While the term is of modern coinage, the Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning during the Han dynasty. The Han dynasty expanded Central Asian sections of the routes around 114 BCE, largely through missions and explorations of the Chinese imperial envoy. The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products, though silk was certainly the major trade item exported from China, many other goods were traded, as well as religions, syncretic philosophies, and various technologies. Diseases, most notably plague, spread along the Silk Routes, in addition to economic trade, the Silk Road was a route for cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. The main traders during antiquity included the Chinese, Turkmens, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Armenians, Bactrians, in June 2014, UNESCO designated the Changan-Tianshan corridor of the Silk Road as a World Heritage Site. The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative Eurasian silk and horse trade, the German terms Seidenstraße and Seidenstraßen were coined by Ferdinand von Richthofen, who made seven expeditions to China from 1868 to 1872.
The term Silk Route is used, although the term was coined in the 19th century, it did not gain widespread acceptance in academia or popularity among the public until the 20th century. The first book entitled The Silk Road was by Swedish geographer Sven Hedin in 1938, the fall of the Soviet Union and Iron Curtain in 1989 led to a surge of public and academic interest in Silk Road sites and studies in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. Use of the term Silk Road is not without its detractors and he notes that traditional authors discussing East-West trade such as Marco Polo and Edward Gibbon never labelled any route as a silk one in particular. From the 2nd millennium BCE, nephrite jade was being traded from mines in the region of Yarkand, some remnants of what was probably Chinese silk dating from 1070 BCE have been found in Ancient Egypt. The Great Oasis cities of Central Asia played a role in the effective functioning of the Silk Road trade. This style is reflected in the rectangular belt plaques made of gold and bronze, with other versions in jade.
The tomb of a Scythian prince near Stuttgart, dated to the 6th century BCE, was excavated and found to have not only Greek bronzes but Chinese silks. Scythians accompanied the Assyrian Esarhaddon on his invasion of Egypt, soghdian Scythian merchants played a vital role in periods in the development of the Silk Road. By the time of Herodotus, the Royal Road of the Persian Empire ran some 2,857 km from the city of Susa on the Karun to the port of Smyrna on the Aegean Sea. It was maintained and protected by the Achaemenid Empire and had postal stations, by having fresh horses and riders ready at each relay, royal couriers could carry messages the entire distance in nine days, while normal travellers took about three months. The next major step in the development of the Silk Road was the expansion of the Greek empire of Alexander the Great into Central Asia and this became a major staging point on the northern Silk Route. They continued to expand eastward, especially during the reign of Euthydemus, there are indications that he may have led expeditions as far as Kashgar in Chinese Turkestan, leading to the first known contacts between [China and the West around 200 BCE
The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. The corresponding adjective is Middle-Eastern and the noun is Middle-Easterner. The term has come into usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Persians and Azeris constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population. Indigenous minorities of the Middle East include Jews and other Arameans, Berbers, Druze, Mandaeans, Shabaks, Tats, in the Middle East, there is a Romani community. European ethnic groups form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Franco-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are Bengalis as well as other Indians, Filipinos, Pakistanis, the history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. Most of the countries border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil. The term Middle East may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office, however, it became more widely known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to designate the area between Arabia and India.
During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but of its center, the Persian Gulf. Mahan first used the term in his article The Persian Gulf and International Relations, published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar, it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, mahans article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled The Middle Eastern Question, written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India. After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term, in the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, which was based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region.
After that time, the term Middle East gained broader usage in Europe, the description Middle has led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, Near East was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while Middle East referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Turkestan. The first official use of the term Middle East by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, the Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous
Byzantine silk is silk woven in the Byzantine Empire from about the fourth century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Byzantine capital of Constantinople was the first significant silk-weaving center in Europe, Silk was one of the most important commodities in the Byzantine economy, used by the state both as a means of payment and of diplomacy. Raw silk was bought from China and made up into fine fabrics that commanded high prices throughout the world, silkworms were smuggled into the Empire and the overland silk trade gradually became less important. After the reign of Justinian I, the manufacture and sale of silk became a monopoly, only processed in imperial factories. Byzantine silks are significant for their brilliant colours, use of gold thread, istämi refused the first request, but when he sanctioned the second one and had the Sogdian embassy sent to the Sassanid king, the latter had the members of the embassy poisoned to death. Justin II agreed and sent an embassy to the Turkic Khaganate, contemporary Chinese sources, namely the Old and New Book of Tang, depicted the city of Constantinople and how it was besieged by Muawiyah I, who exacted tribute afterwards.
