The Mughal Emperors, from the early 16th century to the mid 19th century and ruled the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The Mughals were a branch of the Timurid dynasty of Turco-Mongol origin from Central Asia, their power dwindled during the 18th century and the last emperor was deposed in 1857, with the establishment of the British Raj. Mughal emperors were of direct descent from Timur, affiliated with Genghis Khan, because of Tamerlane’s marriage with a Genghisid princess; the Mughals had significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances, as emperors were born to Rajput and Persian princesses. Only the first two Mughal emperors and Humayun, were Central Asian, whereas Akbar was half-Persian, Jahangir was half-Rajput and quarter-Persian, Shah Jahan was three-quarters Rajput. During Aurangzeb's Islamic sharia based government, the empire, as the world's largest economy, worth over 25% of world GDP, controlled all of the Indian subcontinent, extending from Chittagong in the east to Kabul and Baluchistan in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri River basin in the south.
Its population at the time has been estimated as between 110 and 150 million, over a territory of more than 4 million square kilometres. It was the largest empire, centralized around India; the Mughal Empire was founded by Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur, a Timurid prince and ruler from Central Asia. Babur was a direct descendant to the Timurid Emperor Tamerlane on his father's side and had links to Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in Turkistan by Sheybani Khan, the 14-year old Prince Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions, he established himself in Kabul and pushed southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass. Babur's forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526; the preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India. The instability of the empire became evident under his son, driven out of India and into Persia by rebels.
Humayun's exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, led to increasing West Asian cultural influence in the Mughal court. The restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayun’s triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from an accident shortly afterwards. Humayun's son, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped consolidate the Mughal Empire in India. Through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions, controlled the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari river, he created a new class of nobility loyal to him from the military aristocracy of India's social groups, implemented a modern government and supported cultural developments. At the same time Akbar intensified trade with European trading companies; the Indian historian Abraham Eraly wrote that foreigners were impressed by the fabulous wealth of the Mughal court, but the glittering court hid darker realities, namely that about a quarter of the empire's gross national product was owned by 655 families while the bulk of India's 120 million people lived in appalling poverty.
After suffering what appears to have been an epileptic seizure in 1578 while hunting tigers, which he regarded as a religious experience, Akbar grew disenchanted with Islam, came to embrace a syncretistic mixture of Hinduism and Islam. Akbar allowed free expression of religion and attempted to resolve socio-political and cultural differences in his empire by establishing a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi, with strong characteristics of a ruler cult, he left his successors an internally stable state, in the midst of its golden age, but before long signs of political weakness would emerge. Akbar's son, ruled the empire at its peak, but he was addicted to opium, neglected the affairs of the state, came under the influence of rival court cliques. During the reign of Jahangir's son, Shah Jahan, the culture and splendour of the luxurious Mughal court reached its zenith as exemplified by the Taj Mahal; the maintenance of the court, at this time, began to cost more than the revenue. Shah Jahan's eldest son, the liberal Dara Shikoh, became regent in 1658, as a result of his father's illness.
