Diu district is one of the two districts of the union territory of Daman and Diu of India. It is the ninth least populous district in the country; the district was part of the Saurashtra region of Gujarat. Mirroring the system of administrative division in Portugal, Diu district was established as an administrative division of the Portuguese State of India in the first half of the 19th century, it was headed by a district governor, subordinate to the governor-general of Portuguese India in Goa. The district included the single municipality of Diu, further subdivided into civil parishes, it remained an overseas territory of Portugal until it was annexed by Indian forces on 19 December 1961. From 1961-87, it was a part of the union territory of Goa and Diu. In 1987, it became a part of the newly formed union territory of Diu. Diu district occupies an area of 40 square kilometres,It consists of Diu Island and a part on the mainland. 20 km East of Diu Island, is the village of Simbor. Diu Island is the place.
Diu Fort is located on Diu Island. The area on the mainland borders Gir Somnath district of Gujarat, it contains the village of Ghoghla. The village lies on the mainland opposite the eastern end of the island. According to the 2011 census Diu district has a population of 52,056 equal to the nation of Saint Kitts and Nevis; this gives it a ranking of 631st in India. The district has a population density of 1,301 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 17.73%. Diu has a sex ratio of 1030 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 83.36%. Official website
Bombay High Court
Bombay High Court is one of the oldest High Courts of India. It is located in Maharashtra, its jurisdiction covers the states of Maharashtra and Goa, the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The High Court has regional branches at Nagpur and Aurangabad in Maharashtra and Panaji, the capital of Goa; the first Chief Justice, the Attorney General and Solicitor General of Independent India were from this court. Since India's Independence, 22 judges from this court have been elevated to the Supreme Court and 8 of them have been Chief Justice of India; the court has Original Jurisdiction in addition to its Appellate. The decisions of this court can be appealed only to the Supreme Court of India; the Bombay High Court has a sanctioned strength of 94 judges. The building is part of The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai, added to the list of World Heritage Sites in 2018. A. S. Oka The Bombay High Court was one of the three High Courts in India established at the Presidency Towns by Letters patent granted by Queen Victoria, bearing date June 26, 1862.
It was inaugurated on August 14, 1862 under the High Courts Act, 1861. The work on the present building of the High Court was commenced in April 1871 and completed in November 1878, it was designed by British engineer Col. James A. Fuller; the first sitting in this building was on 10 January 1879. Justice M. C. Chagla was the first Indian permanent Chief Justice of Bombay High Court after independence Architecture: Gothic revival in the Early English style, it is 187 feet wide. To the west of the central tower are two octagonal towers; the statues of Justice and Mercy are atop this building. In 2016, it was announced that the premises of the Bombay High Court would be shifting to Bandra Kurla Complex; the 125th anniversary of the building was marked by the release of a book, commissioned by the Bar Association, called "The Bombay High Court: The Story of the Building - 1878–2003" by local historians Rahul Mehrotra and Sharada Dwivedi. FR: Bombay Uchca Nyāyālaya) est l'une des plus anciennes hautes cours de l'Inde.
Il est situé à Mumbai, Maharashtra. Sa juridiction couvre les États du Maharashtra et de Goa, ainsi que les territoires de l'Union de Daman et Diu et de Dadra et Nagar Haveli. La Haute Cour a des antennes régionales à Nagpur et Aurangabad dans le Maharashtra et à Panaji, la capitale de Goa. Le premier juge en chef, le procureur général et le solliciteur général de l'Inde indépendante appartenait à cette cour. Depuis l'indépendance de l'Inde, 22 juges de cette cour ont été nommés à la Cour suprême et 8 d'entre eux ont été nommés juges en chef de l'Inde. Le tribunal a compétence initiale en plus de son appel. Les décisions de cette cour ne peuvent faire l'objet d'un appel que devant la Cour suprême de l'Inde. La Haute Cour de Bombay dispose d'un effectif sanctionné de 94 juges. Le bâtiment fait partie de l'ensemble victorien et art déco de Mumbai, qui a été ajouté à la liste des sites du patrimoine mondial en 2018. Although the name of the city was changed from Bombay to Mumbai in 1995, the Court as an institution did not follow suit and retained the name Bombay High Court.