New types of looms and weaving techniques played a part, plain-woven or tabby silks had circulated in the Roman world, and patterned damask silks in increasingly complex geometric designs appear from the mid-3rd century. Weft-faced compound twills were developed not than 600, and polychrome compound twills became the standard weave for Byzantine silks for the several centuries. Monochrome lampas weaves became fashionable around 1000 in both Byzantine and Islamic weaving centres, these rely on contrasting textures rather than colour to render patterns. A small number of tapestry-woven Byzantine silks survive, other dyes used in Byzantine silk workshops were madder, indigo and brazilwood. Gold thread was made with silver-gilt strips wrapped around a silk core, figured Byzantine silks of the 6th centuries show overall designs of small motifs such as hearts, swastikas and leaves worked in two weft colours. Later, recognizable plant motifs and human figures appear, designs of the 8th and 9th centuries show rows of roundels or medallions populated with pairs of human or animal figures reversed in mirror-image on a vertical axis.
Fashionable patterns evoked the activities and interests of the royal court, in samite, the main warp threads are hidden on both sides of the fabric by the ground and patterning wefts, with only the binding warps that hold the wefts in place visible. These rich silks – literally worth their weight in gold – were powerful political weapons of the Byzantine Empire between the 4th and 12th centuries, diplomatic gifts of Byzantine silks cemented alliances with the Franks. Byzantium granted silk-trading concessions to the sea powers of Venice, Pisa and Amalfi to secure naval, the influence exerted by Byzantine silk weaving was profound. Byzantine silk court ritual and ecclesiastical practices were adopted by the Franks, just as Byzantine court furnishing styles, Byzantium developed elaborate silk court attire and set the style for use of silk in civil and military uniforms and for rich religious vestments. These silks served as a form of wealth that could be profitably disposed of in times of need.
Silks survive in Western Europe from the graves of important figures, used in book bindings, but it is clear they had a number of uses as hangings and drapes in churches and the houses of the wealthy, as well as for clothing and vestments
Bengaline is a woven silk-and-cotton material which became fashionable for women and children to wear in the 1880s and 1890s. It offered the impression of silk but was made with lesser amounts of silk than cotton. Lizzie Borden stated at her December 1892 inquest that she was wearing a dress made of silk on the morning she was accused of murdering her father and stepmother. The fabric went out of fashion when completely smooth-surfaced materials became popular, piqué, coachmans whipcord, diagonal serge, and surah are similar to bengaline silk. Surah was once known in France as silk serge, bengaline silk sold for $2.50 per yard in 1889 but was sometimes discounted to sell for $1.25 per yard. A heavy lined, long cloak for infants, with deep bengaline silk embroidery, retailed for $7.98 at a Manhattan, New York clothing shop, diagonal striped dresses featuring the fabric were popular in the spring of 1912
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids. Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur, it is crimped, Wool is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin. These follicles are located in the layer of the skin called the epidermis. Follicles can be classed as primary or secondary follicles. Primary follicles produce three types of fiber, medullated fibers and true wool fibers, secondary follicles only produce true wool fibers. Medullated fibers share nearly identical characteristics to hair and are long but lack crimp, Kemp fibers are very coarse and shed out. Wools scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, because of the crimp, wool fabrics have greater bulk than other textiles, and they hold air, which causes the fabric to retain heat. Wool has a specific heat coefficient, so it impedes heat transfer in general.
This effect has benefited desert peoples, as Bedouins and Tuaregs use wool clothes for insulation, felting of wool occurs upon hammering or other mechanical agitation as the microscopic barbs on the surface of wool fibers hook together. The amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers, a fine wool like Merino may have up to 100 crimps per inch, while coarser wool like karakul may have as few as one or two. In contrast, hair has little if any scale and no crimp, on sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp. Wool fibers readily absorb moisture, but are not hollow, Wool can absorb almost one-third of its own weight in water. Wool absorbs sound like many other fabrics and it is generally a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors, such as black, brown and random mixes. Wool ignites at a higher temperature than cotton and some synthetic fibers, Wool carpets are specified for high safety environments, such as trains and aircraft. Wool is usually specified for garments for firefighters, Wool is considered by the medical profession to be allergenic.