However, a younger son, allied with the Islamic orthodoxy against his brother, who championed a syncretistic Hindu-Muslim religion and culture, ascended to the throne. Aurangzeb had him executed. Although Shah Jahan recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and had him imprisoned. During Aurangzeb's reign, the empire gained political strength once more, it became the world's largest economy, over a quarter of the world GDP, but his establishment of Sharia caused huge controversies. Aurangzeb expanded the empire to include the whole of South Asia, but at his death in 1707, many parts of the empire were in open revolt. Aurangzeb's attempts to reconquer his family's ancestral lands in Central Asia were not successful while his successful conquest of the Deccan region proved to be a Pyrrhic victory that cost the empire in both blood and treasure. A further problem for Aurangzeb was the army had always been based upon the land-owning aristocracy of northern India who provided the cavalry for the c
A mohur is a gold coin, minted by several governments, including British India and some of the princely states which existed alongside it, the Mughal Empire, Kingdom of Nepal, Afghanistan. It was equivalent in value to fifteen silver rupees, it was last minted in British India in 1918, but some princely states continued to issue the coins until their accession to India after 1947. Similar coins were issued by the British authorities in denominations of 2⁄3 mohur, 1⁄3 mohur and the double mohur, some of the princely states issued half-mohur coins; the mohur coin was first introduced by Sher Shah Suri during his rule in India between 1540 and 1545 and was a gold coin weighing 169 grains. He introduced copper coins called dam and silver coins called rupiya that weighed 178 grains. On, the Mughal emperors standardized this coinage of tri-metallism across the sub-continent in order to consolidate the monetary system; the word mohur or mohor is from the Persian word muhr, which means "seal" and is cognate with the Sanskrit word mudra which means "seal".
Gold mohurs issued by the Moghul Empire, the British East India Company or the British Crown are valuable collector items and sell in auctions for high prices. The double mohur with a value of 30 rupees is the highest denomination circulating coin issued till date. An 1835 double mohur was sold at a Bangalore auction for Rs. 11.5 lakhs making it the highest coin bid in India. Double eagle History of the rupee Dam Dam Nepalese mohar Krugerrand
History of the rupee
The history of the Rupee traces back to the Ancient India in circa 6th century BC. Ancient India was the earliest issuers of coins in the world, along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters; the word "rupee" is derived from a Sanskrit word "rūpya", which means "wrought silver, a coin of silver", in origin an adjective meaning "shapely", with a more specific meaning of "stamped, impressed", whence "coin". It is derived from the noun rūpa "shape, image"; the word rūpa itself could have Dravidian roots. Vedic origin is more as Sanskrit rūpa, n.m. A form, beauty, rūpaka adjective and n.m. A particular coin Pañcatantra, rūpya, * rūpiya -, adj. beautiful. N. silver Mahabharata.http://dsal.uchicago.edu. "Etymology of rupee". Retrieved 10 November 2013.</ref> Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya, mentions silver coins as rūpyarūpa, other types including gold coins, copper coins and lead coins are mentioned. Rūpa means example, rūpyarūpa, rūpya -- wrought silver, rūpa -- form.
Sher Shah Suri, during his five-year rule from 1540 to 1545, set up a new civic and military administration and issued a coin of silver, weighing 178 grains, termed the Rupiya. The silver coin remained in use during Maratha era as well as in British India. Among the earliest issues of paper rupees include the Bank of Hindostan, the General Bank of Bengal and Bihar, the Bengal Bank; the Indian rupee was a silver-based currency during much of the 19th century, which had severe consequences on the standard value of the currency, as stronger economies were on the gold standard. During British rule, the first decade of independence, the rupee was subdivided into 16 annas; each anna was subdivided into 4 paisas. So one rupee was equal to 64 pice In 1957, decimalisation occurred and the rupee was divided into 100 naye paise. After a few years, the initial "naye" was dropped. For many years in the early and mid-20th century, the Indian rupee was the official currency in several areas that were controlled by the British and governed from India.
Ancient India in circa 6th century BC, was one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world, along with the Chinese wen and Lydian staters. The first "rupee" is believed to have been introduced by Sher Shah Suri, based on a ratio of 40 copper pieces per rupee; the word rupiya is derived from word rūpa, which means "wrought silver, a coin of silver", in origin an adjective meaning "shapely", with a more specific meaning of "stamped, impressed", hence a "coin". It is derived from the noun rūpa "shape, image". Arthashastra, written by Chanakya, prime minister to the first Maurya emperor Chandragupta Maurya, mentions silver coins as rūpyarūpa, other types of coins including gold coins, copper coins and lead coins are mentioned. Rūpa means example, rūpyarūpa, rūpya -- wrought silver, rūpa -- form. In the intermediate times there is no fixed monetary system as reported by the Da Tang Xi Yu Ji. During his five-year rule from 1540 to 1546, Sher Shah Suri set up a new civic and military administration and issued a coin of silver, weighing 178 grains, termed the Rupiya.