Although, a bill to rename it as Mumbai High Court was approved by the Cabinet on July 5, 2016 along with the change of name of the Calcutta High Court and Madras High Court as Kolkata High Court and Chennai High Court the same is pending approval before the Parliament of India but may not be enacted for some time. In 2010, the High Court organized several functions to mark the completion of 150 years of establishment of the High Court. A special postal cover was released by Milind Deora, the Minister of State for Communications and Information Technology at the historical Central Court Hall of the High Court on 14 August 2012. An exhibition displaying important artifacts, royal charters, old maps and other documents of historical importance was inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Maharashtra, Prithviraj Chavan, in the Central Court Hall on 15 August 2012; the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh was the Chief Guest at the concluding ceremony of the year-long Sesquicentennial celebrations on 18 August 2012.
A book titled A Heritage of Judging: The Bombay High Court through one hundred and fifty years, edited by Dhananjaya Y. Chandrachud, Anoop V. Mohta and Roshan S. Dalvi was published by the Maharashtra Judicial Academy. In its illustrious history, the Bombay High Court has been the site for numerous noteworthy trials and court cases. Bal Gangadhar Tilak was tried a number of times in the Bombay high Court, but the most famous was his trial for sedition in the 1916 case Emperor v. Bal Gangadhar Tilak; the Bombay High Court saw the last case in the Indian Judicial System to use a jury in the famous K. M. Nanavati v. State of Maharashtra case of 1959. Bar Council had boycotted some judges of the High Court in 1991 under the leadership of Senior Counsel Iqbal Chagla. In 2011, a couple of petitions came to be filed challenging housing societies built by judges upon plots of land reserved for other purposes; the court has a Sanctioned strength of 94 judges. The court has a judge to people ratio of 1 to 1.61 million.
The total pending cases in High Court are about 4,64,074. The Judge to case ratio is 1:6630; the strength of judges in Maharashtra as on 01.01.2018 was 70 High Court Judges, 399 District Judges, 484 Senior Civil Judges and 1267 Junior Civil Judges against the sanctioned strength of 2642 judges. Thus the judge to people ratio of Maharashtra is 1:55000; the Law Commission in its 120th report has recommended a ratio of 1:20000. As on 01.03.2018 the number of practici
Dadra and Nagar Haveli
Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a union territory in western India. It is composed of two separate geographical entities: Nagar Haveli, wedged between Maharashtra and Gujarat, and, 1 km to the northwest, the smaller enclave of Dadra, surrounded by Gujarat. Silvassa is the capital of Nagar Haveli. Unlike the surrounding areas, this was ruled by the Portuguese from 1783 until the mid-20th century; the area of Dadra and Nagar Haveli is spread over 491 square kilometres. Its population density is 698 square kilometres. Though landlocked between Gujarat to the north and Maharashtra to the south, it is close to the western coast of India, the Arabian Sea can be reached via Vapi in Gujarat; the Union Territory comprises two separate geographical units. The larger part—Nagar Haveli—spans a C-shaped area upriver from the city of Daman on the coast, at the centre of which, straddling the border with Gujarat, is the Madhuban reservoir; the smaller enclave of Dadra is a short distance to the northwest. Dadra and Nagar Haveli is in the middle of the undulating watershed of the Daman Ganga River, which flows through Nagar Haveli and forms the short southern border of Dadra.