Sheep shearing is the process by which the fleece of a sheep is cut off. After shearing, the wool is separated into four categories, broken, bellies. In Australia before being auctioned, all Merino fleece wool is objectively measured for micron, staple length, staple strength, the sheep is given a dip in antiseptic solution after shearing, so as to cure the wounds caused during shearing
Bunting is a term for any festive decorations made of fabric, or of plastic, paper or even cardboard in imitation of fabric. Typical forms of bunting are strings of colorful triangular flags and lengths of fabric in the colors of national flags gathered and draped into swags or pleated into fan shapes. Amongst other properties that made the fabric suitable for ribbons and flags was its high glaze, the origin of the word is uncertain. The term bunting is used to refer to a collection of flags, the officer responsible for raising signals using flags is known as bunts, a term still used for a ships communications officer. Textile manufactures in early modern England, wakefield, A Study of Arrested Urban Development. Media related to Bunting at Wikimedia Commons
The Jacquard machine is a device fitted to a power loom that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with such complex patterns as brocade and matelassé. It was invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1804, the loom was controlled by a chain of cards, a number of punched cards, laced together into a continuous sequence. Multiple rows of holes were punched on each card, with one complete card corresponding to one row of the design, several such paper cards, generally white in color, can be seen in the images below. Chains, like Bouchons earlier use of tape, allowed sequences of any length to be constructed. It is based on earlier inventions by the Frenchmen Basile Bouchon, Jean Baptiste Falcon, a static display of a Jacquard loom is the centrepiece of the Musée des Tissus et des Arts décoratifs in Lyon. Live displays of a Jacquard loom are available at a few museums around Lyon and twice a day at La Maison des Canuts. Both the Jacquard process and the necessary loom attachment are named after their inventor and this mechanism is probably one of the most important weaving inventions as Jacquard shedding made possible the automatic production of unlimited varieties of pattern weaving.
The term Jacquard is not specific or limited to any particular loom, the process can be used for patterned knitwear and machine-knitted textiles, such as jerseys. This use of punched cards to control a sequence of operations is considered an important step in the history of computing hardware. In former times, if figured designs were required, this was done on a drawloom, the heddles with warp ends to be pulled up were manually selected by a second operator, apart from the weaver. It was slow and labour-intensive, with limitations on the complexity of the pattern. The first important improvement of the draw took place in 1725. A continuous roll of paper was punched by hand, in sections, each of which represented one lash or tread, the Jacquard machine subsequently evolved from this. It is difficult to determine part of the Jacquard machine was designed by Jacquard himself. He may have combined the best mechanical elements of other inventors, Jacquards machine contained eight rows of needles and uprights as compared with Vaucansons double row, of which modifications enabled him to increase the figuring capacity of the machine.
In his first machine, he supported the harness by knotted cords, Jacquards invention had a deep influence on Charles Babbage. In that respect, he is viewed by some authors as a precursor of modern computing science. Each position in the card corresponds to a Bolus hook, which can either be raised or stopped dependent on whether the hole is punched out of the card or the card is solid
Batiste is a fine cloth made from cotton, polyester, or a blend, and the softest of the lightweight opaque fabrics. Batiste is a plain weave, a fine cloth made from cotton or linen such as cambric. Batiste was often used as a fabric for high-quality garments. Batiste is used for handkerchiefs and lingerie, in 1901 Chamberss Twentieth Century Dictionary of the English Language defined batiste as usual French name for cambric or applied in commerce to a fine texture of linen and cotton. Cambric is a synonym of the French word batiste, itself attested since 1590, Batiste itself comes from the Picard batiche, attested since 1401, derived from the old French battre for bowing wool. Lightweight opaque fabrics are very thin and light but not as transparent as sheer fabrics, the distinction between the two is not always pronounced. End uses include apparel and furnishings, organdy and batiste begin as the same greige goods. They differ from one another in the way they are finished and batiste do not receive the acid finish and, remain opaque.