The silver coin remained in use during the Mughal period, the Maratha era and in British India, as well. The British settlements in Western India, South India, the Eastern Province of Bengal independently developed different coinages in consonance with the local acceptability of the coins for the purposes of trade. There are many fake coins of East India Company, with Indian gods depicted on the obverse side as shown in side-bar. Original East India Company coins show only the coat of arms of the East India Company; the coins of Bengal were developed in the Mughal style and those of Madras in a South Indian style. The English coins of Western India developed along Mughal as well as English patterns, it was only in 1717 AD that the English obtained permission from the Emperor Farrukh Siyar to coin Mughal money at the Bombay mint. The British gold coins were termed Carolina, the silver coins Anglina, the copper coins Cupperoon and tin coins Tinny. By the early 1830, the English had become the dominant power in India.
The Coinage Act of 1835 provided for uniform coinage throughout India. The new coins had the effigy of William IV on the obverse and the value on the reverse in English and Persian; the coins issued after 1840 bore the portrait of Queen Victoria. The first coinage under the crown was issued in 1862 and in 1877 Queen Victoria assumed the title the Empress of India; the gold silver ratio expanded during 1870-1910. Unlike India, her colonial master Britain was on gold standard. To meet the Home Charges the colonial government had to remit a larger number of rupees and this necessitated increased taxation and unrest; the 1911 accession to the throne of the King-Emperor George V led to the famous "pig rupee". On the coin, the King appeared wearing the chain of the Order of the Indian Elephant. Through poor engraving, the elephant looked much like a pig; the Muslim population was enraged and the image had to be redesigned. Acute shortage of silver during the First World War, led to the introduction of paper currency of One Rupee and Two and a half Rupees.
The silver coins of smaller denominations were issued in cupro-nickel. The compulsion of the Second World War led to experiments in coinage where the standard rupee was replaced by
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Rupee is the common name for the currencies of India, Indonesia, the Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka, of former currencies of Afghanistan, Burma, British East Africa, German East Africa, the Trucial States, all Gulf Arab Countries. In Indonesia and the Maldives the unit of currency is known as rupiah and rufiyaa also derived from the Sanskrit rūpya; the Indian rupees and Pakistani rupees are subdivided into one hundred pice. The Mauritian and Sri Lankan rupees subdivide into 100 cents; the Nepalese rupee subdivides into four Sukaas. The word "rupee" is derived from the Sanskrit term rūpya which means "wrought silver, a coin of silver", in origin an adjective meaning "shapely", with a more specific meaning of "stamped, impressed", whence "coin", it is derived from the noun rūpa "shape, image". The word rūpa is further identified as related to the Tamil root uruppu, which means "a member of the body"; the word rūpam is rooted in Tamil as uru derived from ur which itself is rooted in ul meaning "appear".
Rupiya was first named to a silver coin weighing 178 grains minted in northern India by Emperor Sher Shah Suri during his brief rule between 1540 and 1545. Suri introduced copper coins called dam and gold coins called mohur that weighed 169 grains; the Indian rupee was re-introduced in Medieval times and termed as rupiya, the silver coin, by Sher Shah Suri, continued by the Mughal rulers. The history of the rupee traces back to Ancient India circa 3rd century BC. Ancient India was one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world, along with the Lydian staters, several other Middle Eastern coinages and the Chinese wen; the term is from a Sanskrit term for silver coin, from Sanskrit rūpa, beautiful form. Both the Kabuli rupee and the Kandahari rupee were used as currency in Afghanistan prior to 1891, when they were standardized as the Afghan rupee; the Afghan rupee, subdivided into 60 paisas, was replaced by the Afghan afghani in 1925. Until the middle of the 20th century, Tibet's official currency was known as the Tibetan rupee.