The towns of Dadra and Silvassa lie on the north bank of the river. The Western Ghats range rises to the east, the foothills of the range occupy the eastern portion of the district. Dadra and Nagar Haveli ranks fourth in area among the Union Territories and 32nd including the states, it is surrounded by Valsad District of Gujarat on the west and east, by Thane District of Maharashtra on the south and southeast. Maghval is a small enclave village belonging to Gujarat, located within Nagar Haveli, just south of Silvassa; the nearest railway station is Vapi in Gujarat on the Mumbai-Delhi route, about 18 km northwest of Silvassa. Mumbai is 180 km from Silvassa. Surat city is about 140 km away. Mumbai and Surat are the nearest airports; the stretch of the main southern area is hilly terrain towards the northeast and east where it is surrounded by ranges of the Sahyadri mountains. The central alluvial region of the land is plain and the soil is fertile and rich; the river Damanganga rises in the Ghat 64 km from the western coast and discharges itself in the Arabian Sea at the port of Daman after crossing Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
Its three tributaries, Varna and Sakartond, join Daman Ganga within the territory. Dadra and Nagar Haveli lies within the North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests ecoregion, characterized by forests of teak and other dry-season deciduous trees. About 43% of the land is under forest cover. However, the reserved forest territory constitutes about 40% of the total geographical area; the protected forests constitute 2.45% of the total land area. According to satellite data taken in 2008, DNH has about 114 square kilometres of moderately dense forest and 94 square kilometres open forest. According to the Forest Survey of India, DNH has two major forest types: tropical moist deciduous forest and tropical dry deciduous forest; the major produce is general timber. Teak, khair and sisam are the major tree species in the region. Tree cover has been estimated around 27 km2 from the six-year data, around 5.5% of the total geographical area of DNH. The Dadra and Nagar Haveli Wildlife Sanctuary covers 91.39 square kilometers, or about 19% of the union territory's total area.
The sanctuary provides a habitat for leopard, striped hyena, golden jackal, four-horned antelope, sambar deer, chital deer, birds including black drongo, kingfisher, hoopoe, mynah and red jungle fowl. In 2014 an additional eco-sensitive area was designated in the 100-meter buffer zone around the wildlife sanctuary, with an area of 26.57 square kilometers. The rich biodiversity makes it a habitat for a variety of birds and animals and thus a destination for inland and coastal safari and eco-tourism. Silvassa's hills and wide, forested buffer land attract wildlife enthusiasts; the climate of Dadra and Nagar Haveli is typical of its type. Being near the coast, all but the sparsely inhabited easternmost parts have a typical north Indian Ocean maritime climate; the summers are hot and become in their part more humid with temperatures reaching as high as 39 °C in the month of May. The monsoon extends until September; the rainfall is brought by southwest monsoon winds. It is known as the Cherrapunji that covers the bulk of western India which produces most of the annual rainfall of 200–250 cm.
Winters are between maritime temperate and semi-tropical with temperatures ranging from 14 °C to 30 °C, reliably, as with the monsoon, with scant deviation from this range. The history of Dadra and Nagar Haveli begins with the defeat of the Koli chieftains of the region by the invading Rajput kings. In the year 1262 a Rajput prince from Rajasthan named Ramsinh established himself as the ruler of Ramnagar, the present-day Dharampur, which consisted of 8 parganas and assumed the title Maharana. Nagar Haveli was one of the parganas, its capital was Silvassa. In 1360 Rana Dharamshah I shifted his capital from Nagar Haveli to Nagar Fatehpur. With the rise of Maratha power, Shivaji viewed Ramnagar as an important locality, he captured the region, but S
Goa is a state on the south-western coast of India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, separated from the Deccan highlands of the state of Karnataka by the Western Ghats. It is bounded by Maharashtra to the north and Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea forming its western coast, it is the fourth-smallest by population. Goa has the highest GDP per capita among all Indian states, two and a half times that of the country, it was ranked the best-placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators. Panaji is the state's capital; the historic city of Margao still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese, who first landed in the early 16th century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter. Goa is a former Portuguese province. Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year for its white sand beaches, places of worship and World Heritage-listed architecture.