Better quality fabrics are made of combed yarns, cambric Media related to Batiste at Wikimedia Commons
Beta cloth consists of fine woven silica fiber, similar to fiberglass. The resulting fabric will not burn, and will melt only at temperatures exceeding 650 °C, to reduce its tendency to crease or tear when manipulated, and to increase durability, the fibers are coated with Teflon. It was implemented in NASA space suits after the deadly 1967 Apollo 1 launch pad fire, after the fire, NASA demanded any potentially flammable materials were to be removed from both the spacecraft and space suits. However they were challenged as to what they would replace it with, beta cloth was developed by a Manned Spacecraft Center team led by Frederick S. Radnofsky working with the Owens-Corning and DuPont companies, where additional wear resistance was needed, external patches of Chromel-R metallic cloth were used. Beta cloth was used as the material for the Skylab shower enclosure
Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Other methods are knitting and braiding or plaiting, the longitudinal threads are called the warp and the lateral threads are the weft or filling. The method in which these threads are inter woven affects the characteristics of the cloth, cloth is usually woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band which meets this definition of cloth can be using other methods, including tablet weaving, back-strap. The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave, the majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves, plain weave, satin weave, or twill. Woven cloth can be plain, or can be woven in decorative or artistic design, in general, weaving involves using a loom to interlace two sets of threads at right angles to each other, the warp which runs longitudinally and the weft that crosses it.
One warp thread is called an end and one weft thread is called a pick, the warp threads are held taut and in parallel to each other, typically in a loom. There are many types of looms, Weaving can be summarized as a repetition of these three actions, called the primary motion of the loom. Beating-up or battening, where the weft is pushed up against the fell of the cloth by the reed. The warp is divided into two overlapping groups, or lines that run in two planes, one another, so the shuttle can be passed between them in a straight motion. Then, the group is lowered by the loom mechanism. Repeating these actions form a fabric mesh but without beating-up, the distance between the adjacent wefts would be irregular and far too large. The warp-beam is a wooden or metal cylinder on the back of the loom on which the warp is delivered, the threads of the warp extend in parallel order from the warp-beam to the front of the loom where they are attached to the cloth-roll. Each thread or group of threads of the passes through an opening in a heddle.
The warp threads are separated by the heddles into two or more groups, each controlled and automatically drawn up and down by the motion of the heddles, where a complex design is required, the healds are raised by harness cords attached to a Jacquard machine. Every time the harness moves up or down, an opening is made between the threads of warp, through which the pick is inserted, traditionally the weft thread is inserted by a shuttle. On a conventional loom, the thread is carried on a pirn. A handloom weaver could propel the shuttle by throwing it from side to side with the aid of a picking stick, the picking΅ on a power loom is done by rapidly hitting the shuttle from each side using an overpick or underpick mechanism controlled by cams 80-250 times a minute
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested
Warp and weft
In weaving, the weft is the term for the thread or yarn which is drawn through, inserted over-and-under, the lengthwise warp yarns that are held in tension on a frame or loom to create cloth. Warp is the lengthwise or longitudinal thread in a roll, while weft is the transverse thread, a single thread of the weft, crossing the warp, is called a pick. Each individual warp thread in a fabric is called an end or end. The weft is a thread or yarn usually made of spun fibre, the original fibres used were wool, flax or cotton. Today, man-made fibres are used in weaving. Because the weft does not have to be stretched on a loom in the way that the warp is, the weft is threaded through the warp using a shuttle, air jets or rapier grippers. Hand looms were the original weavers tool, with the shuttle being threaded through alternately raised warps by hand, inventions during the 18th century spurred the Industrial Revolution, with the picking stick and the flying shuttle speeding up production of cloth. The power loom patented by Edmund Cartwright in 1785 allowed sixty picks per minute, a useful way of remembering which is warp and which is weft is, one of them goes from weft to wight.
The words woof and weft derive ultimately from the Old English word wefan, Warp means that which is thrown away. Very simple looms use a warp, in which a single. Because the warp is held under tension during the entire process of weaving and warp yarn must be strong, yarn for warp ends is usually spun. Traditional fibres for warping are wool, alpaca, with the improvements in spinning technology during the Industrial Revolution, it became possible to make cotton yarn of sufficient strength to be used as the warp in mechanized weaving. Later, artificial or man-made fibres such as nylon or rayon were employed, while most people are familiar with weft-faced weavings, it is possible to create warp-faced weavings using densely arranged warp threads. In warp-faced weavings, the design for the textile is in the warp, warp-faced weavings are defined by length-wise stripes and vertical designs due to the limitations of color placement. The expression woof and warp is used metaphorically as one might similarly use fabric, e. g. the warp.
The expression is used as a metaphor for the structure on which something is built. Warp or woof are found in the Bible in the discussion of mildews found in cloth materials in Leviticus 13. Weft is a term for temporary hair extensions