The Indian rupee was the official currency of Dubai and Qatar until 1959, when India created a new Gulf rupee to hinder the smuggling of gold. The Gulf rupee was legal tender until 1966, when India devalued the Indian rupee and a new Qatar-Dubai riyal was established to provide economic stability. In East Africa and Mesopotamia, the rupee and its subsidiary coinage was current at various times; the usage of the rupee in East Africa extended from Somalia in the north to as far south as Natal. In Mozambique, the British India rupees were overstamped, in Kenya, the British East Africa Company minted the rupee and its fractions, as well as pice; the rise in the price of silver after the First World War caused the rupee to rise in value to two shillings sterling. In 1920 in British East Africa, the opportunity was taken to introduce a new florin coin, hence bringing the currency into line with sterling. Shortly after that, the florin was split into two East African shillings; this assimilation to sterling did not, happen in British India itself.
In Somalia, the Italian colonial authority minted'rupia' to the same standard and called the pice'besa'. The Straits Settlements were an outlier of the British East India Company; the Spanish dollar had taken hold in the Straits Settlements by the time the British arrived in the 19th century. The East India Company tried to introduce the rupee in its place; these attempts were resisted by the locals, by 1867 when the British government took over direct control of the Straits Settlements from the East India Company, attempts to introduce the rupee were abandoned. The rupee was divided into 16 annas, 64 paise, or 192 pies; each circulating coin of British India, until the rupee was decimalised, had a different name in practice. A paisa was equal to three pies and six damaris. Other coins for two paisas, two annas, four annas, eight annas were in use until decimalization in 1961; the names of these coins denote the numeral of their value except taka. While the word taka was used in East Pakistan, alternatively for rupee, the two-paise coin was called a taka in West Pakistan.
Ṭaṅka is an ancient Sanskrit word for money. In India presently, 50 paise coin is the lowest valued legal tender. Coins of 1, 2, 5, 10 rupees and bank notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 2000 rupees are in use for cash transaction. A taka in West Pakistan was worth two paises while this word was used alternatively for rupee in East Pakistan. After its independence, Bangladesh started to call its currency "taka" in 1971. Early 19th-century East India Company rupees were used in Australia for a limited period. Decimalisation occurred in Ceylon in 1969, in India in 1957, in Pakistan in 1961. Since 1957 an Indian rupee is divided into 100 paise; the decimalized paisa was officially named'naya paisa' meaning the "new paisa" to distinguish it from the erstwhile paisa which had a higher value of 1⁄64 rupee. The word'naya' was dropped in 1964 and since it is known as paisa; the issuance of the Indian currency is controlled by the Reserve Bank of India, whereas in Pakistan it is controlled by State Bank of Pakistan.
The most common
Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri, born Farīd Khān, was the founder of the Suri Empire in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its capital in Sasaram in modern-day Bihar. An ethnic Afghan Pashtun, Sher Shah took control of the Mughal Empire in 1538. After his accidental death in 1545, his son Islam Shah became his successor, he first served as a private before rising to become a commander in the Mughal army under Babur and the governor of Bihar. In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty. A brilliant strategist, Sher Shah proved himself as a gifted administrator as well as a capable general, his reorganization of the empire laid the foundations for the Mughal emperors, notably Akbar, son of Humayun. During his seven-year rule from 1538 to 1545, he set up a new civic and military administration, issued the first Rupiya from "Taka" and re-organised the postal system of the Indian Subcontinent, he further developed Humayun's Dina-panah city and named it Shergarh and revived the historical city of Pataliputra, in decline since the 7th century CE, as Patna.