It has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, a biodiversity hotspot. In ancient literature, Goa was known by many names, such as Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Govapuri and Gomantak. Other historical names for Goa are Sindapur and Mahassapatam. Prehistory Rock art engravings found in Goa exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India. Goa, situated within the Shimoga-Goa Greenstone Belt in the Western Ghats, yields evidence for Acheulean occupation. Rock art engravings are present on laterite platforms and granite boulders in Usgalimal near the west flowing Kushavati river and in Kajur. In Kajur, the rock engravings of animals and other designs in granite have been associated with what is considered to be a megalithic stone circle with a round granite stone in the centre. Petroglyphs, stone-axe, choppers dating to 10,000 years ago have been found in various locations in Goa, including Kazur and the Mandovi-Zuari basin. Evidence of Palaeolithic life is visible at Dabolim, Shigao, Arli, Diwar, Sanguem and Aquem-Margaon.
Difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock compounds poses a problem for determining the exact time period. Early Goan society underwent radical change when Indo-Aryan and Dravidian migrants amalgamated with the aboriginal locals, forming the base of early Goan culture. Early History In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa. Chutus of Karwar ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of Kolhapur, Western Kshatrapas, the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav clans of Gujarat, the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris; the rule passed to the Chalukyas of Badami, who controlled it between 578 and 753, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern Silharas of Konkan ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas.
Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani. They patronised Jainism in Goa. In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate; the kingdom's grip on the region was weak, by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I of the Vijayanagara empire. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa. Portuguese period In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yusuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya, they set up a permanent settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of Portuguese rule in Goa that would last for four and a half centuries, until its annexation in 1961; the Goa Inquisition, a formal tribunal, was established in 1560, was abolished in 1812.
In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to Panaji from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most of the present-day state limits; the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilised and formed the Estado da Índia Portuguesa or State of Portuguese India, of which Goa was the largest territory. Contemporary period After India gained independence from the British in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army invaded with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, of Daman and Diu islands into the Indian union. Goa, along with Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of India. On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, Goa was made India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory. Goa encompasses an area of 3,702 km2, it lies between the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes 73°40′33″ E and 74°20′13″ E. Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan, an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman
The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Goa and Daman encompasses the state of Goa and the Union Territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli in India. The ecclesiastical province of Goa and Daman includes Sindhudurg; the Archbishop of Goa holds the titles of Primate of the East and Patriarch of the East Indies. The diocese is under the Roman Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, it is one of the oldest dioceses in terms of activity in the East Indes, with its origins linked to the arrival of the Portuguese on the Malabar Coast. The current Metropolitan Archbishop and Patriarch of the East Indies is Filipe Neri Ferrão; the archbishop's cathedral see, the Se Cathedral, or Sé Catedral de Santa Catarina, is in the city of Old Goa, Goa. The diocese has a minor basilica, the Basilica of Bom Jesus in Old Goa; the world heritage site composed of the Churches and Convents of Goa falls under its ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The former Cathedral of Bom Jesus of the now-suppressed Diocese of Daman in Daman The archdiocese comprises the following territories in India: the State of Goa and the territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.
As per 2014, it pastorally served 641,231 Catholics on 4,194 km² in 167 parishes and 124 missions with 715 priests, 1,503 lay religious and 80 seminarians. The Metropolitan has a single Suffragan see: Roman Catholic Diocese of Sindhudurg, which includes the districts of Sindhudurg and Kolhapur in Maharashtra state, except the St. Francis Xavier parish in the city of Kolhapur, it was created on July 2005, when it was split off from the Roman Catholic Diocese of Poona. It was a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Bombay until 25 November 2006, when Pope Benedict XVI transferred it to the newly established metropolitan province of Goa and Damão. Between 1975 and 2006 the Patriarch, having no suffragan, was not entitled to wear the pallium. After the Portuguese conquest of Goa by Afonso de Albuquerque in 1510, King Manuel I built a chapel there in honour of St. Catherine named patron of the city in 1518. Christians in the region were given into the charge of Dom Duarte Nunes O. P, the Franciscan bishop of the titular see of Laodicea.
