman. In May 1908, Archibald Leitch wrote to the Cheshire Lines Committee – who had a rail depot adjacent to the proposed site for the football ground – in an attempt to persuade them to subsidise construction of the grandstand alongside the railway line; the subsidy would have come to the sum of £10,000, to be paid back at the rate of £2,000 per annum for five years or half of the gate receipts for the grandstand each year until the loan was repaid. However, despite guarantees for the loan coming from the club itself and two local breweries, both chaired by club chairman John Henry Davies, the Cheshire Lines Committee turned the proposal down.
The CLC had planned to build a new station adjacent to the new stadium, with the promise of an anticipated £2,750 per annum in fares offsetting the £9,800 cost of building the station. The station – Trafford Park – was built, but further down the line than planned; the CLC constructed a modest station with one timber-built platform adjacent to the stadium and this opened on 21 August 1935. It was named United Football Ground, but was renamed Old Trafford Football Ground in early 1936, it was served on match days only by a shuttle service of steam trains from Manchester Central railway station. It is known as Manchester United Football Ground. Construction was carried out by Messrs Brameld and Smith of Manchester and development was completed in late 1909; the stadium hosted its inaugural game on 19 February 1910, with United playing host to Liverpool. However, the home side were unable to provide their fans with a win to mark the occasion, as Liverpool won 4–3. A journalist at the game reported the stadium as "the most handsomest, the most spacious and the most remarkable arena I have seen.
As a football ground it is unrivalled in the world, it is an honour to Manchester and the home of a team who can do wonders when they are so disposed". Before the construction of Wembley Stadium in 1923, the FA Cup Final was hosted by a number of different grounds around England including Old Trafford; the first of these was the 1911 FA Cup Final replay between Bradford City and Newcastle United, after the original tie at Crystal Palace finished as a no-score draw after extra time. Bradford won the goal scored by Jimmy Speirs, in a match watched by 58,000 people; the ground's second FA Cup Final was the 1915 final between Sheffield Chelsea. Sheffield United won the match 3–0 in front of nearly 50,000 spectators, most of whom were in the military, leading to the final being nicknamed "the Khaki Cup Final". On 27 December 1920, Old Trafford played host to its largest pre-Second World War attend
George Tunstal Redmayne
George Tunstal Redmayne, more G T Redmayne, was the youngest of four sons of Giles Redmayne and his wife, Margareta Robey. He was born in London and attended Tonbridge School for two years before being educated by private tutors, his father was a wealthy linen draper and silk mercer who owned a house in London and Brathay Hall in the Lake District where he employed architect, Alfred Waterhouse in the mid-1850s. George Redmayne remained with him as his assistant, he married Waterhouse's sister, Katherine, in 1870 and they had two sons, Martin, in 1871, Leonard, in 1877. Redmayne died at his residence, Great Stoakley in Haselmere in 1912. Redmayne ran Waterhouse's Manchester office, he started an independent practice in Manchester in the late 1860s and in 1869 had an office in the Royal Insurance Buildings in King Street. He continued to practice in Manchester until 1894. Waterhouse proposed him as an Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1872 and as a fellow in 1877, he was President of Manchester Society of Architects in 1886.
Among his commissions in Manchester were the Neo-Gothic St Andrew's Chambers on the corner of Albert Square built in 1874 for Scottish Widows Life Assurance Society and the Manchester School of Art in Cavendish Street built in 1880-1 in the Neo-Gothic style. He designed St Chrysostom's Church, built between 1874 and 1877 in Victoria Park where he designed Dalton Hall, a university hall of residence, in 1882. All these buildings are designated Grade II Listed buildings by English Heritage. 1873 – Workshops for The Outdoor Blind, Lancashire
School of Materials, University of Manchester
The School of Materials, at the University of Manchester is a school of Materials Science at the University of Manchester. The school is one of the largest departments in Europe; this is reflected by an annual research income of around £7m, 60 academic staff, a population of 150 research students and 60 postdoctoral research staff. The School offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in all aspects of materials including materials engineering, corrosion protection, technical textiles and business. In the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise both the Material Science and Corrosion and Protection centre gained the highest rating, 5*; the School of Materials has been ranked first for research power in the UK. The school is unusual in that the Materials Science departments at University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester were joint before the merger of those two institutions in 2004; the School incorporates the Textiles, Paper Science and Corrosion & Protection departments which were part of UMIST.
As of 2016 the head of school is Professor William Sampson. From 2011 to 2015 the head of School was Professor Paul O'Brien FRS. Other senior academic staff include Philip J. Withers FRS, the Regius Professor of Materials and Sarah Haigh; the Manchester Materials Science centre was one of the main buildings of the school until its demolition in 2016. As of 2016 the centre will be replaced with the Manchester Engineering Campus Development
National Heritage List for England
The National Heritage List for England is England’s official list of buildings, monuments and gardens, wrecks and World Heritage Sites. It is maintained by Historic England and brings together these different designations as a single resource though they vary in the type of legal protection afforded to each. Conservation areas do not appear on the NHLE since they are designated by the relevant local planning authority; the passage of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 established the first part of what the list is today, it established a list of 50 prehistoric monuments which were protected by the state. Further amendments to this act increased the levels of protection and added more monuments to the list; the Town and Country Planning Acts created the first listed buildings and the process for adding properties to it. As of 2018, more than 600,000 properties are listed individually; each year additional properties are added to the National Register as part of the different constituent registers that are part of the list.
The National Heritage List for England was launched in 2011 as the statutory list of all designated historic places including listed buildings and scheduled monuments. The list is managed by Historic England, is available as an on-line database with 400,000 listed buildings, registered parks and battlefields, protected shipwrecks and scheduled monuments. A unique reference number, the NHLE Code, is used to refer to the related database entry, such as 1285296 – this example is for Douglas House. Template:National Heritage List for England — the template used for generating a formatted citation containing the targeted external link. Historic England.org: National Heritage List for England