He extended the Grand Trunk Road from Chittagong in the frontiers of the province of Bengal in northeast India to Kabul in Afghanistan in the far northwest of the country. Sher Shah Suri was born in Sasaram, a city in the state of Bihar in India, while he called Rohri, a village in the Dera Ismail Khan district of Pakistan, his ancestral home, as that's from where his grandfather, Ibrahim Khan Suri, moved with his father Hassan, his surname'Suri' was taken from his Sur tribe. The name Sher was conferred upon him for his courage, when as a young man, he killed a tiger that leapt upon the king of Bihar, his grandfather Ibrahim Khan Suri was a landlord in Narnaul area and represented Delhi rulers of that period. Mazar of Ibrahim Khan Suri still stands as a monument in Narnaul. Tarikh-i Khan Jahan Lodi. confirm this fact. However, the online Encyclopædia Britannica states that he was born in Sasaram, in the Rohtas district, he was one of about eight sons of Mian Hassan Khan Suri, a prominent figure in the government of Bahlul Khan Lodi in Narnaul Pargana.
Sher shah belonged to the Pashtun Sur tribe. His grandfather, Ibrahim Khan Suri, was a noble adventurer from Roh, recruited much earlier by Sultan Bahlul Lodi of Delhi during his long contest with the Jaunpur Sultanate, it was at the time of this bounty of Sultán Bahlol, that the grandfather of Sher Sháh, by name Ibráhím Khán Súri,* with his son Hasan Khán, the father of Sher Sháh, came to Hindu-stán from Afghánistán, from a place, called in the Afghán tongue "Shargarí,"* but in the Multán tongue "Rohrí." It is a ridge, a spur of the Sulaimán Mountains, about six or seven kos in length, situated on the banks of the Gumal. They entered into the service of Muhabbat Khán Súr, Dáúd Sáhú-khail, to whom Sultán Bahlol had given in jágír the parganas of Hariána and Bahkála, etc. in the Panjáb, they settled in the pargana of Bajwára. During his early age, Farid was given a village in Fargana, Delhi by Omar Khan Sarwani, the counselor and courtier of Bahlul Khan Lodi. Farid Khan and his father, a jagirdar of Sasaram in Bihar, who had several wives, did not get along for a while so he decided to run away from home.
When his father discovered that he fled to serve Jamal Khan, the governor of Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh, he wrote Jamal Khan a letter that stated:Faríd Khán, being annoyed with me, has gone to you without sufficient cause. I trust in your kindness to appease him, send him back. Jamal Khan had advised Farid to return home but he refused. Farid replied in a letter:If my father wants me back to instruct me in learning, there are in this city many learned men: I will study here. Farid Khan started his service under the Mughal Governor of Bihar; because of his valour, Bahar Khan rewarded him the title Sher Khan. After the death of Bahar Khan, Sher Khan became the regent ruler of Jalal Khan. Sensing the growth of Sher Shah's power in Bihar, Jalal sought the assistance of Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah, the independent Sultan of Bengal. Ghiyasuddin sent an army under General Ibrahim Khan. But, Sher Khan defeated the force at the battle of Surajgarh in 1534 after forming an alliance with Ujjainiya Rajputs and other local chiefdoms.
Thus he achieved complete control of Bihar. In 1538, Sher Khan defeated Mahmud Shah, but he could not capture the kingdom because of the sudden expedition of Emperor Humayun. On 26 June 1539, Sher Khan defeated him. Assuming the title Farīd al-Dīn Shēr Shah, he defeated Humayun once again at Kannauj in May 1540 and forced him out of India. After the death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat in 1537, Qadir Shah became the new ruler of Malwa Sultanate, he turned for support towards the Rajput and Muslim noblemen of the Khilji rule of Malwa. Bhupat Rai and Puran Mal, sons of Raja Silhadi accepted service under the regime of Malwa in recognition of their interest in the Raisen region. By 1540, Bhupat Rai had died and Puran Mal had become the dominant force in eastern Malwa. In 1542, Sher Shah conquered Malwa without a fight and Qadir Shah fled to Gujarat, he appointed Shuja'at Khan as the gover