He governed until 1527 was succeeded by Dom Fernando Vaqueiro OFM, the Franciscan titular bishop of Aureopolis, from 1529 to 1535. King John III of Portugal commissioned the construction of a cathedral in Goa and Pope Clement VII founded the Diocese of Goa on January 31, 1533, with the papal bull titled Romani Pontificis Circumspectio; the jurisdiction of the new diocese at the time stretched from the Cape of Good Hope to China and Japan. On November 3, 1534 the creation of the diocese was confirmed by the Aequum reputamus bull of Pope Paul III, since Clement VII's death had prevented the publication of its establishment; the diocese was a suffragan of the diocese of Funchal. At the request of King Sebastian, on February 4, 1557 Pope Paul IV separated the Goan diocese from the ecclesiastical province of Lisbon and raised it to a metropolitan archdiocese, with the suffragan dioceses of Cochin and Malacca. In the course of time other dioceses were included in the metropolitan area of Goa: Macau, Funai in Japan and Meliapor in India and Beijing in China and Mozambique in Africa.
Daman in India is still included in Goa. With the brief of December 13, 1572 Pope Gregory XIII granted the archbishop of Goa the title of Primate of the East; this is. By 1857, Goa had gained several suffragan dioceses in the Indian subcontinent but retained only Macau and Mozambique outside that geographical area. On 23 January 1886, Pope Leo XIII, through the bull Humanae Salutis Auctor, invested the archbishop of Goa with the honorary title of Patriarch of the East Indies.x With the same bull, the diocese of Daman was established, to, attached the title of the Archdiocese of Cranganore, suppressed by the April 24, 1838 Multa praeclare decree of Pope Gregory XVI. These provisions had been made in the concordat between the Holy See and Portugal on 23 June 1886; the honorary title of patriarch recognized the primacy of honor of the archbishop of Goa among all the bishops of the East and the historical vastness of his jurisdiction, at a time when his jurisdiction was reduced. He enjoyed the privilege of presiding over all the synods of the East Indies When the diocese of Daman was dissolved on May 1, 1928 with Inter Apostolicam, the title of Cranganore was attached to the Goa archdiocese.
Thus, the archbishop of Goa came to be the titular archbishop of Cranganore. In 1940, Dili was placed as suffragan under Goa. In 1953 the archdiocese of Goa lost the suffragan dioceses of Cochin and Canara following the ecclesiastical territorial reorganization of the new Indian state. On December 19, 1961, the Indian Union annexed the territories of Goa, Daman and Diu; the following year the Patriarch Archbishop José Vieira Alvernaz left the territory. In 1965, the religious jurisdiction of Diu was entrusted to the Missionary Society of St Francis Xavier; the complexities of annexing Portuguese-ruled territories meant that the Vatican did not accept the resignation of the last patriarch until 1975. The dioceses of Dili and Macau were de-linked from the ecclesiastical province and placed directly beneath the Holy See. With the Quoniam Archdioecesi bull January 30, 1978, Pope Paul VI appointed Bishop Raul Nicolau Gonçalves as Ar
The Carnation Revolution known as the 25th of April, was a 25 April 1974 military coup in Lisbon which overthrew the authoritarian Estado Novo regime. The revolution began as a coup organised by the Armed Forces Movement, composed of military officers who opposed the regime, but it was soon coupled with an unanticipated, popular civil resistance campaign; the revolution led to the fall of the Estado Novo, the end of 48 years of authoritarian rule in Portugal, Portugal's withdrawal from its African colonies. Its name arose from the fact that no shots were fired, Celeste Caeiro offered carnations to the soldiers when the population took to the streets to celebrate the end of the dictatorship. In Portugal, 25 April is a national holiday. Since 1933, Portugual had been governed by an authoritarian dictatorship, the Estado Novo or New State; the Estado Novo, in turn, evolved from the Ditadura Nacional set up after the 28 May 1926 coup d'etat. The revolution changed the government to a democracy and produced enormous social, territorial and political changes.
These changes evolved during a two-year transitional period known as Processo Revolucionário Em Curso, characterised by social turmoil and power disputes between left- and right-wing political forces. Despite repeated radio appeals by the revolutionaries asking the population to stay home, thousands of Portuguese citizens descended on the streets and mingled with the military insurgents; the military-led coup returned democracy to Portugal, ending the unpopular Colonial War and replacing the Estado Novo regime and its secret police. It began as a protest by Portuguese Armed Forces captains against a law: the Dec Lei nº 353/73 of 1973. A group of low-ranking Portuguese officers organised as the Armed Forces Movement, including some who had fought pro-independence guerrillas in the Portuguese Empire's territories in Africa, overthrew the Estado Novo regime which had ruled Portugal since the 1930s. Portugal's new regime pledged to end the colonial wars, began negotiations with the African independence movements.
By the end of 1974, Portuguese troops were withdrawn from Portuguese Guinea and the latter was a UN member state. This was followed by the independence of Cape Verde, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and Angola in 1975; the Carnation Revolution led to Portugal's withdrawal from East Timor in south-east Asia. These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories, creating over a million Portuguese refugees — the retornados. Although PIDE killed four people before surrendering, the revolution was unusual because the revolutionaries did not use violence to achieve their goals. Holding red carnations, many people joined revolutionary soldiers on the streets of Lisbon in apparent joy and audible euphoria. Red is the colour of socialism and communism, the ideological tendencies of many anti-Estado Novo insurgents, it was the end of the Estado Novo, the dissolution of the Portuguese Empire. In the aftermath of the revolution, a new constitution was drafted, censorship was prohibited, free speech was permitted, political prisoners were released and the Portuguese overseas territories in sub-Saharan Africa were granted independence.
East Timor was offered independence, shortly before it was invaded by Indonesia. At the beginning of the 1970s, nearly a half-century of authoritarian rule weighed on Portugal. After the 28 May 1926 coup d'état, Portugal implemented an authoritarian regime incorporating social Catholicism and integralism. In 1933, the regime renamed Estado Novo. António de Oliveira Salazar was prime minister until 1968. Salazar was replaced in September 1968 by Marcello Caetano, deposed during the revolution. Portugal's Estado Novo government was tolerated by its NATO partners due to its anti-communist stance. Elections were contested. In 1958, General Humberto Delgado stood against the regime's presidential candidate, Américo Tomás, refused to allow his name to be withdrawn. Tomás won the election amidst claims of widespread electoral fraud. After the election, the Salazar government abandoned the practice of popularly electing the president and gave the task to the National Assembly, under the regime's control.
During Caetano's time in office, he made minor attempts at political reform that did not go nearly far enough for a generation that had no memory of the instability that preceded the 1926 coup. However these meager reforms were obstructed by Salazarist elements in the regime; the hardliners were supported by Tomás, unwilling to give Caetano as free a hand as Salazar had. The Estado Novo's political police, the PIDE (Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado
The State of India referred as the Portuguese State of India or Portuguese India, was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas. The first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, established his headquarters in Cochin. Subsequent Portuguese governors were not always of viceroy rank. After 1510, the capital of the Portuguese viceroyalty was transferred to Goa; until the 18th century, the Portuguese governor in Goa had authority over all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to southeast Asia. In 1752 Mozambique got its own separate government and in 1844 the Portuguese Government of India stopped administering the territory of Macau and Timor, its authority was confined to the colonial holdings on the Malabar coast of present-day India. At the time of the British Indian Empire's dissolution in 1947, Portuguese India was subdivided into three districts located on modern-day India's western coast, sometimes referred to collectively as Goa: namely Goa.
Portugal lost effective control of the enclaves of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in 1954, the rest of the overseas territory in December 1961, when it was taken by India after military action. In spite of this, Portugal only recognised Indian control in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution and the fall of the Estado Novo regime; the first Portuguese encounter with the subcontinent was on 20 May 1498 when Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on Malabar Coast. Anchored off the coast of Calicut, the Portuguese invited native fishermen on board and bought some Indian items. One Portuguese met with a Tunisian Muslim. On the advice of this man, Gama sent a couple of his men to Ponnani to meet with ruler of Calicut, the Zamorin. Over the objections of Arab merchants, Gama managed to secure a letter of concession for trading rights from the Zamorin, Calicut's Brahman ruler. But, the Portuguese were unable to pay the prescribed customs duties and price of his goods in gold. Calicut officials temporarily detained Gama's Portuguese agents as security for payment.
This, annoyed Gama, who carried a few natives and sixteen fishermen with him by force. Gama's expedition was successful beyond all reasonable expectation, bringing in cargo, worth sixty times the cost of the expedition. Pedro Álvares Cabral sailed to India, marking the arrival of Europeans to Brazil on the way, to trade for pepper and other spices and establishing a factory at Calicut, where he arrived on 13 September 1500. Matters worsened when the Portuguese factory at Calicut was attacked by surprise by the locals, resulting in the death of more than fifty Portuguese. Cabral was outraged by the attack on the factory and seized ten Arab merchant ships anchored in the harbour, killing about six hundred of their crew and confiscating their cargo before burning the ships. Cabral ordered his ships to bombard Calicut for an entire day in retaliation for the violation of the agreement. In Cochin and Cannanore Cabral succeeded in making advantageous treaties with the local rulers. Cabral started the return voyage on 16 January 1501 and arrived in Portugal with only 4 of 13 ships on 23 June 1501.
The Portuguese built the Pulicat fort with the help of the Vijayanagar ruler. Vasco da Gama sailed to India for a second time with 15 ships and 800 men, arriving at Calicut on 30 October 1502, where the ruler was willing to sign a treaty. Gama this time made a call to expel all Muslims from Calicut, vehemently turned down, he captured several rice vessels. He returned to Portugal in September 1503. On 25 March 1505, Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of India, on the condition that he would set up four forts on the southwestern Indian coast: at Anjediva Island, Cannanore and Quilon. Francisco de Almeida left Portugal with a fleet of 22 vessels with 1,500 men. On 13 September, Francisco de Almeida reached Anjadip Island, where he started the construction of Fort Anjediva. On 23 October, with the permission of the friendly ruler of Cannanore, he started building St. Angelo Fort at Cannanore, leaving Lourenço de Brito in charge with 150 men and two ships. Francisco de Almeida reached Cochin on 31 October 1505 with only 8 vessels left.
There he learned. He decided to send his son Lourenço de Almeida with 6 ships, who destroyed 27 Calicut vessels in the harbour of Quilon. Almeida took up residence in Cochin, he strengthened the Portuguese fortifications of Fort Manuel on Cochin. The Zamorin prepared a large fleet of 200 ships to oppose the Portuguese, but in March 1506 Lourenço de Almeida was victorious in a sea battle at the entrance to the harbour of Cannanore, the Battle of Cannanore, an important setback for the fleet of the Zamorin. Thereupon Lourenço de Almeida explored the coastal waters southwards to Colombo, in what is now Sri Lanka. In Cannanore, however, a new ruler, hostile to the Portuguese and friendly with the Zamorin, attacked the Portuguese garrison, leading to the Siege of Cannanore. In 1507 Almeida's mission was strengthened by the arrival of Tristão da Cunha's squadron. Afonso de Albuquerque's squadron had, split from that of Cunha off East Africa and was independently conquering territories in the Persian Gulf to the west.
In March 1508 a Portuguese squadron under command of Lourenço de Almeida was att